blob: a548ec693cf0d7e37c6ada7cc014c48d87a14244 [file] [log] [blame]
#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
# Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
# or more contributor license agreements. See the NOTICE file
# distributed with this work for additional information
# regarding copyright ownership. The ASF licenses this file
# to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
# "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
# with the License. You may obtain a copy of the License at
# Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
# distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
# See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
# limitations under the License.
# daemon/
# Part of ‘python-daemon’, an implementation of PEP 3143.
# Copyright © 2008–2015 Ben Finney <>
# Copyright © 2007–2008 Robert Niederreiter, Jens Klein
# Copyright © 2004–2005 Chad J. Schroeder
# Copyright © 2003 Clark Evans
# Copyright © 2002 Noah Spurrier
# Copyright © 2001 Jürgen Hermann
# This is free software: you may copy, modify, and/or distribute this work
# under the terms of the Apache License, version 2.0 as published by the
# Apache Software Foundation.
# No warranty expressed or implied. See the file ‘LICENSE.ASF-2’ for details.
# Apache Phoenix note: this file is `` from the package
# `python-daemon 2.0.5`,
# The class `PidFile` was added for adapting the `lockfile` package's interface
# without depending on yet another 3rd party package. Based on example from
""" Daemon process behaviour.
from __future__ import (absolute_import, unicode_literals)
import os
import sys
import resource
import errno
import signal
import socket
import atexit
import fcntl
import time
# Python 2 has both ‘str’ (bytes) and ‘unicode’ (text).
basestring = basestring
unicode = unicode
except NameError:
# Python 3 names the Unicode data type ‘str’.
basestring = str
unicode = str
class DaemonError(Exception):
""" Base exception class for errors from this module. """
def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
super(DaemonError, self).__init__(*args, **kwargs)
def _chain_from_context(self):
_chain_exception_from_existing_exception_context(self, as_cause=True)
class DaemonOSEnvironmentError(DaemonError, OSError):
""" Exception raised when daemon OS environment setup receives error. """
class DaemonProcessDetachError(DaemonError, OSError):
""" Exception raised when process detach fails. """
class DaemonContext:
""" Context for turning the current program into a daemon process.
A `DaemonContext` instance represents the behaviour settings and
process context for the program when it becomes a daemon. The
behaviour and environment is customised by setting options on the
instance, before calling the `open` method.
Each option can be passed as a keyword argument to the `DaemonContext`
constructor, or subsequently altered by assigning to an attribute on
the instance at any time prior to calling `open`. That is, for
options named `wibble` and `wubble`, the following invocation::
foo = daemon.DaemonContext(wibble=bar, wubble=baz)
is equivalent to::
foo = daemon.DaemonContext()
foo.wibble = bar
foo.wubble = baz
The following options are defined.
:Default: ``None``
List of files that should *not* be closed when starting the
daemon. If ``None``, all open file descriptors will be closed.
Elements of the list are file descriptors (as returned by a file
object's `fileno()` method) or Python `file` objects. Each
specifies a file that is not to be closed during daemon start.
:Default: ``None``
Full path to a directory to set as the effective root directory of
the process. If ``None``, specifies that the root directory is not
to be changed.
:Default: ``'/'``
Full path of the working directory to which the process should
change on daemon start.
Since a filesystem cannot be unmounted if a process has its
current working directory on that filesystem, this should either
be left at default or set to a directory that is a sensible “home
directory” for the daemon while it is running.
:Default: ``0``
File access creation mask (“umask”) to set for the process on
daemon start.
A daemon should not rely on the parent process's umask value,
which is beyond its control and may prevent creating a file with
the required access mode. So when the daemon context opens, the
umask is set to an explicit known value.
If the conventional value of 0 is too open, consider setting a
value such as 0o022, 0o027, 0o077, or another specific value.
Otherwise, ensure the daemon creates every file with an
explicit access mode for the purpose.
:Default: ``None``
Context manager for a PID lock file. When the daemon context opens
and closes, it enters and exits the `pidfile` context manager.
:Default: ``None``
If ``True``, detach the process context when opening the daemon
context; if ``False``, do not detach.
If unspecified (``None``) during initialisation of the instance,
this will be set to ``True`` by default, and ``False`` only if
detaching the process is determined to be redundant; for example,
in the case when the process was started by `init`, by `initd`, or
by `inetd`.
