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Quick Installation Guide for CentOS 6
What exactly are we building?
Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) clouds can be a complex thing to build, and
by definition they have a plethora of options, which often lead to confusion
for even experienced admins who are newcomers to building cloud platforms. The
goal for this runbook is to provide a straightforward set of instructions to
get you up and running with CloudStack with a minimum amount of trouble.
High level overview of the process
This runbook will focus on building a CloudStack cloud using KVM on CentOS
6.8 with NFS storage on a flat layer-2 network utilizing layer-3 network
isolation (aka Security Groups), and doing it all on a single piece of
KVM, or Kernel-based Virtual Machine is a virtualization technology for the
Linux kernel. KVM supports native virtualization atop processors with hardware
virtualization extensions.
Security Groups act as distributed firewalls that control access to a group of
virtual machines.
To complete this runbook you'll need the following items:
#. At least one computer which supports and has enabled hardware virtualization.
#. The `CentOS 6.8 x86_64 minimal install CD
#. A /24 network with the gateway being at, no DHCP should be on
this network and none of the computers running CloudStack will have a
dynamic address. Again this is done for the sake of simplicity.
Before you begin , you need to prepare the environment before you install
CloudStack. We will go over the steps to prepare now.
Operating System
Using the CentOS 6.8 x86_64 minimal install ISO, you'll need to install CentOS 6
on your hardware. The defaults will generally be acceptable for this
Once this installation is complete, you'll want to connect to your freshly
installed machine via SSH as the root user. Note that you should not allow
root logins in a production environment, so be sure to turn off remote logins
once you have finished the installation and configuration.
.. _conf-network:
Configuring the network
By default the network will not come up on your hardware and you will need to
configure it to work in your environment. Since we specified that there will
be no DHCP server in this environment we will be manually configuring your
network interface. We will assume, for the purposes of this exercise, that
eth0 is the only network interface that will be connected and used.
Connecting via the console you should login as root. Check the file
/etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-eth0, it will look like this by default:
Unfortunately, this configuration will not permit you to connect to the
network, and is also unsuitable for our purposes with CloudStack. We want to
configure that file so that it specifies the IP address, netmask, etc., as
shown in the following example:
.. note::
You should not use the Hardware Address (aka the MAC address) from our
example for your configuration. It is network interface specific, so you
should keep the address already provided in the HWADDR directive.
.. note::
IP Addressing - Throughout this document we are assuming that you will have
a /24 network for your CloudStack implementation. This can be any RFC 1918
network. However, we are assuming that you will match the machine address
that we are using. Thus we may use and because you might be
using the network you would use
Now that we have the configuration files properly set up, we need to run a few
commands to start up the network:
.. sourcecode:: bash
# chkconfig network on
# service network start
.. _conf-hostname:
CloudStack requires that the hostname be properly set. If you used the default
options in the installation, then your hostname is currently set to
localhost.localdomain. To test this we will run:
.. sourcecode:: bash
# hostname --fqdn
At this point it will likely return:
.. sourcecode:: bash
To rectify this situation - we'll set the hostname by editing the /etc/hosts
file so that it follows a similar format to this example:
.. sourcecode:: bash localhost localhost.localdomain localhost4 localhost4.localdomain4
::1 localhost localhost.localdomain localhost6 localhost6.localdomain6
After you've modified that file, go ahead and restart the network using:
.. sourcecode:: bash
# service network restart
Now recheck with the hostname --fqdn command and ensure that it returns a FQDN
.. _conf-selinux:
At the moment, for CloudStack to work properly SELinux must be set to
permissive. We want to both configure this for future boots and modify it in
the current running system.
To configure SELinux to be permissive in the running system we need to run the
following command:
.. sourcecode:: bash
# setenforce 0
To ensure that it remains in that state we need to configure the file
/etc/selinux/config to reflect the permissive state, as shown in this example:
.. sourcecode:: bash
# This file controls the state of SELinux on the system.
# SELINUX= can take one of these three values:
# enforcing - SELinux security policy is enforced.
# permissive - SELinux prints warnings instead of enforcing.
# disabled - No SELinux policy is loaded.
# SELINUXTYPE= can take one of these two values:
# targeted - Targeted processes are protected,
# mls - Multi Level Security protection.
.. _conf-ntp:
NTP configuration is a necessity for keeping all of the clocks in your cloud
servers in sync. However, NTP is not installed by default. So we'll install
and and configure NTP at this stage. Installation is accomplished as follows:
.. sourcecode:: bash
# yum -y install ntp
The actual default configuration is fine for our purposes, so we merely need
to enable it and set it to start on boot as follows:
.. sourcecode:: bash
# chkconfig ntpd on
# service ntpd start
.. _qigconf-pkg-repo:
Configuring the CloudStack Package Repository
We need to configure the machine to use a CloudStack package repository.
.. note::
The Apache CloudStack official releases are source code. As such there are
no 'official' binaries available. The full installation guide describes how
to take the source release and generate RPMs and and yum repository. This
guide attempts to keep things as simple as possible, and thus we are using
one of the community-provided yum repositories.
