Update site for release

Change-Id: I8aa5dce0b9a9c51df2fcafa91d2e4f47d9fa4cf3
Reviewed-on: https://asterix-gerrit.ics.uci.edu/3254
Reviewed-by: Ian Maxon <imaxon@uci.edu>
diff --git a/_config.yml b/_config.yml
index 0d595ce..f3a4900 100644
--- a/_config.yml
+++ b/_config.yml
@@ -1,9 +1,9 @@
 url: ""
 name: "Apache AsterixDB"
 
-STABLE_VERSION: 0.9.4
+STABLE_VERSION: 0.9.4.1
 UNSTABLE_VERSION: 0.9.5-SNAPSHOT
-STABLE_NCSERVICE_URL: "http://www.apache.org/dyn/closer.lua/asterixdb/asterixdb-0.9.4/apache-asterixdb-0.9.4.zip"
+STABLE_NCSERVICE_URL: "http://www.apache.org/dyn/closer.lua/asterixdb/asterixdb-0.9.4.1/apache-asterixdb-0.9.4.1.zip"
 UNSTABLE_NCSERVICE_URL: "https://asterix-jenkins.ics.uci.edu/job/asterix-integration-tests/lastSuccessfulBuild/org.apache.asterix$asterix-server/artifact/org.apache.asterix/asterix-server/0.9.5-SNAPSHOT/asterix-server-0.9.5-SNAPSHOT-binary-assembly.zip"
 DOCS_BASE_URL: "docs"
 UNSTABLE_DOCS_BASE_URL: "https://ci.apache.org/projects/asterixdb/"
diff --git a/content/about.html b/content/about.html
index cd338b3..1635d46 100644
--- a/content/about.html
+++ b/content/about.html
@@ -53,7 +53,7 @@
                 <a href="#" class="dropdown-toggle" data-toggle="dropdown" role="button" aria-expanded="false">Documentation<span class="caret"></span></a>
                 <ul class="dropdown-menu" role="menu">
                   <li class="dropdown-header">Stable release</li>
-                  <li><a href="docs/0.9.4/index.html">Documentation for 0.9.4<i class="fa fa-external-link fa-sm"></i></a></li>
+                  <li><a href="docs/0.9.4.1/index.html">Documentation for 0.9.4.1<i class="fa fa-external-link fa-sm"></i></a></li>
                   <li class="divider"></li>
                   <li class="dropdown-header">Snapshot release</li>
                   <li><a href="https://ci.apache.org/projects/asterixdb/index.html">Documentation for 0.9.5-SNAPSHOT  <i class="fa fa-external-link fa-sm"></i></a></li>
diff --git a/content/community.html b/content/community.html
index 113509a..826025a 100644
--- a/content/community.html
+++ b/content/community.html
@@ -53,7 +53,7 @@
                 <a href="#" class="dropdown-toggle" data-toggle="dropdown" role="button" aria-expanded="false">Documentation<span class="caret"></span></a>
                 <ul class="dropdown-menu" role="menu">
                   <li class="dropdown-header">Stable release</li>
-                  <li><a href="docs/0.9.4/index.html">Documentation for 0.9.4<i class="fa fa-external-link fa-sm"></i></a></li>
+                  <li><a href="docs/0.9.4.1/index.html">Documentation for 0.9.4.1<i class="fa fa-external-link fa-sm"></i></a></li>
                   <li class="divider"></li>
                   <li class="dropdown-header">Snapshot release</li>
                   <li><a href="https://ci.apache.org/projects/asterixdb/index.html">Documentation for 0.9.5-SNAPSHOT  <i class="fa fa-external-link fa-sm"></i></a></li>
diff --git a/content/dev-setup.html b/content/dev-setup.html
index 00a0cd9..3c10647 100644
--- a/content/dev-setup.html
+++ b/content/dev-setup.html
@@ -53,7 +53,7 @@
                 <a href="#" class="dropdown-toggle" data-toggle="dropdown" role="button" aria-expanded="false">Documentation<span class="caret"></span></a>
                 <ul class="dropdown-menu" role="menu">
                   <li class="dropdown-header">Stable release</li>
-                  <li><a href="docs/0.9.4/index.html">Documentation for 0.9.4<i class="fa fa-external-link fa-sm"></i></a></li>
+                  <li><a href="docs/0.9.4.1/index.html">Documentation for 0.9.4.1<i class="fa fa-external-link fa-sm"></i></a></li>
                   <li class="divider"></li>
                   <li class="dropdown-header">Snapshot release</li>
                   <li><a href="https://ci.apache.org/projects/asterixdb/index.html">Documentation for 0.9.5-SNAPSHOT  <i class="fa fa-external-link fa-sm"></i></a></li>
diff --git a/content/docs/0.9.4.1/ansible.html b/content/docs/0.9.4.1/ansible.html
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..2f7d9ad
--- /dev/null
+++ b/content/docs/0.9.4.1/ansible.html
@@ -0,0 +1,290 @@
+<!DOCTYPE html>
+<!--
+ | Generated by Apache Maven Doxia Site Renderer 1.8.1 from target/generated-site/markdown/ansible.md at 2019-03-07
+ | Rendered using Apache Maven Fluido Skin 1.7
+-->
+<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en" lang="en">
+  <head>
+    <meta charset="UTF-8" />
+    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0" />
+    <meta name="Date-Revision-yyyymmdd" content="20190307" />