:Default: system-dependent
Mapping from operating system signals to callback actions.
The mapping is used when the daemon context opens, and determines
the action for each signal's signal handler:
* A value of ``None`` will ignore the signal (by setting the
signal action to ``signal.SIG_IGN``).
* A string value will be used as the name of an attribute on the
``DaemonContext`` instance. The attribute's value will be used
as the action for the signal handler.
* Any other value will be used as the action for the
signal handler. See the ``signal.signal`` documentation
for details of the signal handler interface.
The default value depends on which signals are defined on the
running system. Each item from the list below whose signal is
actually defined in the ``signal`` module will appear in the
default map:
* ``signal.SIGTTIN``: ``None``
* ``signal.SIGTTOU``: ``None``
* ``signal.SIGTSTP``: ``None``
* ``signal.SIGTERM``: ``'terminate'``
Depending on how the program will interact with its child
processes, it may need to specify a signal map that
includes the ``signal.SIGCHLD`` signal (received when a
child process exits). See the specific operating system's
documentation for more detail on how to determine what
circumstances dictate the need for signal handlers.
:Default: ``os.getuid()``
:Default: ``os.getgid()``
The user ID (“UID”) value and group ID (“GID”) value to switch
the process to on daemon start.
The default values, the real UID and GID of the process, will
relinquish any effective privilege elevation inherited by the
:Default: ``True``
If true, prevents the generation of core files, in order to avoid
leaking sensitive information from daemons run as `root`.
:Default: ``None``
:Default: ``None``
:Default: ``None``
Each of `stdin`, `stdout`, and `stderr` is a file-like object
which will be used as the new file for the standard I/O stream
`sys.stdin`, `sys.stdout`, and `sys.stderr` respectively. The file
should therefore be open, with a minimum of mode 'r' in the case
of `stdin`, and mimimum of mode 'w+' in the case of `stdout` and
If the object has a `fileno()` method that returns a file
descriptor, the corresponding file will be excluded from being
closed during daemon start (that is, it will be treated as though
it were listed in `files_preserve`).
If ``None``, the corresponding system stream is re-bound to the
file named by `os.devnull`.
def __init__(
""" Set up a new instance. """
self.chroot_directory = chroot_directory
self.working_directory = working_directory
self.umask = umask
self.prevent_core = prevent_core
self.files_preserve = files_preserve
self.pidfile = pidfile
self.stdin = stdin
self.stdout = stdout
self.stderr = stderr
if uid is None:
uid = os.getuid()
self.uid = uid
if gid is None:
gid = os.getgid()
self.gid = gid
if detach_process is None:
detach_process = is_detach_process_context_required()
self.detach_process = detach_process
if signal_map is None:
signal_map = make_default_signal_map()
self.signal_map = signal_map
self._is_open = False
def is_open(self):
""" ``True`` if the instance is currently open. """
return self._is_open
def open(self):
""" Become a daemon process.
:return: ``None``.
Open the daemon context, turning the current program into a daemon
process. This performs the following steps:
* If this instance's `is_open` property is true, return
immediately. This makes it safe to call `open` multiple times on
an instance.
* If the `prevent_core` attribute is true, set the resource limits
for the process to prevent any core dump from the process.
* If the `chroot_directory` attribute is not ``None``, set the
effective root directory of the process to that directory (via
This allows running the daemon process inside a “chroot gaol”
as a means of limiting the system's exposure to rogue behaviour
by the process. Note that the specified directory needs to
already be set up for this purpose.
* Set the process UID and GID to the `uid` and `gid` attribute
* Close all open file descriptors. This excludes those listed in
the `files_preserve` attribute, and those that correspond to the
`stdin`, `stdout`, or `stderr` attributes.
* Change current working directory to the path specified by the
`working_directory` attribute.
* Reset the file access creation mask to the value specified by
the `umask` attribute.
* If the `detach_process` option is true, detach the current
process into its own process group, and disassociate from any
controlling terminal.
* Set signal handlers as specified by the `signal_map` attribute.
* If any of the attributes `stdin`, `stdout`, `stderr` are not
``None``, bind the system streams `sys.stdin`, `sys.stdout`,
and/or `sys.stderr` to the files represented by the
corresponding attributes. Where the attribute has a file
descriptor, the descriptor is duplicated (instead of re-binding
the name).
