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<!DOCTYPE faqs SYSTEM "./dtd/faqs.dtd">
<faqs title="Parsing with &XercesCName;">
<faq title="Why does my application crash on AIX when I run it under a
multi-threaded environment?">
<q>Why does my application crash on AIX when I run it under a
multi-threaded environment?</q>
<p>AIX maintains two kinds of libraries on the system, thread-safe and
non-thread safe. Multi-threaded libraries on AIX follow a different naming
convention, Usually the multi-threaded library names are followed with "_r".
For example, libc.a is single threaded whereas libc_r.a is multi-threaded.</p>
<p>To make your multi-threaded application run on AIX, you <em>must</em>
ensure that you do not have a "system library path" in your <code>LIBPATH</code>
environment variable when you run the application. The appropriate
libraries (threaded or non-threaded) are automatically picked up at runtime. An
application usually crashes when you build your application for multi-threaded
operation but don't point to the thread-safe version of the system libraries.
For example, LIBPATH can be simply set as:</p>
<p>Where &lt;&XercesCProjectName;&gt; points to the directory where the
&XercesCProjectName; application resides.</p>
<p>If, for any reason unrelated to &XercesCProjectName;, you need to keep a
"system library path" in your LIBPATH environment variable, you must make sure
that you have placed the thread-safe path before you specify the normal system
path. For example, you must place <ref>/lib/threads</ref> before
<ref>/lib</ref> in your LIBPATH variable. That is to say your LIBPATH may look
like this:</p>
<source>export LIBPATH=$HOME/&lt;&XercesCProjectName;&gt;/lib:/usr/lib/threads:/usr/lib</source>
<p>Where /usr/lib is where your system libraries are.</p>
<faq title="What compilers are being used on the supported platforms?">
<q>What compilers are being used on the supported platforms?</q>
<p>&XercesCProjectName; has been built on the following platforms with
these compilers</p>
<td><em>Operating System</em></td>
<td>Windows NT 4.0 SP5/98</td>
<td>MSVC 6.0 SP3</td>
<td>Redhat Linux 6.1</td>
<td>egcs-2.91.66 and glibc-2.1.2-11</td>
<td>AIX 4.2.1 and higher</td>
<td>xlC 3.6.4</td>
<td>Solaris 2.6</td>
<td>CC Workshop 4.2</td>
<td>HP-UX 10.2</td>
<td>CC A.10.36</td>
<td>HP-UX 11.0</td>
<td>aCC A.03.13 with pthreads</td>
<faq title="I cannot run the sample applications. What is wrong?">
<q>I cannot run the sample applications. What is wrong?</q>
<p>In order to run an application built using &XercesCProjectName; you must
set up your path and library search path properly. In the stand-alone version
from Apache, you must have the &XercesCName; runtime library available from
your path settings. On Windows this library is called <code>&XercesCWindowsLib;.dll</code> which must be available from your <code>PATH</code> settings. (Note that now there are separate debug and release dlls for
Windows. If the release dll is named <code>&XercesCWindowsLib;.dll</code> then the debug dll is named <code>&XercesCWindowsLib;d.dll)</code>. On UNIX platforms the library is called <code>&XercesCUnixLib;.so</code> (or <code>.a</code> or <code>.sl</code>) which must be available from your <code>LD_LIBRARY_PATH</code> (or <code>LIBPATH</code> or <code>SHLIB_PATH</code>) environment variable.</p>
<p>Thus, if you installed your binaries under <code>$HOME/fastxmlparser</code>, you need to point your library path to that directory.</p>
<source>export LIBPATH=$LIBPATH:$HOME/fastxmlparser/lib # (AIX)
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=$LD_LIBRARY_PATH:$HOME/fastxmlparser/lib # (Solaris, Linux)
export SHLIB_PATH=$SHLIB_PATH:$HOME/fastxmlparser/lib # (HP-UX)</source>
<p>If you are using the enhanced version of this parser from IBM, you will
need to put in two additional DLLs. In the Windows build these are <code>icuuc.dll</code> and <code>icudata.dll</code> which must be available from your PATH settings. On UNIX, these
libraries are called <code></code> and <code></code> (or <code>.sl</code> for HP-UX or <code>.a</code> for AIX) which must be available from your library search path.</p>
<faq title="I just built my own application using the &XercesCName; parser. Why does it crash?">
<q>I just built my own application using the &XercesCName; parser. Why does
it crash?</q>