+    <meta http-equiv="Content-Language" content="en" />
+    <title>AsterixDB &#x2013; </title>
+    <link rel="stylesheet" href="./css/apache-maven-fluido-1.7.min.css" />
+    <link rel="stylesheet" href="./css/site.css" />
+    <link rel="stylesheet" href="./css/print.css" media="print" />
+    <script type="text/javascript" src="./js/apache-maven-fluido-1.7.min.js"></script>
+
+  </head>
+  <body class="topBarDisabled">
+    <div class="container-fluid">
+      <div id="banner">
+        <div class="pull-left"><a href="./" id="bannerLeft"><img src="images/asterixlogo.png"  alt="AsterixDB"/></a></div>
+        <div class="pull-right"></div>
+        <div class="clear"><hr/></div>
+      </div>
+
+      <div id="breadcrumbs">
+        <ul class="breadcrumb">
+        <li id="publishDate">Last Published: 2019-03-07</li>
+      <li id="projectVersion" class="pull-right">Version: 0.9.4.1</li>
+      <li class="pull-right"><a href="index.html" title="Documentation Home">Documentation Home</a></li>
+        </ul>
+      </div>
+      <div class="row-fluid">
+        <div id="leftColumn" class="span2">
+          <div class="well sidebar-nav">
+    <ul class="nav nav-list">
+      <li class="nav-header">Get Started - Installation</li>
+    <li><a href="ncservice.html" title="Option 1: using NCService"><span class="none"></span>Option 1: using NCService</a></li>
+    <li class="active"><a href="#"><span class="none"></span>Option 2: using Ansible</a></li>
+    <li><a href="aws.html" title="Option 3: using Amazon Web Services"><span class="none"></span>Option 3: using Amazon Web Services</a></li>
+      <li class="nav-header">AsterixDB Primer</li>
+    <li><a href="sqlpp/primer-sqlpp.html" title="Option 1: using SQL++"><span class="none"></span>Option 1: using SQL++</a></li>
+    <li><a href="aql/primer.html" title="Option 2: using AQL"><span class="none"></span>Option 2: using AQL</a></li>
+      <li class="nav-header">Data Model</li>
+    <li><a href="datamodel.html" title="The Asterix Data Model"><span class="none"></span>The Asterix Data Model</a></li>
+      <li class="nav-header">Queries - SQL++</li>
+    <li><a href="sqlpp/manual.html" title="The SQL++ Query Language"><span class="none"></span>The SQL++ Query Language</a></li>
+    <li><a href="sqlpp/builtins.html" title="Builtin Functions"><span class="none"></span>Builtin Functions</a></li>
+      <li class="nav-header">Queries - AQL</li>
+    <li><a href="aql/manual.html" title="The Asterix Query Language (AQL)"><span class="none"></span>The Asterix Query Language (AQL)</a></li>
+    <li><a href="aql/builtins.html" title="Builtin Functions"><span class="none"></span>Builtin Functions</a></li>
+      <li class="nav-header">API/SDK</li>
+    <li><a href="api.html" title="HTTP API"><span class="none"></span>HTTP API</a></li>
+    <li><a href="csv.html" title="CSV Output"><span class="none"></span>CSV Output</a></li>
+      <li class="nav-header">Advanced Features</li>
+    <li><a href="aql/fulltext.html" title="Support of Full-text Queries"><span class="none"></span>Support of Full-text Queries</a></li>
+    <li><a href="aql/externaldata.html" title="Accessing External Data"><span class="none"></span>Accessing External Data</a></li>
+    <li><a href="feeds/tutorial.html" title="Support for Data Ingestion"><span class="none"></span>Support for Data Ingestion</a></li>
+    <li><a href="udf.html" title="User Defined Functions"><span class="none"></span>User Defined Functions</a></li>
+    <li><a href="aql/filters.html" title="Filter-Based LSM Index Acceleration"><span class="none"></span>Filter-Based LSM Index Acceleration</a></li>
+    <li><a href="aql/similarity.html" title="Support of Similarity Queries"><span class="none"></span>Support of Similarity Queries</a></li>
+</ul>
+          <hr />
+          <div id="poweredBy">
+            <div class="clear"></div>
+            <div class="clear"></div>
+            <div class="clear"></div>
+            <div class="clear"></div>
+<a href="./" title="AsterixDB" class="builtBy"><img class="builtBy"  alt="AsterixDB" src="images/asterixlogo.png"    /></a>
+            </div>
+          </div>
+        </div>
+        <div id="bodyColumn"  class="span10" >
+<!--
+ ! Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ ! or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ ! distributed with this work for additional information
+ ! regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ ! to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ ! "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ ! with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ !
