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<div class="section" id="cqlsh-the-cql-shell">
<span id="cqlsh"></span><h1>cqlsh: the CQL shell<a class="headerlink" href="#cqlsh-the-cql-shell" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h1>
<p>cqlsh is a command line shell for interacting with Cassandra through CQL (the Cassandra Query Language). It is shipped
with every Cassandra package, and can be found in the bin/ directory alongside the cassandra executable. cqlsh utilizes
the Python native protocol driver, and connects to the single node specified on the command line.</p>
<div class="section" id="compatibility">
<h2>Compatibility<a class="headerlink" href="#compatibility" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h2>
<p>cqlsh is compatible with Python 2.7.</p>
<p>In general, a given version of cqlsh is only guaranteed to work with the version of Cassandra that it was released with.
In some cases, cqlsh make work with older or newer versions of Cassandra, but this is not officially supported.</p>
</div>
<div class="section" id="optional-dependencies">
<h2>Optional Dependencies<a class="headerlink" href="#optional-dependencies" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h2>
<p>cqlsh ships with all essential dependencies. However, there are some optional dependencies that can be installed to
improve the capabilities of cqlsh.</p>
<div class="section" id="pytz">
<h3>pytz<a class="headerlink" href="#pytz" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h3>
<p>By default, cqlsh displays all timestamps with a UTC timezone. To support display of timestamps with another timezone,
the <a class="reference external" href="http://pytz.sourceforge.net/">pytz</a> library must be installed. See the <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">timezone</span></code> option in <a class="reference internal" href="#cqlshrc">cqlshrc</a> for
specifying a timezone to use.</p>
</div>
<div class="section" id="cython">
<h3>cython<a class="headerlink" href="#cython" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h3>
<p>The performance of cqlsh’s <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">COPY</span></code> operations can be improved by installing <a class="reference external" href="http://cython.org/">cython</a>. This will
compile the python modules that are central to the performance of <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">COPY</span></code>.</p>
</div>
</div>
<div class="section" id="cqlshrc">
<h2>cqlshrc<a class="headerlink" href="#cqlshrc" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h2>
<p>The <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">cqlshrc</span></code> file holds configuration options for cqlsh. By default this is in the user’s home directory at
<code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">~/.cassandra/cqlsh</span></code>, but a custom location can be specified with the <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">--cqlshrc</span></code> option.</p>
<p>Example config values and documentation can be found in the <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">conf/cqlshrc.sample</span></code> file of a tarball installation. You
can also view the latest version of <a class="reference external" href="https://github.com/apache/cassandra/blob/trunk/conf/cqlshrc.sample">cqlshrc online</a>.</p>
</div>
<div class="section" id="command-line-options">
<h2>Command Line Options<a class="headerlink" href="#command-line-options" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h2>
<p>Usage:</p>
<p><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">cqlsh</span> <span class="pre">[options]</span> <span class="pre">[host</span> <span class="pre">[port]]</span></code></p>
<p>Options:</p>
<dl class="docutils">
<dt><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">-C</span></code> <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">--color</span></code></dt>
<dd>Force color output</dd>
<dt><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">--no-color</span></code></dt>
<dd>Disable color output</dd>
<dt><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">--browser</span></code></dt>
<dd>Specify the browser to use for displaying cqlsh help. This can be one of the <a class="reference external" href="https://docs.python.org/2/library/webbrowser.html">supported browser names</a> (e.g. <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">firefox</span></code>) or a browser path followed by <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">%s</span></code> (e.g.
