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<article data-swiftype-index='true'>
<a class='edit-link' href="https://github.com/apache/ignite/tree/IGNITE-7595/docs/_docs/SQL/indexes.adoc" target="_blank">Edit</a>
<h1>Defining Indexes</h1>
<div id="preamble">
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph">
<p>In addition to common DDL commands, such as CREATE/DROP INDEX, developers can use Ignite&#8217;s <a href="/docs/2.9.0/SQL/sql-api">SQL APIs</a> to define indexes.</p>
</div>
<div class="admonitionblock note">
<table>
<tr>
<td class="icon">
<div class="title">Note</div>
</td>
<td class="content">
<div class="paragraph">
<p>Indexing capabilities are provided by the 'ignite-indexing' module. If you start Ignite from Java code, <a href="/docs/2.9.0/setup#enabling-modules">add this module to your classpath</a>.</p>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
</div>
<div class="paragraph">
<p>Ignite automatically creates indexes for each primary key and affinity key field.
When you define an index on a field in the value object, Ignite creates a composite index consisting of the indexed field and the cache&#8217;s primary key.
In SQL terms, it means that the index will be composed of two columns: the column you want to index and the primary key column.</p>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="creating-indexes-with-sql">Creating Indexes With SQL</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph">
<p>Refer to the <a href="/docs/2.9.0/sql-reference/ddl#create-index">CREATE INDEX</a> section.</p>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="configuring-indexes-using-annotations">Configuring Indexes Using Annotations</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph">
<p>Indexes, as well as queryable fields, can be configured from code via the <code>@QuerySqlField</code> annotation. In the example below, the Ignite SQL engine will create indexes for the <code>id</code> and <code>salary</code> fields.</p>
</div>
<code-tabs><code-tab data-tab='Java'><div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre class="rouge highlight"><code data-lang="java"><span class="kd">public</span> <span class="kd">class</span> <span class="nc">Person</span> <span class="kd">implements</span> <span class="nc">Serializable</span> <span class="o">{</span>
<span class="cm">/** Indexed field. Will be visible to the SQL engine. */</span>
<span class="nd">@QuerySqlField</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">index</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="kc">true</span><span class="o">)</span>
<span class="kd">private</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="n">id</span><span class="o">;</span>
<span class="cm">/** Queryable field. Will be visible to the SQL engine. */</span>
<span class="nd">@QuerySqlField</span>
<span class="kd">private</span> <span class="nc">String</span> <span class="n">name</span><span class="o">;</span>
<span class="cm">/** Will NOT be visible to the SQL engine. */</span>
<span class="kd">private</span> <span class="kt">int</span> <span class="n">age</span><span class="o">;</span>
<span class="cm">/**
* Indexed field sorted in descending order. Will be visible to the SQL engine.
*/</span>
<span class="nd">@QuerySqlField</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">index</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="kc">true</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="n">descending</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="kc">true</span><span class="o">)</span>
<span class="kd">private</span> <span class="kt">float</span> <span class="n">salary</span><span class="o">;</span>
<span class="o">}</span></code></pre>
</div>
</div></code-tab><code-tab data-tab='C#/.NET'><div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre class="rouge highlight"><code data-lang="csharp"><span class="k">class</span> <span class="nc">Person</span>
<span class="p">{</span>
<span class="c1">// Indexed field. Will be visible to the SQL engine.</span>
<span class="p">[</span><span class="nf">QuerySqlField</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">IsIndexed</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">true</span><span class="p">)]</span> <span class="k">public</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="n">Id</span><span class="p">;</span>
<span class="c1">//Queryable field. Will be visible to the SQL engine</span>
<span class="p">[</span><span class="n">QuerySqlField</span><span class="p">]</span> <span class="k">public</span> <span class="kt">string</span> <span class="n">Name</span><span class="p">;</span>
<span class="c1">//Will NOT be visible to the SQL engine.</span>
<span class="k">public</span> <span class="kt">int</span> <span class="n">Age</span><span class="p">;</span>
<span class="cm">/** Indexed field sorted in descending order.
* Will be visible to the SQL engine. */</span>
<span class="p">[</span><span class="nf">QuerySqlField</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">IsIndexed</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">true</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">IsDescending</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">true</span><span class="p">)]</span>
<span class="k">public</span> <span class="kt">float</span> <span class="n">Salary</span><span class="p">;</span>
<span class="p">}</span></code></pre>
</div>
</div></code-tab><code-tab data-tab='C++' data-unavailable='true'><div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre class="rouge highlight"><code>This API is not presently available for C++.</code></pre>
</div>
</div></code-tab></code-tabs>
<div class="paragraph">
<p>The type name is used as the table name in SQL queries. In this case, our table name will be <code>Person</code> (schema name usage and definition is explained in the <a href="/docs/2.9.0/SQL/schemas">Schemas</a> section).</p>
</div>
<div class="paragraph">
<p>Both <code>id</code> and <code>salary</code> are indexed fields. <code>id</code> will be sorted in ascending order (default) and <code>salary</code> in descending order.</p>
</div>
<div class="paragraph">
<p>If you do not want to index a field, but you still need to use it in SQL queries, then the field must be annotated without the <code>index = true</code> parameter.