+ !   http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ !
+ ! Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
+ ! software distributed under the License is distributed on an
+ ! "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
+ ! KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
+ ! specific language governing permissions and limitations
+ ! under the License.
+ !-->
+<ul>
+
+<li><a href="#Introduction">Introduction</a></li>
+<li><a href="#Prerequisites">Prerequisites</a></li>
+<li><a href="#config">Cluster Configuration</a></li>
+<li><a href="#lifecycle">Cluster Lifecycle Management</a></li>
+</ul><!--
+ ! Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ ! or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ ! distributed with this work for additional information
+ ! regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ ! to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ ! "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ ! with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ !
+ !   http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ !
+ ! Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
+ ! software distributed under the License is distributed on an
+ ! "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
+ ! KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
+ ! specific language governing permissions and limitations
+ ! under the License.
+ !-->
+
+<div class="section">
+<h2><a name="Introduction" id="Introduction">Introduction</a></h2>
+<p>This installation option provides several wrapped <a class="externalLink" href="https://www.ansible.com/">Ansible</a>-based scripts to deploy, start, stop, and erase an AsterixDB instance on a multi-node cluster without requiring users to interact with each individual node in the cluster.</p></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h2><a name="Prerequisites" id="Prerequisites">Prerequisites</a></h2>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Supported operating systems: <b>Linux</b> and <b>MacOS</b></p>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Install pip on your client machine:</p>
+<p>CentOS</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source"> $ sudo yum install python-pip
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p>Ubuntu</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source"> $ sudo apt-get install python-pip
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p>macOS</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source"> $ brew install pip
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Install Ansible, boto, and boto3 on your client machine:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source"> $ pip install ansible
+ $ pip install boto
+ $ pip install boto3
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p>Note that you might need <tt>sudo</tt> depending on your system configuration.</p>
+<p><b>Make sure that the version of Ansible is no less than 2.2.1.0</b>:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source"> $ ansible --version
+ ansible 2.2.1.0
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Download the AsterixDB distribution package, unzip it, and navigate to <tt>opt/ansible/</tt></p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source"> $ cd opt/ansible
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p>The following files and directories are in the directory <tt>opt/ansible</tt>:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source"> README  bin  conf  yaml
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p><tt>bin</tt> contains scripts that deploy, start, stop and erase a multi-node AsterixDB cluster, according to the configuration specified in files under <tt>conf</tt>, and <tt>yaml</tt> contains internal Ansible scripts that the shell scripts in <tt>bin</tt> use.</p>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h2><a name="Cluster_Configuration"></a><a name="config" id="config">Cluster Configuration</a></h2>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p><b>Nodes and account</b>. Edit the inventory file <tt>conf/inventory</tt> when necessary. You mostly only need to specify the node DNS names (or IPs) for the cluster controller, i.e., the master node, in the <b>[cc]</b> section, and node controllers, i.e., slave nodes, in the <b>[ncs]</b> section. The following example configures a cluster with two slave nodes (172.0.1.11 and 172.0.1.12) and one master node (172.0.1.10).</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source"> [cc]
+ 172.0.1.10
+
+ [ncs]
+ 172.0.1.11
+ 172.0.1.12
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p><b>Configure passwordless ssh from your current client that runs the scripts to all nodes listed in <tt>conf/inventory</tt> as well as <tt>localhost</tt>.</b> If the ssh user account for target machines is different from your current username, please uncomment and edit the following two lines:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source"> ;[all:vars]
