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Building The Apache Tomcat @VERSION_MAJOR_MINOR@ Servlet/JSP Container
This subproject contains the source code for Tomcat @VERSION_MAJOR_MINOR@, a container that
implements the Servlet 3.1, JSP 2.3, EL 3.0 and WebSocket 1.1 specifications
from the Java Community Process <>.
Note: If you just need to run Apache Tomcat, it is not necessary to build
it. You may simply download a binary distribution. It is cross-platform.
Read RUNNING.txt for the instruction on how to run it.
In order to build a binary distribution version of Apache Tomcat from a
source distribution, do the following:
(1) Download and Install a Java Development Kit
1. If the JDK is already installed, skip to (2).
2. Download a version 7 of Java Development Kit (JDK) release (use the
latest update available for your chosen version) from one of:
or another JDK vendor.
Note regarding later versions of Java:
As documented elsewhere, one of components in Apache Tomcat includes
a private copy of the Apache Commons DBCP library.
The JDBC interfaces implemented by DBCP frequently change in non-backwards
compatible ways between versions of the Java SE specification. Therefore,
it is likely that DBCP will only compile with the specific version of Java
listed above and that compilation will fail if a later version of Java is
See Apache Commons DBCP project web site for more details on
available versions of the library and its requirements,
3. Install the JDK according to the instructions included with the release.
4. Set an environment variable JAVA_HOME to the pathname of the directory
into which you installed the JDK release.
(2) Install Apache Ant version 1.9.5 or later on your computer.
1. If Apache Ant version 1.9.5 or later is already installed on your
computer, skip to (3).
2. Download a binary distribution of Ant from:
3. Unpack the binary distribution into a convenient location so that the
Ant release resides in its own directory (conventionally named
For the purposes of the remainder of this document, the symbolic name
"${ant.home}" is used to refer to the full pathname of the release
4. Create an ANT_HOME environment variable to point the directory
5. Modify the PATH environment variable to include the directory
${ant.home}/bin in its list. This makes the "ant" command line script
available, which will be used to actually perform the build.
(3) Building Tomcat @VERSION_MAJOR_MINOR@
(3.1) Checkout or obtain the source code for Tomcat @VERSION_MAJOR_MINOR@
Checkout the source using SVN, selecting a tag for released version or
trunk for the current development code, or download and unpack a source
* Tomcat SVN repository URL:
* Source packages can be downloaded from:
The location where the source has been placed will be further referred as
The Tomcat local build process does not modify line-endings. The svn repository
is configured so that all files will be checked out with the line-ending
appropriate for the current platform. When using a source package you should
ensure that you use the source package that has the appropriate line-ending
for your platform:
zip -> CRLF
tar.gz -> LF
Note that the release build process does modify line-endings to ensure that
each release package has the appropriate line-endings.
(3.2) Building
1. The build is controlled by creating a ${tomcat.source}/
It is recommended to always create the file, because of unfortunate
default value of base.path property. You may start with the following
content for the file:
# ----- Default Base Path for Dependent Packages -----
# Replace this path with the directory path where dependencies binaries
# should be downloaded
2. Configure base.path property by adding it to the
${tomcat.source}/ file.
The base.path property specifies the place where Tomcat dependencies
required by the build are downloaded. It is recommended to place this
directory outside of the source tree, so that you do not waste your
time re-downloading the libraries.
* NOTE: The default value of the base.path property configures the build script
to download the libraries required to build Tomcat to the
${user.home}/tomcat-build-libs directory.
* NOTE: Users accessing the Internet through a proxy must use the properties
file to indicate to Ant the proxy configuration.
The following properties should be added to the ${tomcat.source}/
See Apache Ant documentation for the <setproxy> task for details.
3. Go to the sources directory and run Ant:
cd ${tomcat.source}
This will execute the "deploy" target in build.xml.
Once the build has completed successfully, a usable Tomcat installation
will have been produced in the ${tomcat.source}/output/build directory,
and can be started and stopped with the usual scripts.
Note that the build includes Tomcat documentation, which can be found
in the output/build/webapps/docs directory.
The path of the output directory can be controlled by specifying the
"tomcat.output" property in the file.
* NOTE: Do not run the build as the root user. Building and running Tomcat
does not require root privileges.
