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\subsection{K-Means Clustering}
\noindent{\bf Description}
Given a collection of $n$ records with a pairwise similarity measure,
the goal of clustering is to assign a category label to each record so that
similar records tend to get the same label. In contrast to multinomial
logistic regression, clustering is an \emph{unsupervised}\/ learning problem
with neither category assignments nor label interpretations given in advance.
In $k$-means clustering, the records $x_1, x_2, \ldots, x_n$ are numerical
feature vectors of $\dim x_i = m$ with the squared Euclidean distance
$\|x_i - x_{i'}\|_2^2$ as the similarity measure. We want to partition
$\{x_1, \ldots, x_n\}$ into $k$ clusters $\{S_1, \ldots, S_k\}$ so that
the aggregated squared distance from records to their cluster means is
\textrm{WCSS}\,\,=\,\, \sum_{i=1}^n \,\big\|x_i - \mean(S_j: x_i\in S_j)\big\|_2^2 \,\,\to\,\,\min
The aggregated distance measure in~(\ref{eqn:WCSS}) is called the
\emph{within-cluster sum of squares}~(WCSS). It can be viewed as a measure
of residual variance that remains in the data after the clustering assignment,
conceptually similar to the residual sum of squares~(RSS) in linear regression.
However, unlike for the RSS, the minimization of~(\ref{eqn:WCSS}) is an NP-hard
Rather than searching for the global optimum in~(\ref{eqn:WCSS}), a heuristic algorithm
called Lloyd's algorithm is typically used. This iterative algorithm maintains
and updates a set of $k$~\emph{centroids} $\{c_1, \ldots, c_k\}$, one centroid per cluster.
It defines each cluster $S_j$ as the set of all records closer to~$c_j$ than
to any other centroid. Each iteration of the algorithm reduces the WCSS in two steps:
\item Assign each record to the closest centroid, making $\mean(S_j)\neq c_j$;
\item Reset each centroid to its cluster's mean: $c_j := \mean(S_j)$.
After Step~\ref{step:kmeans:recluster} the centroids are generally different from the cluster
means, so we can compute another ``within-cluster sum of squares'' based on the centroids:
\textrm{WCSS\_C}\,\,=\,\, \sum_{i=1}^n \,\big\|x_i - \mathop{\textrm{centroid}}(S_j: x_i\in S_j)\big\|_2^2
This WCSS\_C after Step~\ref{step:kmeans:recluster} is less than the means-based WCSS
before Step~\ref{step:kmeans:recluster} (or equal if convergence achieved), and in
Step~\ref{step:kmeans:recenter} the WCSS cannot exceed the WCSS\_C for \emph{the same}
clustering; hence the WCSS reduction.
Exact convergence is reached when each record becomes closer to its
cluster's mean than to any other cluster's mean, so there are no more re-assignments
and the centroids coincide with the means. In practice, iterations may be stopped
when the reduction in WCSS (or in WCSS\_C) falls below a minimum threshold, or upon
reaching the maximum number of iterations. The initialization of the centroids is also
an important part of the algorithm. The smallest WCSS obtained by the algorithm is not
the global minimum and varies depending on the initial centroids. We implement multiple
parallel runs with different initial centroids and report the best result.
Our scoring script evaluates the clustering output by comparing it with a known category
assignment. Since cluster labels have no prior correspondence to the categories, we
cannot count ``correct'' and ``wrong'' cluster assignments. Instead, we quantify them in
two ways:
\item Count how many same-category and different-category pairs of records end up in the
same cluster or in different clusters;
\item For each category, count the prevalence of its most common cluster; for each
cluster, count the prevalence of its most common category.
The number of categories and the number of clusters ($k$) do not have to be equal.
A same-category pair of records clustered into the same cluster is viewed as a
``true positive,'' a different-category pair clustered together is a ``false positive,''
a same-category pair clustered apart is a ``false negative''~etc.