<code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">/usr/bin/google-chrome-stable</span> <span class="pre">%s</span></code>).</dd>
<dt><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">--ssl</span></code></dt>
<dd>Use SSL when connecting to Cassandra</dd>
<dt><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">-u</span></code> <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">--user</span></code></dt>
<dd>Username to authenticate against Cassandra with</dd>
<dt><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">-p</span></code> <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">--password</span></code></dt>
<dd>Password to authenticate against Cassandra with, should
be used in conjunction with <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">--user</span></code></dd>
<dt><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">-k</span></code> <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">--keyspace</span></code></dt>
<dd>Keyspace to authenticate to, should be used in conjunction
with <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">--user</span></code></dd>
<dt><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">-f</span></code> <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">--file</span></code></dt>
<dd>Execute commands from the given file, then exit</dd>
<dt><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">--debug</span></code></dt>
<dd>Print additional debugging information</dd>
<dt><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">--encoding</span></code></dt>
<dd>Specify a non-default encoding for output (defaults to UTF-8)</dd>
<dt><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">--cqlshrc</span></code></dt>
<dd>Specify a non-default location for the <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">cqlshrc</span></code> file</dd>
<dt><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">-e</span></code> <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">--execute</span></code></dt>
<dd>Execute the given statement, then exit</dd>
<dt><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">--connect-timeout</span></code></dt>
<dd>Specify the connection timeout in seconds (defaults to 2s)</dd>
<dt><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">--request-timeout</span></code></dt>
<dd>Specify the request timeout in seconds (defaults to 10s)</dd>
<dt><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">-t</span></code> <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">--tty</span></code></dt>
<dd>Force tty mode (command prompt)</dd>
</dl>
</div>
<div class="section" id="special-commands">
<h2>Special Commands<a class="headerlink" href="#special-commands" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h2>
<p>In addition to supporting regular CQL statements, cqlsh also supports a number of special commands that are not part of
CQL. These are detailed below.</p>
<div class="section" id="consistency">
<h3><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">CONSISTENCY</span></code><a class="headerlink" href="#consistency" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h3>
<p><cite>Usage</cite>: <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">CONSISTENCY</span> <span class="pre">&lt;consistency</span> <span class="pre">level&gt;</span></code></p>
<p>Sets the consistency level for operations to follow. Valid arguments include:</p>
<ul class="simple">
<li><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">ANY</span></code></li>
<li><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">ONE</span></code></li>
<li><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">TWO</span></code></li>
<li><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">THREE</span></code></li>
<li><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">QUORUM</span></code></li>
<li><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">ALL</span></code></li>
<li><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">LOCAL_QUORUM</span></code></li>
<li><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">LOCAL_ONE</span></code></li>
<li><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">SERIAL</span></code></li>
<li><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">LOCAL_SERIAL</span></code></li>
</ul>
</div>
<div class="section" id="serial-consistency">
<h3><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">SERIAL</span> <span class="pre">CONSISTENCY</span></code><a class="headerlink" href="#serial-consistency" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h3>
<p><cite>Usage</cite>: <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">SERIAL</span> <span class="pre">CONSISTENCY</span> <span class="pre">&lt;consistency</span> <span class="pre">level&gt;</span></code></p>
<p>Sets the serial consistency level for operations to follow. Valid arguments include:</p>
<ul class="simple">
<li><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">SERIAL</span></code></li>
<li><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">LOCAL_SERIAL</span></code></li>
</ul>
<p>The serial consistency level is only used by conditional updates (<code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">INSERT</span></code>, <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">UPDATE</span></code> and <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">DELETE</span></code> with an <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">IF</span></code>
condition). For those, the serial consistency level defines the consistency level of the serial phase (or “paxos” phase)
while the normal consistency level defines the consistency for the “learn” phase, i.e. what type of reads will be
guaranteed to see the update right away. For example, if a conditional write has a consistency level of <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">QUORUM</span></code> (and
is successful), then a <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">QUORUM</span></code> read is guaranteed to see that write. But if the regular consistency level of that
write is <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">ANY</span></code>, then only a read with a consistency level of <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">SERIAL</span></code> is guaranteed to see it (even a read with
consistency <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">ALL</span></code> is not guaranteed to be enough).</p>
</div>
<div class="section" id="show-version">
<h3><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">SHOW</span> <span class="pre">VERSION</span></code><a class="headerlink" href="#show-version" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h3>
<p>Prints the cqlsh, Cassandra, CQL, and native protocol versions in use. Example:</p>
<div class="highlight-none notranslate"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span>cqlsh&gt; SHOW VERSION
[cqlsh 5.0.1 | Cassandra 3.8 | CQL spec 3.4.2 | Native protocol v4]
</pre></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="section" id="show-host">
<h3><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">SHOW</span> <span class="pre">HOST</span></code><a class="headerlink" href="#show-host" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h3>
<p>Prints the IP address and port of the Cassandra node that cqlsh is connected to in addition to the cluster name.
