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<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
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<!DOCTYPE concept PUBLIC "-//OASIS//DTD DITA Concept//EN" "concept.dtd">
<concept id="upsert" rev="kudu IMPALA-3725">
<title>UPSERT Statement (<keyword keyref="impala28"/> or higher only)</title>
<titlealts audience="PDF"><navtitle>UPSERT</navtitle></titlealts>
<data name="Category" value="Impala"/>
<data name="Category" value="SQL"/>
<data name="Category" value="Kudu"/>
<data name="Category" value="ETL"/>
<data name="Category" value="Ingest"/>
<data name="Category" value="DML"/>
<data name="Category" value="Developers"/>
<data name="Category" value="Data Analysts"/>
<indexterm audience="hidden">UPSERT statement</indexterm>
Acts as a combination of the <codeph>INSERT</codeph>
and <codeph>UPDATE</codeph> statements.
For each row processed by the <codeph>UPSERT</codeph>
If another row already exists with the same set of primary key
values, the other columns are updated to match the values
from the row being <q>UPSERTed</q>.
If there is not any row with the same set of primary key values,
the row is created, the same as if the <codeph>INSERT</codeph>
statement was used.
This statement only works for Impala tables that use the Kudu storage engine.
<p conref="../shared/impala_common.xml#common/syntax_blurb"/>
UPSERT <ph rev="2.12.0 IMPALA-4168">[<varname>hint_clause</varname>]</ph> INTO [TABLE] [<varname>db_name</varname>.]<varname>table_name</varname>
[<varname>hint_clause</varname>] <varname>select_statement</varname>
| VALUES (<varname>value</varname> [, <varname>value</varname> ...]) [, (<varname>value</varname> [, <varname>value</varname> ...]) ...]
hint_clause ::= [SHUFFLE] | [NOSHUFFLE]
(Note: the square brackets are part of the syntax.)
The <varname>select_statement</varname> clause can use the full syntax, such as
<codeph>WHERE</codeph> and join clauses, as <xref href="impala_select.xml#select"/>.
<p conref="../shared/impala_common.xml#common/dml_blurb_kudu"/>
<p conref="../shared/impala_common.xml#common/usage_notes_blurb"/>
If you specify a column list, any omitted columns in the inserted or updated rows are
set to their default value (if the column has one) or <codeph>NULL</codeph> (if the
column does not have a default value). Therefore, if a column is not nullable and
has no default value, it must be included in the column list for any <codeph>UPSERT</codeph>
statement. Because all primary key columns meet these conditions, all the primary key
columns must be specified in every <codeph>UPSERT</codeph> statement.
Because Kudu tables can efficiently handle small incremental changes, the <codeph>VALUES</codeph>
clause is more practical to use with Kudu tables than with HDFS-based tables.
<note conref="../shared/impala_common.xml#common/compute_stats_next"/>
<p conref="../shared/impala_common.xml#common/example_blurb"/>
UPSERT INTO kudu_table (pk, c1, c2, c3) VALUES (0, 'hello', 50, true), (1, 'world', -1, false);
UPSERT INTO production_table SELECT * FROM staging_table;
UPSERT INTO production_table SELECT * FROM staging_table WHERE c1 IS NOT NULL AND c2 > 0;
<p conref="../shared/impala_common.xml#common/related_info"/>
<xref href="impala_kudu.xml#impala_kudu"/>,
<xref href="impala_insert.xml#insert"/>,
<xref href="impala_update.xml#update"/>