\noindent{\bf Usage: K-means Script}
{\tt{}-f }path/\/{\tt{}Kmeans.dml}
{\tt{} -nvargs}
{\tt{} X=}path/file
{\tt{} C=}path/file
{\tt{} k=}int
{\tt{} runs=}int
{\tt{} maxi=}int
{\tt{} tol=}double
{\tt{} samp=}int
{\tt{} isY=}int
{\tt{} Y=}path/file
{\tt{} fmt=}format
{\tt{} verb=}int
\noindent{\bf Usage: K-means Scoring/Prediction}
{\tt{}-f }path/\/{\tt{}Kmeans-predict.dml}
{\tt{} -nvargs}
{\tt{} X=}path/file
{\tt{} C=}path/file
{\tt{} spY=}path/file
{\tt{} prY=}path/file
{\tt{} fmt=}format
{\tt{} O=}path/file
\noindent{\bf Arguments}
\item[{\tt X}:]
Location to read matrix $X$ with the input data records as rows
\item[{\tt C}:] (default:\mbox{ }{\tt "C.mtx"})
Location to store the output matrix with the best available cluster centroids as rows
\item[{\tt k}:]
Number of clusters (and centroids)
\item[{\tt runs}:] (default:\mbox{ }{\tt 10})
Number of parallel runs, each run with different initial centroids
\item[{\tt maxi}:] (default:\mbox{ }{\tt 1000})
Maximum number of iterations per run
\item[{\tt tol}:] (default:\mbox{ }{\tt 0.000001})
Tolerance (epsilon) for single-iteration WCSS\_C change ratio
\item[{\tt samp}:] (default:\mbox{ }{\tt 50})
Average number of records per centroid in data samples used in the centroid
initialization procedure
\item[{\tt Y}:] (default:\mbox{ }{\tt "Y.mtx"})
Location to store the one-column matrix $Y$ with the best available mapping of
records to clusters (defined by the output centroids)
\item[{\tt isY}:] (default:\mbox{ }{\tt 0})
{\tt 0} = do not write matrix~$Y$, {\tt 1} = write~$Y$
\item[{\tt fmt}:] (default:\mbox{ }{\tt "text"})
Matrix file output format, such as {\tt text}, {\tt mm}, or {\tt csv};
see read/write functions in SystemML Language Reference for details.
\item[{\tt verb}:] (default:\mbox{ }{\tt 0})
{\tt 0} = do not print per-iteration statistics for each run, {\tt 1} = print them
(the ``verbose'' option)
\noindent{\bf Arguments --- Scoring/Prediction}
\item[{\tt X}:] (default:\mbox{ }{\tt " "})
Location to read matrix $X$ with the input data records as rows,
optional when {\tt prY} input is provided
\item[{\tt C}:] (default:\mbox{ }{\tt " "})
Location to read matrix $C$ with cluster centroids as rows, optional
when {\tt prY} input is provided; NOTE: if both {\tt X} and {\tt C} are
provided, {\tt prY} is an output, not input
\item[{\tt spY}:] (default:\mbox{ }{\tt " "})
Location to read a one-column matrix with the externally specified ``true''
assignment of records (rows) to categories, optional for prediction without
\item[{\tt prY}:] (default:\mbox{ }{\tt " "})
Location to read (or write, if {\tt X} and {\tt C} are present) a
column-vector with the predicted assignment of rows to clusters;
NOTE: No prior correspondence is assumed between the predicted
cluster labels and the externally specified categories
\item[{\tt fmt}:] (default:\mbox{ }{\tt "text"})
Matrix file output format for {\tt prY}, such as {\tt text}, {\tt mm},
or {\tt csv}; see read/write functions in SystemML Language Reference
for details
\item[{\tt O}:] (default:\mbox{ }{\tt " "})
Location to write the output statistics defined in
Table~\ref{table:kmeans:predict:stats}, by default print them to the
standard output
Name & CID & Meaning \\
{\tt TSS} & & Total Sum of Squares (from the total mean) \\
{\tt WCSS\_M} & & Within-Cluster Sum of Squares (means as centers) \\
{\tt WCSS\_M\_PC} & & Within-Cluster Sum of Squares (means), in \% of TSS \\
{\tt BCSS\_M} & & Between-Cluster Sum of Squares (means as centers) \\
{\tt BCSS\_M\_PC} & & Between-Cluster Sum of Squares (means), in \% of TSS \\
{\tt WCSS\_C} & & Within-Cluster Sum of Squares (centroids as centers) \\
{\tt WCSS\_C\_PC} & & Within-Cluster Sum of Squares (centroids), \% of TSS \\
{\tt BCSS\_C} & & Between-Cluster Sum of Squares (centroids as centers) \\