Example:</p>
<div class="highlight-none notranslate"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span>cqlsh&gt; SHOW HOST
Connected to Prod_Cluster at 192.0.0.1:9042.
</pre></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="section" id="show-session">
<h3><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">SHOW</span> <span class="pre">SESSION</span></code><a class="headerlink" href="#show-session" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h3>
<p>Pretty prints a specific tracing session.</p>
<p><cite>Usage</cite>: <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">SHOW</span> <span class="pre">SESSION</span> <span class="pre">&lt;session</span> <span class="pre">id&gt;</span></code></p>
<p>Example usage:</p>
<div class="highlight-none notranslate"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span>cqlsh&gt; SHOW SESSION 95ac6470-327e-11e6-beca-dfb660d92ad8
Tracing session: 95ac6470-327e-11e6-beca-dfb660d92ad8
activity | timestamp | source | source_elapsed | client
-----------------------------------------------------------+----------------------------+-----------+----------------+-----------
Execute CQL3 query | 2016-06-14 17:23:13.979000 | 127.0.0.1 | 0 | 127.0.0.1
Parsing SELECT * FROM system.local; [SharedPool-Worker-1] | 2016-06-14 17:23:13.982000 | 127.0.0.1 | 3843 | 127.0.0.1
...
</pre></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="section" id="source">
<h3><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">SOURCE</span></code><a class="headerlink" href="#source" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h3>
<p>Reads the contents of a file and executes each line as a CQL statement or special cqlsh command.</p>
<p><cite>Usage</cite>: <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">SOURCE</span> <span class="pre">&lt;string</span> <span class="pre">filename&gt;</span></code></p>
<p>Example usage:</p>
<div class="highlight-none notranslate"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span>cqlsh&gt; SOURCE &#39;/home/thobbs/commands.cql&#39;
</pre></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="section" id="capture">
<h3><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">CAPTURE</span></code><a class="headerlink" href="#capture" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h3>
<p>Begins capturing command output and appending it to a specified file. Output will not be shown at the console while it
is captured.</p>
<p><cite>Usage</cite>:</p>
<div class="highlight-none notranslate"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span>CAPTURE &#39;&lt;file&gt;&#39;;
CAPTURE OFF;
CAPTURE;
</pre></div>
</div>
<p>That is, the path to the file to be appended to must be given inside a string literal. The path is interpreted relative
to the current working directory. The tilde shorthand notation (<code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">'~/mydir'</span></code>) is supported for referring to <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">$HOME</span></code>.</p>
<p>Only query result output is captured. Errors and output from cqlsh-only commands will still be shown in the cqlsh
session.</p>
<p>To stop capturing output and show it in the cqlsh session again, use <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">CAPTURE</span> <span class="pre">OFF</span></code>.</p>
<p>To inspect the current capture configuration, use <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">CAPTURE</span></code> with no arguments.</p>
</div>
<div class="section" id="help">
<h3><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">HELP</span></code><a class="headerlink" href="#help" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h3>
<p>Gives information about cqlsh commands. To see available topics, enter <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">HELP</span></code> without any arguments. To see help on a
topic, use <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">HELP</span> <span class="pre">&lt;topic&gt;</span></code>. Also see the <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">--browser</span></code> argument for controlling what browser is used to display help.</p>
</div>
<div class="section" id="tracing">
<h3><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">TRACING</span></code><a class="headerlink" href="#tracing" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h3>
<p>Enables or disables tracing for queries. When tracing is enabled, once a query completes, a trace of the events during
the query will be printed.</p>
<p><cite>Usage</cite>:</p>
<div class="highlight-none notranslate"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span>TRACING ON
TRACING OFF
</pre></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="section" id="paging">
<h3><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">PAGING</span></code><a class="headerlink" href="#paging" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h3>
