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<article data-swiftype-index='true'>
<a class='edit-link' href="https://github.com/apache/ignite/tree/IGNITE-7595/docs/_docs/data-modeling/binary-marshaller.adoc" target="_blank">Edit</a>
<h1>Binary Marshaller</h1>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="basic-concepts">Basic Concepts</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph">
<p>Binary Marshaller is a component of Ignite that is responsible for data serialization. It has the advantages:</p>
</div>
<div class="ulist">
<ul>
<li>
<p>It enables you to read an arbitrary field from an object&#8217;s serialized form without full object deserialization.
This ability completely removes the requirement to have the cache key and value classes deployed on the server node&#8217;s classpath.</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>It enables you to add and remove fields from objects of the same type. Given that server nodes do not have model classes
definitions, this ability allows dynamic change to an object&#8217;s structure, and even allows multiple clients with different versions of class definitions to co-exist.</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>It enables you to construct new objects based on a type name without having class definitions at all, hence
allowing dynamic type creation.</p>
</li>
</ul>
</div>
<div class="paragraph">
<p>Binary objects can be used only when the default binary marshaller is used (i.e. no other marshaller is set to the configuration explicitly).</p>
</div>
<div class="admonitionblock note">
<table>
<tr>
<td class="icon">
<div class="title">Note</div>
</td>
<td class="content">
<h3 id="restrictions" class="discrete">Restrictions</h3>
<div class="paragraph">
<p>There are several restrictions that are implied by the BinaryObject format implementation:</p>
</div>
<div class="ulist">
<ul>
<li>
<p>Internally, Ignite does not write field and type names but uses a lower-case name hash to identify a field or a type.
It means that fields or types with the same name hash are not allowed. Even though serialization will not work out-of-the-box
in the case of hash collision, Ignite provides a way to resolve this collision at the configuration level.</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>For the same reason, BinaryObject format does not allow identical field names on different levels of a class hierarchy.</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>If a class implements <code>Externalizable</code> interface, Ignite will use <code>OptimizedMarshaller</code> instead of the binary one.
The <code>OptimizedMarshaller</code> uses <code>writeExternal()</code> and <code>readExternal()</code> methods to serialize and deserialize objects of
this class which requires adding classes of <code>Externalizable</code> objects to the classpath of server nodes.</p>
</li>
</ul>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
</div>
<div class="paragraph">
<p>The <code>IgniteBinary</code> facade, which can be obtained from an instance of Ignite, contains all the necessary methods to work with binary objects.</p>
</div>
<div class="admonitionblock note">
<table>
<tr>
<td class="icon">
<div class="title">Note</div>
</td>
<td class="content">
<h3 id="automatic-hash-code-calculation-and-equals-implementation" class="discrete">Automatic Hash Code Calculation and Equals Implementation</h3>
<div class="paragraph">
<p>There are several restrictions that are implied by the BinaryObject format implementation:</p>
</div>
<div class="paragraph">
<p>If an object can be serialized into a binary form, then Ignite will calculate its hash code during serialization and
write it to the resulting binary array. Also, Ignite provides a custom implementation of the equals method for the binary
object&#8217;s comparison needs. This means that you do not need to override the GetHashCode and Equals methods of your custom
keys and values in order for them to be used in Ignite, unless they can not be serialized into the binary form.
For instance, objects of <code>Externalizable</code> type cannot be serialized into the binary form and require you to implement
the <code>hashCode</code> and <code>equals</code> methods manually. See Restrictions section above for more details.</p>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="configuring-binary-objects">Configuring Binary Objects</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph">
<p>In the vast majority of use cases, there is no need to additionally configure binary objects.</p>
</div>
<div class="paragraph">
<p>However, in a case when you need to override the default type and field IDs calculation, or to plug in <code>BinarySerializer</code>,
a <code>BinaryConfiguration</code> object should be defined in <code>IgniteConfiguration</code>. This object allows specifying a global
name mapper, a global ID mapper, and a global binary serializer as well as per-type mappers and serializers. Wildcards
are supported for per-type configuration, in which case, the provided configuration will be applied to all types
that match the type name template.</p>
</div>
<code-tabs><code-tab data-tab='XML'><div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre class="rouge highlight"><code data-lang="xml"><span class="nt">&lt;bean</span> <span class="na">id=</span><span class="s">"ignite.cfg"</span> <span class="na">class=</span><span class="s">"org.apache.ignite.configuration.IgniteConfiguration"</span><span class="nt">&gt;</span>
<span class="nt">&lt;property</span> <span class="na">name=</span><span class="s">"binaryConfiguration"</span><span class="nt">&gt;</span>
