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Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
contributor license agreements. See the NOTICE file distributed with
this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
(the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at
Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
limitations under the License.
General purpose build script for web applications and web services,
including enhanced support for deploying directly to a Tomcat
based server.
This build script assumes that the source code of your web application
is organized into the following subdirectories underneath the source
code directory from which you execute the build script:
docs Static documentation files to be copied to
the "docs" subdirectory of your distribution.
src Java source code (and associated resource files)
to be compiled to the "WEB-INF/classes"
subdirectory of your web application.
web Static HTML, JSP, and other content (such as
image files), including the WEB-INF subdirectory
and its configuration file contents.
<!-- A "project" describes a set of targets that may be requested
when Ant is executed. The "default" attribute defines the
target which is executed if no specific target is requested,
and the "basedir" attribute defines the current working directory
from which Ant executes the requested task. This is normally
set to the current working directory.
<project name="My Project" default="compile" basedir=".">
<!-- ===================== Property Definitions =========================== -->
Each of the following properties are used in the build script.
Values for these properties are set by the first place they are
defined, from the following list:
* Definitions on the "ant" command line (ant -Dfoo=bar compile).
* Definitions from a "" file in the top level
source directory of this application.
* Definitions from a "" file in the developer's
home directory.
* Default definitions in this build.xml file.
You will note below that property values can be composed based on the
contents of previously defined properties. This is a powerful technique
that helps you minimize the number of changes required when your development
environment is modified. Note that property composition is allowed within
"" files as well as in the "build.xml" script.
<property file=""/>
<property file="${user.home}/"/>
<!-- ==================== File and Directory Names ======================== -->
These properties generally define file and directory names (or paths) that
affect where the build process stores its outputs. Base name of this application, used to
construct filenames and directories.
Defaults to "myapp".
app.path Context path to which this application should be
deployed (defaults to "/" plus the value of the
"" property).
app.version Version number of this iteration of the application.
build.home The directory into which the "prepare" and
"compile" targets will generate their output.
Defaults to "build".
catalina.home The directory in which you have installed
a binary distribution of Tomcat. This will
be used by the "deploy" target.
dist.home The name of the base directory in which
distribution files are created.
Defaults to "dist".
manager.password The login password of a user that is assigned the
"manager-script" role (so that he or she can execute
commands via the "/manager" web application)
manager.url The URL of the "/manager" web application on the
Tomcat installation to which we will deploy web
applications and web services.
manager.username The login username of a user that is assigned the
"manager-script" role (so that he or she can execute
commands via the "/manager" web application)
<property name="" value="myapp"/>
<property name="app.path" value="/${}"/>
<property name="app.version" value="0.1-dev"/>
<property name="build.home" value="${basedir}/build"/>
<property name="catalina.home" value="../../../.."/> <!-- UPDATE THIS! -->
<property name="dist.home" value="${basedir}/dist"/>
<property name="docs.home" value="${basedir}/docs"/>
<property name="manager.url" value="http://localhost:8080/manager/text"/>
<property name="src.home" value="${basedir}/src"/>
<property name="web.home" value="${basedir}/web"/>
<!-- ==================== External Dependencies =========================== -->
Use property values to define the locations of external JAR files on which
your application will depend. In general, these values will be used for
two purposes:
* Inclusion on the classpath that is passed to the Javac compiler
* Being copied into the "/WEB-INF/lib" directory during execution
of the "deploy" target.
Because we will automatically include all of the Java classes that Tomcat
exposes to web applications, we will not need to explicitly list any of those
dependencies. You only need to worry about external dependencies for JAR
files that you are going to include inside your "/WEB-INF/lib" directory.
<!-- Dummy external dependency -->
<property name="foo.jar"
<!-- ==================== Compilation Classpath =========================== -->
Rather than relying on the CLASSPATH environment variable, Ant includes
features that makes it easy to dynamically construct the classpath you
need for each compilation. The example below constructs the compile
classpath to include the servlet.jar file, as well as the other components
that Tomcat makes available to web applications automatically, plus anything
that you explicitly added.
<path id="compile.classpath">
<!-- Include all JAR files that will be included in /WEB-INF/lib -->
<pathelement location="${foo.jar}"/>
<!-- Include all elements that Tomcat exposes to applications -->
<fileset dir="${catalina.home}/bin">
<include name="*.jar"/>
<pathelement location="${catalina.home}/lib"/>
<fileset dir="${catalina.home}/lib">
<include name="*.jar"/>
<!-- ================== Custom Ant Task Definitions ======================= -->
These properties define custom tasks for the Ant build tool that interact
with the "/manager" web application installed with Tomcat. Before they
can be successfully utilized, you must perform the following steps:
- Copy the file "lib/catalina-ant.jar" from your Tomcat
installation into the "lib" directory of your Ant installation.
- Create a "" file in your application's top-level
source directory (or your user login home directory) that defines
appropriate values for the "manager.password", "manager.url", and
"manager.username" properties described above.
For more information about the Manager web application, and the functionality
of these tasks, see <http://localhost:8080/tomcat-docs/manager-howto.html>.
<taskdef resource="org/apache/catalina/ant/catalina.tasks"
<!-- ==================== Compilation Control Options ==================== -->
These properties control option settings on the Javac compiler when it
is invoked using the <javac> task.
compile.debug Should compilation include the debug option?
compile.deprecation Should compilation include the deprecation option?