<p>Enables paging, disables paging, or sets the page size for read queries. When paging is enabled, only one page of data
will be fetched at a time and a prompt will appear to fetch the next page. Generally, it’s a good idea to leave paging
enabled in an interactive session to avoid fetching and printing large amounts of data at once.</p>
<p><cite>Usage</cite>:</p>
<div class="highlight-none notranslate"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span>PAGING ON
PAGING OFF
PAGING &lt;page size in rows&gt;
</pre></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="section" id="expand">
<h3><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">EXPAND</span></code><a class="headerlink" href="#expand" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h3>
<p>Enables or disables vertical printing of rows. Enabling <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">EXPAND</span></code> is useful when many columns are fetched, or the
contents of a single column are large.</p>
<p><cite>Usage</cite>:</p>
<div class="highlight-none notranslate"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span>EXPAND ON
EXPAND OFF
</pre></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="section" id="login">
<h3><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">LOGIN</span></code><a class="headerlink" href="#login" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h3>
<p>Authenticate as a specified Cassandra user for the current session.</p>
<p><cite>Usage</cite>:</p>
<div class="highlight-none notranslate"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span>LOGIN &lt;username&gt; [&lt;password&gt;]
</pre></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="section" id="exit">
<h3><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">EXIT</span></code><a class="headerlink" href="#exit" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h3>
<p>Ends the current session and terminates the cqlsh process.</p>
<p><cite>Usage</cite>:</p>
<div class="highlight-none notranslate"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span>EXIT
QUIT
</pre></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="section" id="clear">
<h3><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">CLEAR</span></code><a class="headerlink" href="#clear" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h3>
<p>Clears the console.</p>
<p><cite>Usage</cite>:</p>
<div class="highlight-none notranslate"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span>CLEAR
CLS
</pre></div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="section" id="describe">
<h3><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">DESCRIBE</span></code><a class="headerlink" href="#describe" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h3>
<p>Prints a description (typically a series of DDL statements) of a schema element or the cluster. This is useful for
dumping all or portions of the schema.</p>
<p><cite>Usage</cite>:</p>
<div class="highlight-none notranslate"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span>DESCRIBE CLUSTER
DESCRIBE SCHEMA
DESCRIBE KEYSPACES
DESCRIBE KEYSPACE &lt;keyspace name&gt;
DESCRIBE TABLES
DESCRIBE TABLE &lt;table name&gt;
DESCRIBE INDEX &lt;index name&gt;
DESCRIBE MATERIALIZED VIEW &lt;view name&gt;
DESCRIBE TYPES
DESCRIBE TYPE &lt;type name&gt;
DESCRIBE FUNCTIONS
DESCRIBE FUNCTION &lt;function name&gt;
DESCRIBE AGGREGATES
DESCRIBE AGGREGATE &lt;aggregate function name&gt;
</pre></div>
</div>
<p>In any of the commands, <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">DESC</span></code> may be used in place of <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">DESCRIBE</span></code>.</p>
<p>The <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">DESCRIBE</span> <span class="pre">CLUSTER</span></code> command prints the cluster name and partitioner:</p>
<div class="highlight-none notranslate"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span>cqlsh&gt; DESCRIBE CLUSTER
Cluster: Test Cluster
Partitioner: Murmur3Partitioner
</pre></div>
</div>
<p>The <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">DESCRIBE</span> <span class="pre">SCHEMA</span></code> command prints the DDL statements needed to recreate the entire schema. This is especially
useful for dumping the schema in order to clone a cluster or restore from a backup.</p>
</div>
<div class="section" id="copy-to">
<h3><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">COPY</span> <span class="pre">TO</span></code><a class="headerlink" href="#copy-to" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h3>
<p>Copies data from a table to a CSV file.</p>
<p><cite>Usage</cite>:</p>
<div class="highlight-none notranslate"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span>COPY &lt;table name&gt; [(&lt;column&gt;, ...)] TO &lt;file name&gt; WITH &lt;copy option&gt; [AND &lt;copy option&gt; ...]