To add the CloudStack repository, create /etc/yum.repos.d/cloudstack.repo and
insert the following information.
Our configuration is going to use NFS for both primary and secondary storage.
We are going to go ahead and setup two NFS shares for those purposes. We'll
start out by installing nfs-utils.
.. sourcecode:: bash
# yum -y install nfs-utils
We now need to configure NFS to serve up two different shares. This is handled
comparatively easily in the /etc/exports file. You should ensure that it has
the following content:
.. sourcecode:: bash
/export/secondary *(rw,async,no_root_squash,no_subtree_check)
/export/primary *(rw,async,no_root_squash,no_subtree_check)
You will note that we specified two directories that don't exist (yet) on the
system. We'll go ahead and create those directories and set permissions
appropriately on them with the following commands:
.. sourcecode:: bash
# mkdir -p /export/primary
# mkdir /export/secondary
CentOS 6.x releases use NFSv4 by default. NFSv4 requires that domain setting
matches on all clients. In our case, the domain is cloud.priv, so ensure that
the domain setting in /etc/idmapd.conf is uncommented and set as follows:
Domain = cloud.priv
Now you'll need uncomment the configuration values in the file
.. sourcecode:: bash
Now we need to configure the firewall to permit incoming NFS connections.
Edit the file /etc/sysconfig/iptables
.. sourcecode:: bash
-A INPUT -s -m state --state NEW -p udp --dport 111 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -s -m state --state NEW -p tcp --dport 111 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -s -m state --state NEW -p tcp --dport 2049 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -s -m state --state NEW -p tcp --dport 32803 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -s -m state --state NEW -p udp --dport 32769 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -s -m state --state NEW -p tcp --dport 892 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -s -m state --state NEW -p udp --dport 892 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -s -m state --state NEW -p tcp --dport 875 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -s -m state --state NEW -p udp --dport 875 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -s -m state --state NEW -p tcp --dport 662 -j ACCEPT
-A INPUT -s -m state --state NEW -p udp --dport 662 -j ACCEPT
Now you can restart the iptables service with the following command:
.. sourcecode:: bash
# service iptables restart
We now need to configure the nfs service to start on boot and actually start
it on the host by executing the following commands:
.. sourcecode:: bash
# service rpcbind start
# service nfs start
# chkconfig rpcbind on
# chkconfig nfs on
Management Server Installation
We're going to install the CloudStack management server and surrounding tools.
Database Installation and Configuration
We'll start with installing MySQL and configuring some options to ensure it
runs well with CloudStack.
Install by running the following command:
.. sourcecode:: bash
# yum -y install mysql-server
With MySQL now installed we need to make a few configuration changes to
/etc/my.cnf. Specifically we need to add the following options to the [mysqld]
binlog-format = 'ROW'
Now that MySQL is properly configured we can start it and configure it to
start on boot as follows:
.. sourcecode:: bash
# service mysqld start
# chkconfig mysqld on
MySQL connector Installation
Install Python MySQL connector using the official MySQL packages repository.
Create the file ``/etc/yum.repos.d/mysql.repo`` with the following content:
.. sourcecode:: bash
name=MySQL Community connectors
Import GPG public key from MySQL:
.. sourcecode:: bash
rpm --import
Install mysql-connector
.. sourcecode:: bash
yum install mysql-connector-python
We are now going to install the management server. We do that by executing the
following command:
.. sourcecode:: bash
# yum -y install cloudstack-management
With the application itself installed we can now setup the database, we'll do
that with the following command and options:
.. sourcecode:: bash
# cloudstack-setup-databases cloud:password@localhost --deploy-as=root
When this process is finished, you should see a message like "CloudStack has
successfully initialized the database."
Now that the database has been created, we can take the final step in setting
up the management server by issuing the following command:
.. sourcecode:: bash
# cloudstack-setup-management
If the servlet container is Tomcat7 the argument --tomcat7 must be used.
System Template Setup
CloudStack uses a number of system VMs to provide functionality for accessing
the console of virtual machines, providing various networking services, and
managing various aspects of storage. This step will acquire those system
images ready for deployment when we bootstrap your cloud.
Now we need to download the system VM template and deploy that to the share we
just mounted. The management server includes a script to properly manipulate
the system VMs images.
.. sourcecode:: bash
/usr/share/cloudstack-common/scripts/storage/secondary/cloud-install-sys-tmplt \
-m /export/secondary \
-u \
-h kvm -F
That concludes our setup of the management server. We still need to configure
CloudStack, but we will do that after we get our hypervisor set up.
KVM Setup and Installation
KVM is the hypervisor we'll be using - we will recover the initial setup which
has already been done on the hypervisor host and cover installation of the
agent software, you can use the same steps to add additional KVM nodes to your
CloudStack environment.
We explicitly are using the management server as a compute node as well, which
means that we have already performed many of the prerequisite steps when
setting up the management server, but we will list them here for clarity.