<property name="compile.debug" value="true"/>
<property name="compile.deprecation" value="false"/>
<!-- ==================== All Target ====================================== -->
The "all" target is a shortcut for running the "clean" target followed
by the "compile" target, to force a complete recompile.
<target name="all" depends="clean,compile"
description="Clean build and dist directories, then compile"/>
<!-- ==================== Clean Target ==================================== -->
The "clean" target deletes any previous "build" and "dist" directory,
so that you can be ensured the application can be built from scratch.
<target name="clean"
description="Delete old build and dist directories">
<delete dir="${build.home}"/>
<delete dir="${dist.home}"/>
<!-- ==================== Compile Target ================================== -->
The "compile" target transforms source files (from your "src" directory)
into object files in the appropriate location in the build directory.
This example assumes that you will be including your classes in an
unpacked directory hierarchy under "/WEB-INF/classes".
<target name="compile" depends="prepare"
description="Compile Java sources">
<!-- Compile Java classes as necessary -->
<mkdir dir="${build.home}/WEB-INF/classes"/>
<javac srcdir="${src.home}"
<classpath refid="compile.classpath"/>
<!-- Copy application resources -->
<copy todir="${build.home}/WEB-INF/classes">
<fileset dir="${src.home}" excludes="**/*.java"/>
<!-- ==================== Dist Target ===================================== -->
The "dist" target creates a binary distribution of your application
in a directory structure ready to be archived in a tar.gz or zip file.
Note that this target depends on two others:
* "compile" so that the entire web application (including external
dependencies) will have been assembled
* "javadoc" so that the application Javadocs will have been created
<target name="dist" depends="compile,javadoc"
description="Create binary distribution">
<!-- Copy documentation subdirectories -->
<mkdir dir="${dist.home}/docs"/>
<copy todir="${dist.home}/docs">
<fileset dir="${docs.home}"/>
<!-- Create application JAR file -->
<jar jarfile="${dist.home}/${}-${app.version}.war"
<!-- Copy additional files to ${dist.home} as necessary -->
<!-- ==================== Install Target ================================== -->
The "install" target tells the specified Tomcat installation to dynamically
install this web application and make it available for execution. It does
*not* cause the existence of this web application to be remembered across
Tomcat restarts; if you restart the server, you will need to re-install all
this web application.
If you have already installed this application, and simply want Tomcat to
recognize that you have updated Java classes (or the web.xml file), use the
"reload" target instead.
NOTE: This target will only succeed if it is run from the same server that
Tomcat is running on.
NOTE: This is the logical opposite of the "remove" target.
<target name="install" depends="compile"
description="Install application to servlet container">
<deploy url="${manager.url}"
<!-- ==================== Javadoc Target ================================== -->
The "javadoc" target creates Javadoc API documentation for the Java
classes included in your application. Normally, this is only required
when preparing a distribution release, but is available as a separate
target in case the developer wants to create Javadocs independently.
<target name="javadoc" depends="compile"
description="Create Javadoc API documentation">
<mkdir dir="${dist.home}/docs/api"/>
<javadoc sourcepath="${src.home}"
<classpath refid="compile.classpath"/>
<!-- ====================== List Target =================================== -->
The "list" target asks the specified Tomcat installation to list the
currently running web applications, either loaded at startup time or
installed dynamically. It is useful to determine whether or not the
application you are currently developing has been installed.
<target name="list"
description="List installed applications on servlet container">
<list url="${manager.url}"
<!-- ==================== Prepare Target ================================== -->
The "prepare" target is used to create the "build" destination directory,
and copy the static contents of your web application to it. If you need
to copy static files from external dependencies, you can customize the
contents of this task.
Normally, this task is executed indirectly when needed.
<target name="prepare">
<!-- Create build directories as needed -->
<mkdir dir="${build.home}"/>
<mkdir dir="${build.home}/WEB-INF"/>
<mkdir dir="${build.home}/WEB-INF/classes"/>
<!-- Copy static content of this web application -->
<copy todir="${build.home}">
<fileset dir="${web.home}"/>
<!-- Copy external dependencies as required -->
<mkdir dir="${build.home}/WEB-INF/lib"/>
<copy todir="${build.home}/WEB-INF/lib" file="${foo.jar}"/>
<!-- Copy static files from external dependencies as needed -->
<!-- ==================== Reload Target =================================== -->
The "reload" signals the specified application Tomcat to shut itself down
and reload. This can be useful when the web application context is not
reloadable and you have updated classes or property files in the
/WEB-INF/classes directory or when you have added or updated jar files in the
/WEB-INF/lib directory.
NOTE: The /WEB-INF/web.xml web application configuration file is not reread
on a reload. If you have made changes to your web.xml file you must stop
then start the web application.
<target name="reload" depends="compile"
description="Reload application on servlet container">
<reload url="${manager.url}"
<!-- ==================== Remove Target =================================== -->
The "remove" target tells the specified Tomcat installation to dynamically
remove this web application from service.
NOTE: This is the logical opposite of the "install" target.
<target name="remove"
description="Remove application on servlet container">
<undeploy url="${manager.url}"