</pre></div>
</div>
<p>If no columns are specified, all columns from the table will be copied to the CSV file. A subset of columns to copy may
be specified by adding a comma-separated list of column names surrounded by parenthesis after the table name.</p>
<p>The <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">&lt;file</span> <span class="pre">name&gt;</span></code> should be a string literal (with single quotes) representing a path to the destination file. This
can also the special value <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">STDOUT</span></code> (without single quotes) to print the CSV to stdout.</p>
<p>See <a class="reference internal" href="#shared-copy-options"><span class="std std-ref">Shared COPY Options</span></a> for options that apply to both <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">COPY</span> <span class="pre">TO</span></code> and <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">COPY</span> <span class="pre">FROM</span></code>.</p>
<div class="section" id="options-for-copy-to">
<h4>Options for <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">COPY</span> <span class="pre">TO</span></code><a class="headerlink" href="#options-for-copy-to" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h4>
<dl class="docutils">
<dt><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">MAXREQUESTS</span></code></dt>
<dd>The maximum number token ranges to fetch simultaneously. Defaults to 6.</dd>
<dt><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">PAGESIZE</span></code></dt>
<dd>The number of rows to fetch in a single page. Defaults to 1000.</dd>
<dt><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">PAGETIMEOUT</span></code></dt>
<dd>By default the page timeout is 10 seconds per 1000 entries
in the page size or 10 seconds if pagesize is smaller.</dd>
<dt><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">BEGINTOKEN</span></code>, <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">ENDTOKEN</span></code></dt>
<dd>Token range to export. Defaults to exporting the full ring.</dd>
<dt><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">MAXOUTPUTSIZE</span></code></dt>
<dd>The maximum size of the output file measured in number of lines;
beyond this maximum the output file will be split into segments.
-1 means unlimited, and is the default.</dd>
<dt><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">ENCODING</span></code></dt>
<dd>The encoding used for characters. Defaults to <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">utf8</span></code>.</dd>
</dl>
</div>
</div>
<div class="section" id="copy-from">
<h3><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">COPY</span> <span class="pre">FROM</span></code><a class="headerlink" href="#copy-from" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h3>
<p>Copies data from a CSV file to table.</p>
<p><cite>Usage</cite>:</p>
<div class="highlight-none notranslate"><div class="highlight"><pre><span></span>COPY &lt;table name&gt; [(&lt;column&gt;, ...)] FROM &lt;file name&gt; WITH &lt;copy option&gt; [AND &lt;copy option&gt; ...]