<span class="nt">&lt;bean</span> <span class="na">class=</span><span class="s">"org.apache.ignite.configuration.BinaryConfiguration"</span><span class="nt">&gt;</span>
<span class="nt">&lt;property</span> <span class="na">name=</span><span class="s">"nameMapper"</span> <span class="na">ref=</span><span class="s">"globalNameMapper"</span><span class="nt">/&gt;</span>
<span class="nt">&lt;property</span> <span class="na">name=</span><span class="s">"idMapper"</span> <span class="na">ref=</span><span class="s">"globalIdMapper"</span><span class="nt">/&gt;</span>
<span class="nt">&lt;property</span> <span class="na">name=</span><span class="s">"typeConfigurations"</span><span class="nt">&gt;</span>
<span class="nt">&lt;list&gt;</span>
<span class="nt">&lt;bean</span> <span class="na">class=</span><span class="s">"org.apache.ignite.binary.BinaryTypeConfiguration"</span><span class="nt">&gt;</span>
<span class="nt">&lt;property</span> <span class="na">name=</span><span class="s">"typeName"</span> <span class="na">value=</span><span class="s">"org.apache.ignite.examples.*"</span><span class="nt">/&gt;</span>
<span class="nt">&lt;property</span> <span class="na">name=</span><span class="s">"serializer"</span> <span class="na">ref=</span><span class="s">"exampleSerializer"</span><span class="nt">/&gt;</span>
<span class="nt">&lt;/bean&gt;</span>
<span class="nt">&lt;/list&gt;</span>
<span class="nt">&lt;/property&gt;</span>
<span class="nt">&lt;/bean&gt;</span>
<span class="nt">&lt;/property&gt;</span>
<span class="nt">&lt;/bean&gt;</span></code></pre>
</div>
</div></code-tab></code-tabs>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="binaryobject-api">BinaryObject API</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph">
<p>By default, Ignite works with deserialized values as it is the most common use case. To enable <code>BinaryObject</code>
processing, a user needs to obtain an instance of <code>IgniteCache</code> using the <code>withKeepBinary()</code> method. When enabled,
this flag will ensure that objects returned from the cache will be in <code>BinaryObject</code> format, when possible. The same
applies to values being passed to the <code>EntryProcessor</code> and <code>CacheInterceptor</code>.</p>
</div>
<div class="admonitionblock note">
<table>
<tr>
<td class="icon">
<div class="title">Note</div>
</td>
<td class="content">
<h3 id="platform-types" class="discrete">Platform Types</h3>
<div class="paragraph">
<p>Note that not all types will be represented as <code>BinaryObject</code> when the <code>withKeepBinary()</code> flag is enabled. There is a
set of 'platform' types that includes primitive types, String, UUID, Date, Timestamp, BigDecimal, Collections,
Maps and arrays of these that will never be represented as a <code>BinaryObject</code>.</p>
</div>
<div class="paragraph">
<p>Note that in the example below key type Integer does not change because it is a platform type.</p>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
</div>
<code-tabs><code-tab data-tab='Java'><div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre class="rouge highlight"><code data-lang="java"><span class="c1">// Create a regular Person object and put it to the cache.</span>
<span class="nc">Person</span> <span class="n">person</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">buildPerson</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">personId</span><span class="o">);</span>
<span class="n">ignite</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">cache</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="s">"myCache"</span><span class="o">).</span><span class="na">put</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">personId</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">person</span><span class="o">);</span>
<span class="c1">// Get an instance of binary-enabled cache.</span>
<span class="nc">IgniteCache</span><span class="o">&lt;</span><span class="nc">Integer</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="nc">BinaryObject</span><span class="o">&gt;</span> <span class="n">binaryCache</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">ignite</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">cache</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="s">"myCache"</span><span class="o">).</span><span class="na">withKeepBinary</span><span class="o">();</span>
<span class="c1">// Get the above person object in the BinaryObject format.</span>
<span class="nc">BinaryObject</span> <span class="n">binaryPerson</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">binaryCache</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">get</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">personId</span><span class="o">);</span></code></pre>
</div>
</div></code-tab></code-tabs>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="modifying-binary-objects-using-binaryobjectbuilder">Modifying Binary Objects Using BinaryObjectBuilder</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph">
<p><code>BinaryObject</code> instances are immutable. An instance of <code>BinaryObjectBuilder</code> must be used in order to update fields and
create a new <code>BinaryObject</code>.</p>
</div>
<div class="paragraph">
<p>An instance of <code>BinaryObjectBuilder</code> can be obtained from <code>IgniteBinary</code> facade. The builder may be created using a type
name, in this case the returned builder will contain no fields, or it may be created using an existing <code>BinaryObject</code>,
in this case the returned builder will copy all the fields from the given <code>BinaryObject</code>.</p>
</div>
<div class="paragraph">
<p>Another way to get an instance of <code>BinaryObjectBuilder</code> is to call <code>toBuilder()</code> on an existing instance of a <code>BinaryObject</code>.