(4) Updating sources and rebuilding
It is recommended that you regularly update the downloaded Tomcat @VERSION_MAJOR_MINOR@
sources using your SVN client.
For a quick rebuild of only modified code you can use:
cd ${tomcat.source}
(5) Special builds
There are several targets in Tomcat build files that are useful to be
called separately. They build components that you may want to build
quickly, or ones that are included in the full release and are not built
during the default "deploy" build.
(5.1) Building documentation
The documentation web application is built during the default "deploy"
It can be built quickly by using the following commands:
cd ${tomcat.source}
ant build-docs
The output of this command will be found in the following directory:
The API documentation (Javadoc) is built during a "release" build. It is
easy to build it separately by using the following commands:
cd ${tomcat.source}
ant javadoc
The output of this command will be found in the following directories:
(5.2) Building the extras (commons-logging, webservices etc.)
These components are documented on the "Additional Components"
(extras.html) page of documentation. They are built during a "release"
You can build them by using the following commands:
cd ${tomcat.source}
ant extras
(5.3) Building the embedded packages
These are built during a "release" build.
You can build them by using the following commands:
cd ${tomcat.source}
ant embed
(6) Building a full release (as provided via the ASF download pages)
A full release includes the Windows installer which requires a Windows
environment to be available to create it. If not building in a Windows
environment, the build scripts assume that Wine is available. If this is not
the case, the skip.installer property may be set to skip the creation of the
Windows installer.
1. Configure GPG, if needed
If the released artifacts have to be cryptographically signed with a
PGP signature, like the official ASF releases are, the following
property can be added to the file:
# Location of GPG executable (used only for releases)
You do not need it if you do not plan to sign the release.
If "gpg.exec" property does not point to an existing file, it will be
ignored and this feature will be disabled.
You will be prompted for the GPG passphrase when the release build
starts, unless "gpg.passphrase" property is set.
2. If building the Windows installer
If running the build in a UAC enabled environment, building the Windows
installer requires elevated privileges. The simplest way to do this is to
open the command prompt used for the build with the "Run as administrator"
3. Configure the code signing service
ASF committers performing official releases will need to configure the code
signing service so that the Windows installer is signed during the build
process. The following properties need to be added to the
# Location of GPG executable (used only for releases)
# Code signing of Windows installer
codesigning.service=Microsoft Windows Signing
Release managers will be provided with the necessary credentials by the PMC.
It will also be necessary to enable TLS 1.1 and TLS 1.2 by default (they are
disabled by default on Java 7) for the build process to communicate with the
code signing service. The simplest way is by setting the ANT_OPTS
environment variable. E.g. (for Windows):
set ANT_OPTS=-Dhttps.protocols=TLSv1,TLSv1.1,TLSv1.2
4. Build the release:
cd ${tomcat.source}
ant release
(7) Tests
(7.1) Running Tomcat tests
Tomcat includes a number of junit tests. The tests are not run when a
release is built. There is separate command to run them.
To run the testsuite use the following command:
cd ${tomcat.source}
ant test
It is advisable to redirect output of the above command to a file for later
The JUnit reports generated by the tests will be written to the following
By default the testsuite is run four times to test 4 different
implementations of Tomcat connectors: BIO, NIO, NIO2 and APR. (If you are not
familiar with Tomcat connectors, see config/http.html in documentation for
The 4 runs are enabled and disabled individually by the following
properties, which all are "true" by default:
The APR connector can be tested only if Tomcat-Native library binaries are
found by the testsuite. The "test.apr.loc" property specifies the directory
where the library binaries are located.
By default the "test.apr.loc" property specifies the following location:
If you are on Windows and want to test the APR connector you can put the
tcnative-1.dll file into ${tomcat.source}/bin/native/ and it will be copied
into the above directory when the build runs.
The unit tests include tests of the clustering functionality which require
multicast to be enabled. There is a simple application provided in the Tomcat
test source (org.apache.catalina.tribes.TesterMulticast) that can be used to
check if a machine supports multicast. Notes on enabling multicast for different
operating systems are provided in the Javadoc for that class.
(7.2) Running a single test
It is possible to run a single JUnit test class by adding the "test.entry"
property to the file. The property specifies the name of
the test class.