</pre></div>
</div>
<p>If no columns are specified, all columns from the CSV file will be copied to the table. A subset
of columns to copy may be specified by adding a comma-separated list of column names surrounded
by parenthesis after the table name.</p>
<p>The <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">&lt;file</span> <span class="pre">name&gt;</span></code> should be a string literal (with single quotes) representing a path to the
source file. This can also the special value <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">STDIN</span></code> (without single quotes) to read the
CSV data from stdin.</p>
<p>See <a class="reference internal" href="#shared-copy-options"><span class="std std-ref">Shared COPY Options</span></a> for options that apply to both <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">COPY</span> <span class="pre">TO</span></code> and <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">COPY</span> <span class="pre">FROM</span></code>.</p>
<div class="section" id="id1">
<h4>Options for <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">COPY</span> <span class="pre">TO</span></code><a class="headerlink" href="#id1" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h4>
<dl class="docutils">
<dt><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">INGESTRATE</span></code></dt>
<dd>The maximum number of rows to process per second. Defaults to 100000.</dd>
<dt><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">MAXROWS</span></code></dt>
<dd>The maximum number of rows to import. -1 means unlimited, and is the default.</dd>
<dt><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">SKIPROWS</span></code></dt>
<dd>A number of initial rows to skip. Defaults to 0.</dd>
<dt><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">SKIPCOLS</span></code></dt>
<dd>A comma-separated list of column names to ignore. By default, no columns are skipped.</dd>
<dt><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">MAXPARSEERRORS</span></code></dt>
<dd>The maximum global number of parsing errors to ignore. -1 means unlimited, and is the default.</dd>
<dt><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">MAXINSERTERRORS</span></code></dt>
<dd>The maximum global number of insert errors to ignore. -1 means unlimited. The default is 1000.</dd>
<dt><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">ERRFILE</span></code> =</dt>
<dd>A file to store all rows that could not be imported, by default this is <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">import_&lt;ks&gt;_&lt;table&gt;.err</span></code> where <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">&lt;ks&gt;</span></code> is
your keyspace and <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">&lt;table&gt;</span></code> is your table name.</dd>
<dt><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">MAXBATCHSIZE</span></code></dt>
<dd>The max number of rows inserted in a single batch. Defaults to 20.</dd>
<dt><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">MINBATCHSIZE</span></code></dt>
<dd>The min number of rows inserted in a single batch. Defaults to 2.</dd>
<dt><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">CHUNKSIZE</span></code></dt>
<dd>The number of rows that are passed to child worker processes from the main process at a time. Defaults to 1000.</dd>
</dl>
</div>
<div class="section" id="shared-copy-options">
<span id="id2"></span><h4>Shared COPY Options<a class="headerlink" href="#shared-copy-options" title="Permalink to this headline"></a></h4>
<p>Options that are common to both <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">COPY</span> <span class="pre">TO</span></code> and <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">COPY</span> <span class="pre">FROM</span></code>.</p>
<dl class="docutils">
<dt><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">NULLVAL</span></code></dt>
<dd>The string placeholder for null values. Defaults to <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">null</span></code>.</dd>
<dt><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">HEADER</span></code></dt>
<dd>For <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">COPY</span> <span class="pre">TO</span></code>, controls whether the first line in the CSV output file will contain the column names. For COPY FROM,
specifies whether the first line in the CSV input file contains column names. Defaults to <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">false</span></code>.</dd>
<dt><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">DECIMALSEP</span></code></dt>
<dd>The character that is used as the decimal point separator. Defaults to <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">.</span></code>.</dd>
<dt><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">THOUSANDSSEP</span></code></dt>
<dd>The character that is used to separate thousands. Defaults to the empty string.</dd>
<dt><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">BOOLSTYlE</span></code></dt>
<dd>The string literal format for boolean values. Defaults to <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">True,False</span></code>.</dd>
<dt><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">NUMPROCESSES</span></code></dt>
<dd>The number of child worker processes to create for <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">COPY</span></code> tasks. Defaults to a max of 4 for <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">COPY</span> <span class="pre">FROM</span></code> and 16
for <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">COPY</span> <span class="pre">TO</span></code>. However, at most (num_cores - 1) processes will be created.</dd>
<dt><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">MAXATTEMPTS</span></code></dt>
<dd>The maximum number of failed attempts to fetch a range of data (when using <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">COPY</span> <span class="pre">TO</span></code>) or insert a chunk of data
(when using <code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">COPY</span> <span class="pre">FROM</span></code>) before giving up. Defaults to 5.</dd>
<dt><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">REPORTFREQUENCY</span></code></dt>
<dd>How often status updates are refreshed, in seconds. Defaults to 0.25.</dd>
<dt><code class="docutils literal notranslate"><span class="pre">RATEFILE</span></code></dt>
<dd>An optional file to output rate statistics to. By default, statistics are not output to a file.</dd>
</dl>
</div>
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