{\tt BCSS\_C\_PC} & & Between-Cluster Sum of Squares (centroids), \% of TSS \\
{\tt TRUE\_SAME\_CT} & & Same-category pairs predicted as Same-cluster, count \\
{\tt TRUE\_SAME\_PC} & & Same-category pairs predicted as Same-cluster, \% \\
{\tt TRUE\_DIFF\_CT} & & Diff-category pairs predicted as Diff-cluster, count \\
{\tt TRUE\_DIFF\_PC} & & Diff-category pairs predicted as Diff-cluster, \% \\
{\tt FALSE\_SAME\_CT} & & Diff-category pairs predicted as Same-cluster, count \\
{\tt FALSE\_SAME\_PC} & & Diff-category pairs predicted as Same-cluster, \% \\
{\tt FALSE\_DIFF\_CT} & & Same-category pairs predicted as Diff-cluster, count \\
{\tt FALSE\_DIFF\_PC} & & Same-category pairs predicted as Diff-cluster, \% \\
{\tt SPEC\_TO\_PRED} & $+$ & For specified category, the best predicted cluster id \\
{\tt SPEC\_FULL\_CT} & $+$ & For specified category, its full count \\
{\tt SPEC\_MATCH\_CT} & $+$ & For specified category, best-cluster matching count \\
{\tt SPEC\_MATCH\_PC} & $+$ & For specified category, \% of matching to full count \\
{\tt PRED\_TO\_SPEC} & $+$ & For predicted cluster, the best specified category id \\
{\tt PRED\_FULL\_CT} & $+$ & For predicted cluster, its full count \\
{\tt PRED\_MATCH\_CT} & $+$ & For predicted cluster, best-category matching count \\
{\tt PRED\_MATCH\_PC} & $+$ & For predicted cluster, \% of matching to full count \\
\caption{The {\tt O}-file for {\tt Kmeans-predict} provides the output statistics
in CSV format, one per line, in the following format: (NAME, [CID], VALUE). Note:
the 1st group statistics are given if {\tt X} input is available;
the 2nd group statistics are given if {\tt X} and {\tt C} inputs are available;
the 3rd and 4th group statistics are given if {\tt spY} input is available;
only the 4th group statistics contain a nonempty CID value;
when present, CID contains either the specified category label or the
predicted cluster label.}
\noindent{\bf Details}
Our clustering script proceeds in 3~stages: centroid initialization,
parallel $k$-means iterations, and the best-available output generation.
Centroids are initialized at random from the input records (the rows of~$X$),
biased towards being chosen far apart from each other. The initialization
method is based on the {\tt k-means++} heuristic from~\cite{ArthurVassilvitskii2007:kmeans},
with one important difference: to reduce the number of passes through~$X$,
we take a small sample of $X$ and run the {\tt k-means++} heuristic over
this sample. Here is, conceptually, our centroid initialization algorithm
for one clustering run:
\item Sample the rows of~$X$ uniformly at random, picking each row with probability
$p = ks / n$ where
\item $k$~is the number of centroids,
\item $n$~is the number of records, and
\item $s$~is the {\tt samp} input parameter.
If $ks \geq n$, the entire $X$ is used in place of its sample.
\item Choose the first centroid uniformly at random from the sampled rows.
\item Choose each subsequent centroid from the sampled rows, at random, with
probability proportional to the squared Euclidean distance between the row and
the nearest already-chosen centroid.
The sampling of $X$ and the selection of centroids are performed independently
and in parallel for each run of the $k$-means algorithm. When we sample the
rows of~$X$, rather than tossing a random coin for each row, we compute the
number of rows to skip until the next sampled row as $\lceil \log(u) / \log(1 - p) \rceil$
where $u\in (0, 1)$ is uniformly random. This time-saving trick works because
\Prob [k-1 < \log_{1-p}(u) < k] \,\,=\,\, p(1-p)^{k-1} \,\,=\,\,
\Prob [\textrm{skip $k-1$ rows}]
However, it requires us to estimate the maximum sample size, which we set
near~$ks + 10\sqrt{ks}$ to make it generous enough.