* If the `pidfile` attribute is not ``None``, enter its context
* Mark this instance as open (for the purpose of future `open` and
`close` calls).
* Register the `close` method to be called during Python's exit
When the function returns, the running program is a daemon
if self.is_open:
if self.chroot_directory is not None:
if self.prevent_core:
change_process_owner(self.uid, self.gid)
if self.detach_process:
signal_handler_map = self._make_signal_handler_map()
exclude_fds = self._get_exclude_file_descriptors()
redirect_stream(sys.stdin, self.stdin)
redirect_stream(sys.stdout, self.stdout)
redirect_stream(sys.stderr, self.stderr)
if self.pidfile is not None:
self._is_open = True
def __enter__(self):
""" Context manager entry point. """
return self
def close(self):
""" Exit the daemon process context.
:return: ``None``.
Close the daemon context. This performs the following steps:
* If this instance's `is_open` property is false, return
immediately. This makes it safe to call `close` multiple times
on an instance.
* If the `pidfile` attribute is not ``None``, exit its context
* Mark this instance as closed (for the purpose of future `open`
and `close` calls).
if not self.is_open:
if self.pidfile is not None:
# Follow the interface for telling a context manager to exit,
# <URL:>.
self.pidfile.__exit__(None, None, None)
self._is_open = False
def __exit__(self, exc_type, exc_value, traceback):
""" Context manager exit point. """
def terminate(self, signal_number, stack_frame):
""" Signal handler for end-process signals.
:param signal_number: The OS signal number received.
:param stack_frame: The frame object at the point the
signal was received.
:return: ``None``.
Signal handler for the ``signal.SIGTERM`` signal. Performs the
following step:
* Raise a ``SystemExit`` exception explaining the signal.
exception = SystemExit(
"Terminating on signal {signal_number!r}".format(
raise exception
def _get_exclude_file_descriptors(self):
""" Get the set of file descriptors to exclude closing.
:return: A set containing the file descriptors for the
files to be preserved.
The file descriptors to be preserved are those from the
items in `files_preserve`, and also each of `stdin`,
`stdout`, and `stderr`. For each item:
* If the item is ``None``, it is omitted from the return
* If the item's ``fileno()`` method returns a value, that
value is in the return set.
* Otherwise, the item is in the return set verbatim.
files_preserve = self.files_preserve
if files_preserve is None:
files_preserve = []
item for item in [self.stdin, self.stdout, self.stderr]
if hasattr(item, 'fileno'))
exclude_descriptors = set()
for item in files_preserve:
if item is None:
file_descriptor = _get_file_descriptor(item)
if file_descriptor is not None:
return exclude_descriptors
def _make_signal_handler(self, target):
""" Make the signal handler for a specified target object.
:param target: A specification of the target for the
handler; see below.
:return: The value for use by `signal.signal()`.
If `target` is ``None``, return ``signal.SIG_IGN``. If `target`
is a text string, return the attribute of this instance named
by that string. Otherwise, return `target` itself.
if target is None:
result = signal.SIG_IGN
elif isinstance(target, unicode):
name = target
result = getattr(self, name)
result = target
return result
def _make_signal_handler_map(self):
""" Make the map from signals to handlers for this instance.
:return: The constructed signal map for this instance.
Construct a map from signal numbers to handlers for this
context instance, suitable for passing to
signal_handler_map = dict(
(signal_number, self._make_signal_handler(target))
for (signal_number, target) in list(self.signal_map.items()))
return signal_handler_map
def _get_file_descriptor(obj):
""" Get the file descriptor, if the object has one.
:param obj: The object expected to be a file-like object.
:return: The file descriptor iff the file supports it; otherwise
The object may be a non-file object. It may also be a
file-like object with no support for a file descriptor. In
either case, return ``None``.
file_descriptor = None
if hasattr(obj, 'fileno'):
file_descriptor = obj.fileno()
except ValueError:
# The item doesn't support a file descriptor.
return file_descriptor
def change_working_directory(directory):
""" Change the working directory of this process.
:param directory: The target directory path.
:return: ``None``.
except Exception as exc:
error = DaemonOSEnvironmentError(
"Unable to change working directory ({exc})".format(exc=exc))
raise error
def change_root_directory(directory):
""" Change the root directory of this process.
:param directory: The target directory path.
:return: ``None``.