<p>In order to work with the &XercesCName; parser, you have to first
initialize the XML subsystem. The most common mistake is to forget this
initialization. Before you make any calls to &XercesCName; APIs, you must
try {
catch (const XMLException&amp; toCatch) {
// Do your failure processing here
<p>This initializes the &XercesCProjectName; system and sets its internal
variables. Note that you must the include <code>util/PlatformUtils.hpp</code> file for this to work.</p>
<faq title="Is &XercesCName; thread-safe?">
<q>Is &XercesCName; thread-safe?</q>
<p>This is not a question that has a simple yes/no answer. Here are the
rules for using &XercesCName; in a multi-threaded environment:</p>
<p>Within an address space, an instance of the parser may be used without
restriction from a single thread, or an instance of the parser can be accessed
from multiple threads, provided the application guarantees that only one thread
has entered a method of the parser at any one time.</p>
<p>When two or more parser instances exist in a process, the instances can
be used concurrently, without external synchronization. That is, in an
application containing two parsers and two threads, one parser can be running
within the first thread concurrently with the second parser running within the
second thread.</p>
<p>The same rules apply to &XercesCName; DOM documents. Multiple document
instances may be concurrently accessed from different threads, but any given
document instance can only be accessed by one thread at a time.</p>
<p>DOMStrings allow multiple concurrent readers. All DOMString const
methods are thread safe, and can be concurrently entered by multiple threads.
Non-const DOMString methods, such as <code>appendData()</code>, are not thread safe and the application must guarantee that no other
methods (including const methods) are executed concurrently with them.</p>
<faq title="Can't debug into the &XercesCName; DLL with the MSVC debugger">
<q> The libs/dll's I downloaded keep me from using the debugger in VC6.0. I
am using the 'D', debug versions of them. "no symbolic information found" is
what it says. Do I have to compile everything from source to make it work?</q>
<p>Unless you have the .pdb files, all you are getting with the debug
library is that it uses the debug heap manager, so that you can compile your
stuff in debug mode and not be dangerous. If you want full symbolic info for
the &XercesCName; library, you'll need the .pdb files, and to get those, you'll
need to rebuild the &XercesCName; library.</p>
<faq title="First-chance exception in Microsoft debugger">
<q>"First-chance exception in DOMPrint.exe (KERNEL32.DLL): 0xE06D7363:
Microsoft C++ Exception." I am always getting this message when I am using the
parser. My programs are terminating abnormally. Even the samples are giving
this exception. I am using Visual C++ 6.0 with latest service pack
<p>&XercesCName; uses C++ exceptions internally, as part of its normal
operation. By default, the MSVC debugger will stop on each of these with the
"First-chance exception ..." message.</p>
<p>To stop this from happening do this:</p>
<li>start debugging (so the debug menu appears)</li>
<li>from the debug menu select "Exceptions"</li>
<li>from the box that opens select "Microsoft C++ Exception" and set it
to "Stop if not handled" instead of "stop always".</li>
<p>You'll still land in the debugger if your program is terminating
abnormally, but it will be at your problem, not from the internal &XercesCName;
<faq title="I am seeing memory leaks in &XercesCName;. Are they real?">
<q>I am seeing memory leaks in &XercesCName;. Are they real?</q>
<p>The &XercesCName; library allocates and caches some commonly reused
items. The storage for these may be reported as memory leaks by some heap
analysis tools; to avoid the problem, call the function <code>XMLPlatformUtils::Terminate()</code> before your application exits. This will free all memory that was being
held by the library.</p>
<p>For most applications, the use of <code>Terminate()</code> is optional. The system will recover all memory when the application
process shuts down. The exception to this is the use of &XercesCName; from DLLs
that will be repeatedly loaded and unloaded from within the same process. To
avoid memory leaks with this kind of use, <code>Terminate()</code> must be called before unloading the xerces-c library</p>