Those steps are:
#. :ref:`conf-network`
#. :ref:`conf-hostname`
#. :ref:`conf-selinux`
#. :ref:`conf-ntp`
#. :ref:`qigconf-pkg-repo`
You shouldn't need to do that for the management server, of course, but any
additional hosts will need for you to complete the above steps.
Installation of the KVM agent is trivial with just a single command, but
afterwards we'll need to configure a few things.
.. sourcecode:: bash
# yum -y install cloudstack-agent
KVM Configuration
We have two different parts of KVM to configure, libvirt, and QEMU.
QEMU Configuration
KVM configuration is relatively simple at only a single item. We need to edit
the QEMU VNC configuration. This is done by editing /etc/libvirt/qemu.conf and
ensuring the following line is present and uncommented.
Libvirt Configuration
CloudStack uses libvirt for managing virtual machines. Therefore it is vital
that libvirt is configured correctly. Libvirt is a dependency of cloud-agent
and should already be installed.
#. In order to have live migration working libvirt has to listen for unsecured
TCP connections. We also need to turn off libvirts attempt to use Multicast
DNS advertising. Both of these settings are in /etc/libvirt/libvirtd.conf
Set the following paramaters:
listen_tls = 0
listen_tcp = 1
tcp_port = "16059"
auth_tcp = "none"
mdns_adv = 0
#. Turning on "listen_tcp" in libvirtd.conf is not enough, we have to change
the parameters as well we also need to modify /etc/sysconfig/libvirtd:
Uncomment the following line:
#. Restart libvirt
.. sourcecode:: bash
# service libvirtd restart
KVM configuration complete
For the sake of completeness you should check if KVM is running OK on your machine:
.. sourcecode:: bash
# lsmod | grep kvm
kvm_intel 55496 0
kvm 337772 1 kvm_intel
That concludes our installation and configuration of KVM, and we'll now move
to using the CloudStack UI for the actual configuration of our cloud.
As we noted before we will be using security groups to provide isolation and
by default that implies that we'll be using a flat layer-2 network. It also
means that the simplicity of our setup means that we can use the quick
UI Access
To get access to CloudStack's web interface, merely point your browser to The default username is 'admin', and the
default password is 'password'. You should see a splash screen that allows you
to choose several options for setting up CloudStack. You should choose the
Continue with Basic Setup option.
You should now see a prompt requiring you to change the password for the admin
user. Please do so.
Setting up a Zone
A zone is the largest organization entity in CloudStack - and we'll be
creating one, this should be the screen that you see in front of you now. And
for us there are 5 pieces of information that we need.
#. Name - we will set this to the ever-descriptive 'Zone1' for our cloud.
#. Public DNS 1 - we will set this to ```` for our cloud.
#. Public DNS 2 - we will set this to ```` for our cloud.
#. Internal DNS1 - we will also set this to ```` for our cloud.
#. Internal DNS2 - we will also set this to ```` for our cloud.
.. note::
CloudStack distinguishes between internal and public DNS. Internal DNS is
assumed to be capable of resolving internal-only hostnames, such as your
NFS server’s DNS name. Public DNS is provided to the guest VMs to resolve
public IP addresses. You can enter the same DNS server for both types, but
if you do so, you must make sure that both internal and public IP addresses
can route to the DNS server. In our specific case we will not use any names
for resources internally, and we have indeed them set to look to the same
external resource so as to not add a namerserver setup to our list of
Pod Configuration
Now that we've added a Zone, the next step that comes up is a prompt for
information regading a pod. Which is looking for several items.
#. Name - We'll use ``Pod1`` for our cloud.
#. Gateway - We'll use ```` as our gateway
#. Netmask - We'll use ````
#. Start/end reserved system IPs - we will use ````
#. Guest gateway - We'll use ````
#. Guest netmask - We'll use ````
#. Guest start/end IP - We'll use ````
Now that we've added a Zone, we need only add a few more items for configuring
the cluster.
#. Name - We'll use ``Cluster1``
#. Hypervisor - Choose ``KVM``
You should be prompted to add the first host to your cluster at this point.
Only a few bits of information are needed.
#. Hostname - we'll use the IP address ```` since we didn't set up a
DNS server.
#. Username - we'll use ``root``
#. Password - enter the operating system password for the root user
Primary Storage
With your cluster now setup - you should be prompted for primary storage
information. Choose NFS as the storage type and then enter the following
values in the fields:
#. Name - We'll use ``Primary1``
#. Server - We'll be using the IP address ````
#. Path - Well define ``/export/primary`` as the path we are using
Secondary Storage
If this is a new zone, you'll be prompted for secondary storage information -
populate it as follows:
#. NFS server - We'll use the IP address ````
#. Path - We'll use ``/export/secondary``
Now, click Launch and your cloud should begin setup - it may take several
minutes depending on your internet connection speed for setup to finalize.
That's it, you are done with installation of your Apache CloudStack cloud.