For example:
It is possible to further limit such run to a number of selected test
methods by adding "test.entry.methods" property. The property specifies a
comma-separated list of test case methods.
For example:
(7.3) Running a set of tests
It is possible to run a set of JUnit test classes by adding the ""
property to the file. The property specifies an Ant
includes pattern for the fileset of test class files to run.
The default value is "**/Test*.java", so all test classes are being
executed (with few exceptions - see build.xml for several exclude patterns).
You can include multiple patterns by concatenating them with a comma (",")
as the separator.
For example:**/,**/
You can exclude specific JUnit test classes by adding the "test.exclude"
property to the file. The property specifies an Ant
excludes pattern for the fileset of test class files to exclude form the run.
The default value is empty, so no classes are excluded. The syntax is the same
as for the property "".
(7.4) Other configuration options
1. It is possible to configure the directory where JUnit reports are
written to. It is configured by "test.reports" property. The default
value is
2. It is possible to enable generation of access log file when the tests
are run. This is off by default and can be enabled by the following
The "access_log.<date>" file will be written to the same directory as
JUnit reports,
3. The testsuite respects logging configuration as configured by
The log files will be written to the temporary directory used by the
4. It is possible to configure formatter used by JUnit reports.
Configuration properties are "junit.formatter.type",
"junit.formatter.extension" and "junit.formatter.usefile".
For example the following property disables generation of separate report
5. It is possible to speed up testing by letting JUnit to run several
tests in parallel.
This is configured by setting "test.threads" property. The recommended
value is one thread per core.
6. Optional support is provided for the Cobertura code coverage tool.
NOTE: Cobertura is licensed under GPL v2 with parts of it being under
Apache License v1.1. See for details. Using it
during Tomcat build is optional and is off by default.
Cobertura can be enabled using the following properties:
Using Cobertura currently requires setting test.threads configuration
property to the value of 1. Setting that property to a different value
will disable code coverage.
The report files by default are written to
7. The performance tests are written to run reasonably powerful machines (such
as a developer may use day to day) assuming no other resource hungry
processes are running.
These assumptions are not always true (e.g. on CI systems running in a
virtual machine) so the performance tests may be disabled by using the
following property:
8. Some tests include checks that the access log valve entries are as expected.
These checks include timings. On slower / loaded systems these checks will
often fail. The checks may be relaxed by using the following property:
9. It is known that some platforms (e.g. OSX El Capitan) require IPv4 to
be the default for the multicast tests to work. This is configured by
the following property:
10. It is possible to control whether the output of the tests is displayed
on the console or not. By default it is displayed and can be disabled
by the following property:
(8) Source code checks
(8.1) Checkstyle
NOTE: Checkstyle is licensed under LGPL. Using Checkstyle during Tomcat
build is optional and is off by default.
See for more information.
Tomcat comes with a Checkstyle configuration that tests its source code
for certain conventions, like presence of the license header.
To enable Checkstyle, add the following property to file:
Once Checkstyle is enabled, the check will be performed automatically
during the build. The check is run before compilation of the source code.
To speed-up repeated runs of this check, a cache is configured. The cache
is located in the following directory:
It is possible to run the check separately by calling the "validate"
target. The command is:
cd ${tomcat.source}
ant -Dexecute.validate=true validate
(8.2) FindBugs
NOTE: FindBugs is licensed under LGPL. Using Findbugs during Tomcat build is
optional and is off by default.
See for more information.
To enable FindBugs, add the following property to file:
To compile Tomcat classes and generate a FindBugs report, call the
"findbugs" target. For example:
cd ${tomcat.source}
ant -Dexecute.findbugs=true findbugs
The report file by default is written to
(8.3) End-of-line conventions check
You usually would not need to run this check. You can skip this section.
Apache Tomcat project has convention that all of its textual source files,
stored in Subversion repository, are marked with Subversion property
"svn:eol-style" with value of "native". This convention makes the editing
of source code on different platforms easier.
This test is used by developers to check that the source code adheres to
this convention. It verifies that the ends of lines in textual files are
appropriate for the operating system where it is run. The idea is to run
this check regularly on two different platforms and notify developers when
an inconsistency is detected.
The command to run this test is:
cd ${tomcat.source}
ant validate-eoln