<faq title="Can I validate the data contained in a DOM tree?">
<q>Is there a facility in &XercesCName; to validate the data contained in a
DOM tree? That is, without saving and re-parsing the source document?</q>
<p>No. This is a frequently requested feature, but at this time it is not
possible to feed XML data from the DOM directly back to the DTD validator. The
best option for now is to generate XML source from the DOM and feed that back
into the parser.</p>
<faq title="Can I use Xerces to perform write validation">
<q>Can I use Xerces to perform "write validation" (which is having an
appropriate DTD and being able to add elements to the DOM whilst validating
against the DTD)? Is there a function that I have totally missed that creates
an XML file from a DTD, (obviously with the values missing, a skeleton, as it
<p>The answers are: "No" and "No." Write Validation is a commonly requested
feature, but &XercesCName; does not have it yet.</p>
<p>The best you can do for now is to create the DOM document, write it back
as XML and re-parse it.</p>
<faq title="Why does my multi-threaded application crash on Solaris?">
<q>Why does my multi-threaded application crash on Solaris?</q>
<p>The problem appears because the throw call on Solaris 2.6 is not
multi-thread safe. Sun Microsystems provides a patch to solve this problem. To
get the latest patch for solving this problem, go to
<jump href=""></jump> and get the
appropriate patch for your operating system. For Intel machines running
Solaris, you need to get Patch ID 104678. For SPARC machines you need to get
Patch ID #105591.</p>
<faq title="Why does my application gives unresolved linking errors on Solaris?">
<q>Why does my application gives unresolved linking errors on Solaris?</q>
<p>On Solaris there are a few things that need to be done before you
execute your application using &XercesCName; / XML4C. In case you're using the
binary build of &XercesCName; / XML4C make sure that the OS and compiler are
the same version as the ones used to build the binary. Different OS and
compiler versions might cause unresolved linking problems or compilation
errors. If the versions are different, rebuild the &XercesCName; library on
your system before building your application. If you're using ICU (which is
packaged with XML4C) you need to rebuild the compatible version of ICU
<p>Also check that the library path is set properly and that the correct
versions of <code>gmake</code> and <code>autoconf</code> are on your system.</p>
<faq title="How do I determine the version of &XercesCName; I am using?">
<q>How do I determine the version of &XercesCName; I am using?</q>
<p>The version string for &XercesCName; is in one of the header files. Look
inside the file <code>src/util/XercesDefs.hpp</code> or, in the binary distribution, look in <code>include/utils/XercesDefs.hpp</code>. Search for the static variable <code>gXercesFullVersionStr</code> and look at its definition. (It is usually a string like "1_4_0" or
something similar). This is the version of &XercesCName; you are using.</p>
<p>If you don't have the header files, you have to find the version
information from the shared library name. On Windows NT/95/98 right click on
the DLL name &XercesCWindowsLib;.dll in the bin directory and look up
properties. The version information may be found on the Version tab.</p>
<p>On AIX, just look for the library name &XercesCUnixLib;.a (or
&XercesCUnixLib;.so on Solaris/Linux and &XercesCUnixLib;.sl on HP-UX). The
version number is coded in the name of the library.</p>
<faq title="How do I uninstall &XercesCName;?">
<q>How do I uninstall &XercesCName;?</q>
<p>&XercesCName; only installs itself in a single directory and does not
set any registry entries. Thus, to uninstall, you only need to remove the
directory where you installed it, and all &XercesCName; related files will be
<faq title="How are entity reference nodes handled in DOM?">
<q>How are entity reference nodes handled in DOM?</q>
<p>If you are using the native DOM classes, the function <code>setExpandEntityReferences</code> controls how entities appear in the DOM tree. When
setExpandEntityReferences is set to false (the default), an occurrence of an
entity reference in the XML document will be represented by a subtree with an
EntityReference node at the root whose children represent the entity expansion.