Such a field is called a <em>queryable field</em>.
In the example above, <code>name</code> is defined as a <a href="/docs/2.9.0/SQL/sql-api#configuring-queryable-fields">queryable field</a>.</p>
</div>
<div class="paragraph">
<p>The <code>age</code> field is neither queryable nor is it an indexed field, and thus it will not be accessible from SQL queries.</p>
</div>
<div class="paragraph">
<p>When you define the indexed fields, you need to <a href="#registering-indexed-types">register indexed types</a>.</p>
</div>
<div class="admonitionblock note">
<table>
<tr>
<td class="icon">
<div class="title">Note</div>
</td>
<td class="content">
<h3 id="updating-indexes-and-queryable-fields-at-runtime" class="discrete">Updating Indexes and Queryable Fields at Runtime</h3>
<div class="paragraph">
<p>Use the <a href="/docs/2.9.0/sql-reference/ddl#create-index">CREATE/DROP INDEX</a> commands if you need to manage indexes or make an object&#8217;s new fields visible to the SQL engine at​ runtime.</p>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
</div>
<div class="sect2">
<h3 id="indexing-nested-objects">Indexing Nested Objects</h3>
<div class="paragraph">
<p>Fields of nested objects can also be indexed and queried using annotations. For example, consider a <code>Person</code> object that has an <code>Address</code> object as a field:</p>
</div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre class="rouge highlight"><code data-lang="java"><span class="kd">public</span> <span class="kd">class</span> <span class="nc">Person</span> <span class="o">{</span>
<span class="cm">/** Indexed field. Will be visible for SQL engine. */</span>
<span class="nd">@QuerySqlField</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">index</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="kc">true</span><span class="o">)</span>
<span class="kd">private</span> <span class="kt">long</span> <span class="n">id</span><span class="o">;</span>
<span class="cm">/** Queryable field. Will be visible for SQL engine. */</span>
<span class="nd">@QuerySqlField</span>
<span class="kd">private</span> <span class="nc">String</span> <span class="n">name</span><span class="o">;</span>
<span class="cm">/** Will NOT be visible for SQL engine. */</span>
<span class="kd">private</span> <span class="kt">int</span> <span class="n">age</span><span class="o">;</span>
<span class="cm">/** Indexed field. Will be visible for SQL engine. */</span>
<span class="nd">@QuerySqlField</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">index</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="kc">true</span><span class="o">)</span>
<span class="kd">private</span> <span class="nc">Address</span> <span class="n">address</span><span class="o">;</span>
<span class="o">}</span></code></pre>
</div>
</div>
<div class="paragraph">
<p>Where the structure of the <code>Address</code> class might look like:</p>
</div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre class="rouge highlight"><code data-lang="java"><span class="kd">public</span> <span class="kd">class</span> <span class="nc">Address</span> <span class="o">{</span>
<span class="cm">/** Indexed field. Will be visible for SQL engine. */</span>
<span class="nd">@QuerySqlField</span> <span class="o">(</span><span class="n">index</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="kc">true</span><span class="o">)</span>
<span class="kd">private</span> <span class="nc">String</span> <span class="n">street</span><span class="o">;</span>
<span class="cm">/** Indexed field. Will be visible for SQL engine. */</span>
<span class="nd">@QuerySqlField</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">index</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="kc">true</span><span class="o">)</span>
<span class="kd">private</span> <span class="kt">int</span> <span class="n">zip</span><span class="o">;</span>
<span class="o">}</span></code></pre>
</div>
</div>
<div class="paragraph">
<p>In the above example, the <code>@QuerySqlField(index = true)</code> annotation is specified on all the fields of the <code>Address</code> class, as well as the <code>Address</code> object in the <code>Person</code> class.</p>
</div>
<div class="paragraph">
<p>This makes it possible to execute SQL queries like the following:</p>
</div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre class="rouge highlight"><code data-lang="java"><span class="nc">QueryCursor</span><span class="o">&lt;</span><span class="nc">List</span><span class="o">&lt;?&gt;&gt;</span> <span class="n">cursor</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">personCache</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">query</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="k">new</span> <span class="nc">SqlFieldsQuery</span><span class="o">(</span> <span class="s">"select * from Person where street = 'street1'"</span><span class="o">));</span></code></pre>
</div>
</div>
<div class="paragraph">
<p>Note that you do not need to specify <code>address.street</code> in the WHERE clause of the SQL query. This is because the fields of the <code>Address</code> class are flattened within the <code>Person</code> table which simply allows us to access the <code>Address</code> fields in the queries directly.</p>
</div>
<div class="admonitionblock warning">
<table>
<tr>
<td class="icon">
<div class="title">Warning</div>
</td>
<td class="content">
If you create indexes for nested objects, you won&#8217;t be able to run UPDATE or INSERT statements on the table.