This will also copy all data from the <code>BinaryObject</code> to the created builder.</p>
</div>
<div class="admonitionblock note">
<table>
<tr>
<td class="icon">
<div class="title">Note</div>
</td>
<td class="content">
<h3 id="limitations" class="discrete">Limitations</h3>
<div class="ulist">
<ul>
<li>
<p>You cannot change the types of existing fields.</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>You cannot change the order of enum values or add new constants at the beginning or in the middle of the list of enum&#8217;s
values. You can add new constants to the end of the list though.</p>
</li>
</ul>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
</div>
<div class="paragraph">
<p>Below is an example of using the <code>BinaryObject</code> API to process data on server nodes without having user classes deployed
on servers and without actual data deserialization.</p>
</div>
<code-tabs><code-tab data-tab='Java'><div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre class="rouge highlight"><code data-lang="java"><span class="c1">// The EntryProcessor is to be executed for this key.</span>
<span class="kt">int</span> <span class="n">key</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="mi">101</span><span class="o">;</span>
<span class="n">cache</span><span class="o">.&lt;</span><span class="nc">Integer</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="nc">BinaryObject</span><span class="o">&gt;</span><span class="n">withKeepBinary</span><span class="o">().</span><span class="na">invoke</span><span class="o">(</span>
<span class="n">key</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="k">new</span> <span class="nc">CacheEntryProcessor</span><span class="o">&lt;</span><span class="nc">Integer</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="nc">BinaryObject</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="nc">Object</span><span class="o">&gt;()</span> <span class="o">{</span>
<span class="kd">public</span> <span class="nc">Object</span> <span class="nf">process</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="nc">MutableEntry</span><span class="o">&lt;</span><span class="nc">Integer</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="nc">BinaryObject</span><span class="o">&gt;</span> <span class="n">entry</span><span class="o">,</span>
<span class="nc">Object</span><span class="o">...</span> <span class="n">objects</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="kd">throws</span> <span class="nc">EntryProcessorException</span> <span class="o">{</span>
<span class="c1">// Create builder from the old value.</span>
<span class="nc">BinaryObjectBuilder</span> <span class="n">bldr</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">entry</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">getValue</span><span class="o">().</span><span class="na">toBuilder</span><span class="o">();</span>
<span class="c1">//Update the field in the builder.</span>
<span class="n">bldr</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">setField</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="s">"name"</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="s">"Ignite"</span><span class="o">);</span>
<span class="c1">// Set new value to the entry.</span>
<span class="n">entry</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">setValue</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">bldr</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">build</span><span class="o">());</span>
<span class="k">return</span> <span class="kc">null</span><span class="o">;</span>
<span class="o">}</span>
<span class="o">});</span></code></pre>
</div>
</div></code-tab></code-tabs>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="binaryobject-type-metadata">BinaryObject Type Metadata</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph">
<p>As it was mentioned above, binary object structure may be changed at runtime hence it may also be useful to get
information about a particular type that is stored in a cache such as field names, field type names, and affinity
field name. Ignite facilitates this requirement via the <code>BinaryType</code> interface.</p>
</div>
<div class="paragraph">
<p>This interface also introduces a faster version of field getter called <code>BinaryField</code>. The concept is similar to java
reflection and allows to cache certain information about the field being read in the <code>BinaryField</code> instance, which is
useful when reading the same field from a large collection of binary objects.</p>
</div>
<code-tabs><code-tab data-tab='Java'><div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre class="rouge highlight"><code data-lang="java"><span class="nc">Collection</span><span class="o">&lt;</span><span class="nc">BinaryObject</span><span class="o">&gt;</span> <span class="n">persons</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">getPersons</span><span class="o">();</span>
<span class="nc">BinaryField</span> <span class="n">salary</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="kc">null</span><span class="o">;</span>
<span class="kt">double</span> <span class="n">total</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="mi">0</span><span class="o">;</span>
<span class="kt">int</span> <span class="n">cnt</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="mi">0</span><span class="o">;</span>
<span class="k">for</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="nc">BinaryObject</span> <span class="n">person</span> <span class="o">:</span> <span class="n">persons</span><span class="o">)</span> <span class="o">{</span>
<span class="k">if</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">salary</span> <span class="o">==</span> <span class="kc">null</span><span class="o">)</span>
<span class="n">salary</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">person</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">type</span><span class="o">().</span><span class="na">field</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="s">"salary"</span><span class="o">);</span>
<span class="n">total</span> <span class="o">+=</span> <span class="n">salary</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">value</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">person</span><span class="o">);</span>
<span class="n">cnt</span><span class="o">++;</span>
<span class="o">}</span>
<span class="kt">double</span> <span class="n">avg</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">total</span> <span class="o">/</span> <span class="n">cnt</span><span class="o">;</span></code></pre>
</div>
</div></code-tab></code-tabs>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="binaryobject-and-cachestore">BinaryObject and CacheStore</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph">
<p>Setting <code>withKeepBinary()</code> on the cache API does not affect the way user objects are passed to a <code>CacheStore</code>. This is
intentional because in most cases a single <code>CacheStore</code> implementation works either with deserialized classes, or with
<code>BinaryObject</code> representations. To control the way objects are passed to the store, the <code>storeKeepBinary</code> flag on
</