Entity expansion will be a DOM tree representing the structure of the entity
expansion, not a text node containing the entity expansion as text.</p>
<p>If setExpandEntityReferences is true, an entity reference in the XML
document is represented by only the nodes that represent the entity expansion.
The DOM tree will not contain any entityReference nodes.</p>
<faq title="What kinds of URLs are currently supported in &XercesCName;?">
<q>What kinds of URLs are currently supported in &XercesCName;?</q>
<p>The <code>XMLURL</code> class provides for limited URL support. It understands the <code>file://, http://</code>, and <code>ftp://</code> URL types, and is capable or parsing them into their constituent
components, and normalizing them. It also supports the commonly required action
of conglomerating a base and relative URL into a single URL. In other words, it
performs the limited set of functions required by an XML parser.</p>
<p>Another thing that URLs commonly do are to create an input stream that
provides access to the entity referenced. The parser, as shipped, only supports
this functionality on URLs in the form <code>file:///</code> and <code>file://localhost/</code>, i.e. only when the URL refers to a local file.</p>
<p>You may enable support for HTTP and FTP URLs by implementing and
installing a NetAccessor object. When a NetAccessor object is installed, the
URL class will use it to create input streams for the remote entities referred
to by such URLs.</p>
<faq title="How can I add support for URLs with HTTP/FTP protocols?">
<q>How can I add support for URLs with HTTP/FTP protocols?</q>
<p>Support for the http: protocol is now included by default on all
<p>To address the need to make remote connections to resources specified
using additional protocols, ftp for example, &XercesCName; provides the <code>NetAccessor</code> interface. The header file is <code>src/util/XMLNetAccessor.hpp</code>. This interface allows you to plug in your own implementation of URL
networking code into the &XercesCName; parser.</p>
<faq title="Can I use &XercesCName; to parse HTML?">
<q>Can I use &XercesCName; to parse HTML?</q>
<p>Yes, but only if the HTML follows the rules given in the
<jump href="">XML specification</jump>. Most HTML,
however, does not follow the XML rules, and will generate XML well-formedness
<faq title="I keep getting an error: &quot;invalid UTF-8 character&quot;. What's wrong?">
<q>I keep getting an error: "invalid UTF-8 character". What's wrong?</q>
<p>Most commonly, the XML <code>encoding =</code> declaration is either incorrect or missing. Without a declaration, XML
defaults to the use utf-8 character encoding, which is not compatible with the
default text file encoding on most systems.</p>
<p>The XML declaration should look something like this:</p>
<p><code>&lt;?xml version="1.0" encoding="iso-8859-1"?&gt;</code></p>
<p>Make sure to specify the encoding that is actually used by file. The
encoding for "plain" text files depends both on the operating system and the
locale (country and language) in use.</p>
<p>Another common source of problems is that some characters are not
allowed in XML documents, according to the XML spec. Typical disallowed
characters are control characters, even if you escape them using the Character
Reference form. See the <jump href="">XML
spec</jump>, sections 2.2 and 4.1 for details. If the parser is generating an <code>Invalid character (Unicode: 0x???)</code> error, it is very likely that there's a character in there that you
can't see. You can generally use a UNIX command like "od -hc" to find it.</p>
<faq title="What encodings are supported by &XercesCName; / XML4C?">
<q>What encodings are supported by &XercesCName; / XML4C?</q>
<p>&XercesCName; has intrinsic support for ASCII, UTF-8, UTF-16 (Big/Small
Endian), UCS4 (Big/Small Endian), EBCDIC code pages IBM037 and IBM1140
encodings, ISO-8859-1 (aka Latin1) and Windows-1252. This means that it can
parse input XML files in these above mentioned encodings.</p>
<p>XML4C -- the version of &XercesCName; available from IBM -- extends this
set to include the encodings listed in the table below.</p>
<td><em>Common Name</em></td>
<td><em>Use this name in XML</em></td>
<td>8 bit Unicode</td>
<td>ISO Latin 1</td>
<td>ISO Latin 2</td>
<td>ISO Latin 3</td>
<td>ISO Latin 4</td>
<td>ISO Latin Cyrillic</td>
<td>ISO Latin Arabic</td>