Set the current working directory, then the process root directory,
to the specified `directory`. Requires appropriate OS privileges
for this process.
except Exception as exc:
error = DaemonOSEnvironmentError(
"Unable to change root directory ({exc})".format(exc=exc))
raise error
def change_file_creation_mask(mask):
""" Change the file creation mask for this process.
:param mask: The numeric file creation mask to set.
:return: ``None``.
except Exception as exc:
error = DaemonOSEnvironmentError(
"Unable to change file creation mask ({exc})".format(exc=exc))
raise error
def change_process_owner(uid, gid):
""" Change the owning UID and GID of this process.
:param uid: The target UID for the daemon process.
:param gid: The target GID for the daemon process.
:return: ``None``.
Set the GID then the UID of the process (in that order, to avoid
permission errors) to the specified `gid` and `uid` values.
Requires appropriate OS privileges for this process.
except Exception as exc:
error = DaemonOSEnvironmentError(
"Unable to change process owner ({exc})".format(exc=exc))
raise error
def prevent_core_dump():
""" Prevent this process from generating a core dump.
:return: ``None``.
Set the soft and hard limits for core dump size to zero. On Unix,
this entirely prevents the process from creating core dump.
core_resource = resource.RLIMIT_CORE
# Ensure the resource limit exists on this platform, by requesting
# its current value.
core_limit_prev = resource.getrlimit(core_resource)
except ValueError as exc:
error = DaemonOSEnvironmentError(
"System does not support RLIMIT_CORE resource limit"
" ({exc})".format(exc=exc))
raise error
# Set hard and soft limits to zero, i.e. no core dump at all.
core_limit = (0, 0)
resource.setrlimit(core_resource, core_limit)
def detach_process_context(pidfile):
""" Detach the process context from parent and session.
:return: ``None``.
Detach from the parent process and session group, allowing the
parent to exit while this process continues running.
Reference: “Advanced Programming in the Unix Environment”,
section 13.3, by W. Richard Stevens, published 1993 by
def fork_then_exit_parent(error_message):
""" Fork a child process, then exit the parent process.
:param error_message: Message for the exception in case of a
detach failure.
:return: ``None``.
:raise DaemonProcessDetachError: If the fork fails.
pid = os.fork()
if pid > 0:
while not os.path.exists(pidfile.path):
except OSError as exc:
error = DaemonProcessDetachError(
"{message}: [{exc.errno:d}] {exc.strerror}".format(
message=error_message, exc=exc))
raise error
fork_then_exit_parent(error_message="Failed first fork")
fork_then_exit_parent(error_message="Failed second fork")
def is_process_started_by_init():
""" Determine whether the current process is started by `init`.
:return: ``True`` iff the parent process is `init`; otherwise
The `init` process is the one with process ID of 1.
result = False
init_pid = 1
if os.getppid() == init_pid:
result = True
return result
def is_socket(fd):
""" Determine whether the file descriptor is a socket.
:param fd: The file descriptor to interrogate.
:return: ``True`` iff the file descriptor is a socket; otherwise
Query the socket type of `fd`. If there is no error, the file is a
result = False
file_socket = socket.fromfd(fd, socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_RAW)
socket_type = file_socket.getsockopt(
socket.SOL_SOCKET, socket.SO_TYPE)
except socket.error as exc:
exc_errno = exc.args[0]
if exc_errno == errno.ENOTSOCK:
# Socket operation on non-socket.
# Some other socket error.
result = True
# No error getting socket type.
result = True
return result
def is_process_started_by_superserver():
""" Determine whether the current process is started by the superserver.
:return: ``True`` if this process was started by the internet
superserver; otherwise ``False``.
The internet superserver creates a network socket, and
attaches it to the standard streams of the child process. If
that is the case for this process, return ``True``, otherwise
result = False
stdin_fd = sys.__stdin__.fileno()
if is_socket(stdin_fd):
result = True
return result
def is_detach_process_context_required():
""" Determine whether detaching the process context is required.
:return: ``True`` iff the process is already detached; otherwise
The process environment is interrogated for the following:
* Process was started by `init`; or
* Process was started by `inetd`.
If any of the above are true, the process is deemed to be already
result = True
if is_process_started_by_init() or is_process_started_by_superserver():
result = False
return result
def close_file_descriptor_if_open(fd):
""" Close a file descriptor if already open.
:param fd: The file descriptor to close.
:return: ``None``.