Once we selected the initial centroid sets, we start the $k$-means iterations
independently in parallel for all clustering runs. The number of clustering runs
is given as the {\tt runs} input parameter. Each iteration of each clustering run
performs the following steps:
\item Compute the centroid-dependent part of squared Euclidean distances from
all records (rows of~$X$) to each of the $k$~centroids using matrix product;
\item Take the minimum of the above for each record;
\item Update the current within-cluster sum of squares (WCSS) value, with centroids
substituted instead of the means for efficiency;
\item Check the convergence criterion:\hfil
$\textrm{WCSS}_{\mathrm{old}} - \textrm{WCSS}_{\mathrm{new}} < \eps\cdot\textrm{WCSS}_{\mathrm{new}}$\linebreak
as well as the number of iterations limit;
\item Find the closest centroid for each record, sharing equally any records with multiple
closest centroids;
\item Compute the number of records closest to each centroid, checking for ``runaway''
centroids with no records left (in which case the run fails);
\item Compute the new centroids by averaging the records in their clusters.
When a termination condition is satisfied, we store the centroids and the WCSS value
and exit this run. A run has to satisfy the WCSS convergence criterion to be considered
successful. Upon the termination of all runs, we select the smallest WCSS value among
the successful runs, and write out this run's centroids. If requested, we also compute
the cluster assignment of all records in~$X$, using integers from 1 to~$k$ as the cluster
labels. The scoring script can then be used to compare the cluster assignment with
an externally specified category assignment.
\noindent{\bf Returns}
We output the $k$ centroids for the best available clustering, i.~e.\ whose WCSS
is the smallest of all successful runs.
The centroids are written as the rows of the $k\,{\times}\,m$-matrix into the output
file whose path/name was provided as the ``{\tt C}'' input argument. If the input
parameter ``{\tt isY}'' was set to~{\tt 1}, we also output the one-column matrix with
the cluster assignment for all the records. This assignment is written into the
file whose path/name was provided as the ``{\tt Y}'' input argument.
The best WCSS value, as well as some information about the performance of the other
runs, is printed during the script execution. The scoring script {\tt Kmeans-predict}
prints all its results in a self-explanatory manner, as defined in
\noindent{\bf Examples}
\hml -f Kmeans.dml -nvargs X=/user/biadmin/X.mtx k=5 C=/user/biadmin/centroids.mtx fmt=csv
\hml -f Kmeans.dml -nvargs X=/user/biadmin/X.mtx k=5 runs=100 maxi=5000
tol=0.00000001 samp=20 C=/user/biadmin/centroids.mtx isY=1 Y=/user/biadmin/Yout.mtx verb=1
\noindent To predict {\tt Y} given {\tt X} and {\tt C}:
\hml -f Kmeans-predict.dml -nvargs X=/user/biadmin/X.mtx
C=/user/biadmin/C.mtx prY=/user/biadmin/PredY.mtx O=/user/biadmin/stats.csv
\noindent To compare ``actual'' labels {\tt spY} with ``predicted'' labels given {\tt X} and {\tt C}:
\hml -f Kmeans-predict.dml -nvargs X=/user/biadmin/X.mtx
C=/user/biadmin/C.mtx spY=/user/biadmin/Y.mtx O=/user/biadmin/stats.csv
\noindent To compare ``actual'' labels {\tt spY} with given ``predicted'' labels {\tt prY}:
\hml -f Kmeans-predict.dml -nvargs spY=/user/biadmin/Y.mtx prY=/user/biadmin/PredY.mtx O=/user/biadmin/stats.csv
\noindent{\bf References}
D.~Aloise, A.~Deshpande, P.~Hansen, and P.~Popat.
\newblock {NP}-hardness of {E}uclidean sum-of-squares clustering.
\newblock {\em Machine Learning}, 75(2):245--248, May 2009.
D.~Arthur and S.~Vassilvitskii.
\newblock {\tt k-means++}: The advantages of careful seeding.
\newblock In {\em Proceedings of the 18th Annual {ACM-SIAM} Symposium on
Discrete Algorithms ({SODA}~2007)}, pages 1027--1035, New Orleans~{LA},
{USA}, January 7--9 2007.