<td>ISO Latin Greek</td>
<td>ISO Latin Hebrew</td>
<td>ISO Latin 5</td>
<td>EBCDIC US</td>
<td>EBCDIC with Euro symbol</td>
<td>Chinese, PRC</td>
<td>Chinese, Big5</td>
<td>Japanese, Shift JIS</td>
<td>Korean, Extended UNIX code</td>
<p>Some implementations or ports of &XercesCName; provide support for
additional encodings. The exact set will depend on the supplier of the parser
and on the character set transcoding services in use.</p>
title="What character encoding should I use when creating XML documents?">
<q>What character encoding should I use when creating XML documents?</q>
<p>The best choice in most cases is either utf-8 or utf-16. Advantages of
these encodings include:</p>
<li>The best portability. These encodings are more widely supported by
XML processors than any others, meaning that your documents will have the best
possible chance of being read correctly, no matter where they end up.</li>
<li>Full international character support. Both utf-8 and utf-16 cover the
full Unicode character set, which includes all of the characters from all major
national, international and industry character sets.</li>
<li>Efficient. utf-8 has the smaller storage requirements for documents
that are primarily composed of of characters from the Latin alphabet. utf-16 is
more efficient for encoding Asian languages. But both encodings cover all
languages without loss.</li>
<p>The only drawback of utf-8 or utf-16 is that they are not the native
text file format for most systems, meaning that common text file editors and
viewers can not be directly used.</p>
<p>A second choice of encoding would be any of the others listed in the
table above. This works best when the xml encoding is the same as the default
system encoding on the machine where the XML document is being prepared,
because the document will then display correctly as a plain text file. For UNIX
systems in countries speaking Western European languages, the encoding will
usually be iso-8859-1.</p>
<p>The versions of Xerces distributed by IBM, both C and Java (known
respectively as XML4C and XML4J), include all of the encodings listed in the
above table, on all platforms.</p>
<p>A word of caution for Windows users: The default character set on
Windows systems is windows-1252, not iso-8859-1. While &XercesCName; does
recognize this Windows encoding, it is a poor choice for portable XML data
because it is not widely recognized by other XML processing tools. If you are
using a Windows-based editing tool to generate XML, check which character set
it generates, and make sure that the resulting XML specifies the correct name
in the <code>encoding="..."</code> declaration.</p>
title="I find memory leaks in &XercesCName; / XML4C. How do I eliminate it?">
<q>I find memory leaks in &XercesCName; / XML4C. How do I eliminate it?</q>
<p>The "leaks" that are reported through a leak-detector or heap-analysis
tools aren't really leaks in most application, in that the memory usage does
not grow over time as the XML parser is used and re-used.</p>
<p>What you are seeing as leaks are actually lazily evaluated data
allocated into static variables. This data gets released when the application
ends. You can make a call to <code>XMLPlatformUtil::terminate()</code> to release all the lazily allocated variables before you exit your
<faq title="Is EBCDIC supported?">
<q>Is EBCDIC supported?</q>
<p>Yes, &XercesCName; supports EBCDIC. When creating EBCDIC encoded XML
data, the preferred encoding is ibm1140. Also supported is ibm037 (and its
alternate name, ebcdic-cp-us); this encoding is almost the same as ibm1140, but
it lacks the Euro symbol.</p>
<p>These two encodings, ibm1140 and ibm037, are available on both
&XercesCName; and IBM XML4C, on all platforms.</p>
<p>On IBM System 390, XML4C also supports two alternative forms,
ibm037-s390 and ibm1140-s390. These are similar to the base ibm037 and ibm1140
encodings, but with alternate mappings of the EBCDIC new-line character, which
allows them to appear as normal text files on System 390s. These encodings are
not supported on other platforms, and should not be used for portable data.</p>
<p>XML4C on System 390 and AS/400 also provides additional EBCDIC
encodings, including those for the character sets of different countries. The
exact set supported will be platform dependent, and these encodings are not
recommended for portable XML data.</p>