Close the file descriptor `fd`, suppressing an error in the
case the file was not open.
except EnvironmentError as exc:
if exc.errno == errno.EBADF:
# File descriptor was not open.
error = DaemonOSEnvironmentError(
"Failed to close file descriptor {fd:d} ({exc})".format(
fd=fd, exc=exc))
raise error
MAXFD = 2048
def get_maximum_file_descriptors():
""" Get the maximum number of open file descriptors for this process.
:return: The number (integer) to use as the maximum number of open
files for this process.
The maximum is the process hard resource limit of maximum number of
open file descriptors. If the limit is “infinity”, a default value
of ``MAXFD`` is returned.
limits = resource.getrlimit(resource.RLIMIT_NOFILE)
result = limits[1]
if result == resource.RLIM_INFINITY:
result = MAXFD
return result
def close_all_open_files(exclude=set()):
""" Close all open file descriptors.
:param exclude: Collection of file descriptors to skip when closing
:return: ``None``.
Closes every file descriptor (if open) of this process. If
specified, `exclude` is a set of file descriptors to *not*
maxfd = get_maximum_file_descriptors()
for fd in reversed(list(range(maxfd))):
if fd not in exclude:
def redirect_stream(system_stream, target_stream):
""" Redirect a system stream to a specified file.
:param standard_stream: A file object representing a standard I/O
:param target_stream: The target file object for the redirected
stream, or ``None`` to specify the null device.
:return: ``None``.
`system_stream` is a standard system stream such as
``sys.stdout``. `target_stream` is an open file object that
should replace the corresponding system stream object.
If `target_stream` is ``None``, defaults to opening the
operating system's null device and using its file descriptor.
if target_stream is None:
target_fd =, os.O_RDWR)
target_fd = target_stream.fileno()
os.dup2(target_fd, system_stream.fileno())
def make_default_signal_map():
""" Make the default signal map for this system.
:return: A mapping from signal number to handler object.
The signals available differ by system. The map will not contain
any signals not defined on the running system.
name_map = {
'SIGTSTP': None,
'SIGTTIN': None,
'SIGTTOU': None,
'SIGTERM': 'terminate',
signal_map = dict(
(getattr(signal, name), target)
for (name, target) in list(name_map.items())
if hasattr(signal, name))
return signal_map
def set_signal_handlers(signal_handler_map):
""" Set the signal handlers as specified.
:param signal_handler_map: A map from signal number to handler
:return: ``None``.
See the `signal` module for details on signal numbers and signal
for (signal_number, handler) in list(signal_handler_map.items()):
signal.signal(signal_number, handler)
def register_atexit_function(func):
""" Register a function for processing at program exit.
:param func: A callable function expecting no arguments.
:return: ``None``.
The function `func` is registered for a call with no arguments
at program exit.
def _chain_exception_from_existing_exception_context(exc, as_cause=False):
""" Decorate the specified exception with the existing exception context.
:param exc: The exception instance to decorate.
:param as_cause: If true, the existing context is declared to be
the cause of the exception.
:return: ``None``.
:PEP:`344` describes syntax and attributes (`__traceback__`,
`__context__`, `__cause__`) for use in exception chaining.
Python 2 does not have that syntax, so this function decorates
the exception with values from the current exception context.
(existing_exc_type, existing_exc, existing_traceback) = sys.exc_info()
if as_cause:
exc.__cause__ = existing_exc
exc.__context__ = existing_exc
exc.__traceback__ = existing_traceback
class PidFile(object):
Adapter between a file path string and the `lockfile` API [0]. Based example
found at [1].
def __init__(self, path, enter_err_msg=None):
self.path = path
self.enter_err_msg = enter_err_msg
self.pidfile = open(self.path, 'a+')
fcntl.flock(self.pidfile.fileno(), fcntl.LOCK_EX | fcntl.LOCK_NB)
fcntl.flock(self.pidfile.fileno(), fcntl.LOCK_UN)
except IOError:
def __enter__(self):
self.pidfile = open(self.path, 'a+')
fcntl.flock(self.pidfile.fileno(), fcntl.LOCK_EX | fcntl.LOCK_NB)
except IOError:
return self.pidfile
def __exit__(self, exc_type, exc_value, exc_tb):
except IOError as err:
if err.errno != 9:
# Local variables:
# coding: utf-8
# mode: python
# End:
# vim: fileencoding=utf-8 filetype=python :