</td>
</tr>
</table>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect2">
<h3 id="registering-indexed-types">Registering Indexed Types</h3>
<div class="paragraph">
<p>After indexed and queryable fields are defined, they have to be registered in the SQL engine along with the object types they belong to.</p>
</div>
<div class="paragraph">
<p>To specify which types should be indexed, pass the corresponding key-value pairs in the <code>CacheConfiguration.setIndexedTypes()</code> method as shown in the example below.</p>
</div>
<code-tabs><code-tab data-tab='Java'><div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre class="rouge highlight"><code data-lang="java"><span class="c1">// Preparing configuration.</span>
<span class="nc">CacheConfiguration</span><span class="o">&lt;</span><span class="nc">Long</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="nc">Person</span><span class="o">&gt;</span> <span class="n">ccfg</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="k">new</span> <span class="nc">CacheConfiguration</span><span class="o">&lt;&gt;();</span>
<span class="c1">// Registering indexed type.</span>
<span class="n">ccfg</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">setIndexedTypes</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="nc">Long</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">class</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class="nc">Person</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">class</span><span class="o">);</span></code></pre>
</div>
</div></code-tab><code-tab data-tab='C#/.NET'><div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre class="rouge highlight"><code data-lang="csharp"><span class="kt">var</span> <span class="n">ccfg</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">new</span> <span class="n">CacheConfiguration</span>
<span class="p">{</span>
<span class="n">QueryEntities</span> <span class="p">=</span> <span class="k">new</span><span class="p">[]</span>
<span class="p">{</span>
<span class="k">new</span> <span class="nf">QueryEntity</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="k">typeof</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="kt">long</span><span class="p">),</span> <span class="k">typeof</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">Person</span><span class="p">))</span>
<span class="p">}</span>
<span class="p">};</span></code></pre>
</div>
</div></code-tab><code-tab data-tab='C++' data-unavailable='true'><div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre class="rouge highlight"><code>This API is not presently available for C++.</code></pre>
</div>
</div></code-tab></code-tabs>
<div class="paragraph">
<p>This method accepts only pairs of types: one for key class and another for value class. Primitives are passed as boxed types.</p>
</div>
<div class="admonitionblock note">
<table>
<tr>
<td class="icon">
<div class="title">Note</div>
</td>
<td class="content">
<h3 id="predefined-fields" class="discrete">Predefined Fields</h3>
<div class="paragraph">
<p>In addition to all the fields marked with a <code>@QuerySqlField</code> annotation, each table will have two special predefined fields: <code>_key</code> and <code>_val</code>, which represent links to whole key and value objects. This is useful, for instance, when one of them is of a primitive type and you want to filter by its value. To do this, run a query like: <code>SELECT * FROM Person WHERE _key = 100</code>.</p>
</div>
</td>
</tr>
</table>
</div>
<div class="admonitionblock note">
<table>
<tr>
<td class="icon">
<div class="title">Note</div>
</td>
<td class="content">
Since Ignite supports <a href="/docs/2.9.0/key-value-api/binary-objects">Binary Objects</a>, there is no need to add classes of indexed types to the classpath of cluster nodes. The SQL query engine can detect values of indexed and queryable fields, avoiding object deserialization.
</td>
</tr>
</table>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect2">
<h3 id="group-indexes">Group Indexes</h3>
<div class="paragraph">
<p>To set up a multi-field index that can accelerate queries with complex conditions, you can use a <code>@QuerySqlField.Group</code> annotation. You can add multiple <code>@QuerySqlField.Group</code> annotations in <code>orderedGroups</code> if you want a field to be a part of more than one group.</p>
</div>
<div class="paragraph">
<p>For instance, in the <code>Person</code> class below we have the field <code>age</code> which belongs to an indexed group named <code>age_salary_idx</code> with a group order of "0" and descending sort order. Also, in the same group, we have the field <code>salary</code> with a group order of "3" and ascending sort order. Furthermore, the field <code>salary</code> itself is a single column index (the <code>index = true</code> parameter is specified in addition to the <code>orderedGroups</code> declaration). Group <code>order</code> does not have to be a particular number. It is needed only to sort fields inside of a particular group.</p>
</div>
<code-tabs><code-tab data-tab='Java'><div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre class="rouge highlight"><code data-lang="java"><span class="kd">public</span> <span class="kd">class</span> <span class="nc">Person</span> <span class="kd">implements</span> <span class="nc">Serializable</span> <span class="o">{</span>
<span class="cm">/** Indexed in a group index with "salary". */</span>
<span class="nd">@QuerySqlField</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">orderedGroups</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="o">{</span> <span class="nd">@QuerySqlField</span><span class="o">.</span><span class="na">Group</span><span class="o">(</span><span class="n">name</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="s">"age_salary_idx"</span><span class="o">,</span> <span class=