+ ;ansible_ssh_user=&lt;fill with your ssh account username&gt;
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p>If you want to specify advanced Ansible builtin variables, please refer to the <a class="externalLink" href="http://docs.ansible.com/ansible/intro_inventory.html">Ansible documentation</a>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p><b>Remote working directories</b>. Edit <tt>conf/instance_settings.yml</tt> to change the remote binary directory (the variable &#x201c;binarydir&#x201d;) when necessary. By default, the binary directory will be under the home directory (as the value of Ansible builtin variable ansible_env.HOME) of the ssh user account on each node.</p>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h2><a name="Cluster_Lifecycle_Management"></a><a name="lifecycle" id="lifecycle">Cluster Lifecycle Management</a></h2>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Deploy the binary to all nodes:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source"> $ bin/deploy.sh
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Every time before starting the AsterixDB cluster, you can edit the instance configuration file <tt>conf/instance/cc.conf</tt>, except that IP addresses/DNS names are generated and cannot be changed. All available parameters and their usage can be found <a href="ncservice.html#Parameters">here</a>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Launch your AsterixDB cluster:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source"> $ bin/start.sh
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p>Now you can use the multi-node AsterixDB cluster by opening the master node listed in <tt>conf/inventory</tt> at port <tt>19001</tt> (which can be customized in <tt>conf/instance/cc.conf</tt>) in your browser.</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>If you want to stop the the multi-node AsterixDB cluster, run the following script:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source"> $ bin/stop.sh
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>If you want to remove the binary on all nodes, run the following script:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source"> $ bin/erase.sh
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+        </div>
+      </div>
+    </div>
+    <hr/>
+    <footer>
+      <div class="container-fluid">
+        <div class="row-fluid">
+<div class="row-fluid">Apache AsterixDB, AsterixDB, Apache, the Apache
+        feather logo, and the Apache AsterixDB project logo are either
+        registered trademarks or trademarks of The Apache Software
+        Foundation in the United States and other countries.
+        All other marks mentioned may be trademarks or registered
+        trademarks of their respective owners.
+      </div>
+        </div>
+      </div>
+    </footer>
+  </body>
+</html>
diff --git a/content/docs/0.9.4.1/api.html b/content/docs/0.9.4.1/api.html
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..4f30b5c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/content/docs/0.9.4.1/api.html
@@ -0,0 +1,314 @@
+<!DOCTYPE html>
+<!--
+ | Generated by Apache Maven Doxia Site Renderer 1.8.1 from src/site/markdown/api.md at 2019-03-07
+ | Rendered using Apache Maven Fluido Skin 1.7
+-->
+<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en" lang="en">
+  <head>
+    <meta charset="UTF-8" />
+    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0" />
+    <meta name="Date-Revision-yyyymmdd" content="20190307" />
+    <meta http-equiv="Content-Language" content="en" />
+    <title>AsterixDB &#x2013; HTTP API to AsterixDB</title>
+    <link rel="stylesheet" href="./css/apache-maven-fluido-1.7.min.css" />
+    <link rel="stylesheet" href="./css/site.css" />
+    <link rel="stylesheet" href="./css/print.css" media="print" />
+    <script type="text/javascript" src="./js/apache-maven-fluido-1.7.min.js"></script>
+
+  </head>
+  <body class="topBarDisabled">
+    <div class="container-fluid">
+      <div id="banner">
+        <div class="pull-left"><a href="./" id="bannerLeft"><img src="images/asterixlogo.png"  alt="AsterixDB"/></a></div>
+        <div class="pull-right"></div>
+        <div class="clear"><hr/></div>
+      </div>
+
+      <div id="breadcrumbs">
+        <ul class="breadcrumb">
+        <li id="publishDate">Last Published: 2019-03-07</li>
+      <li id="projectVersion" class="pull-right">Version: 0.9.4.1</li>
+      <li class="pull-right"><a href="index.html" title="Documentation Home">Documentation Home</a></li>
+        </ul>
+      </div>
+      <div class="row-fluid">
+        <div id="leftColumn" class="span2">
+          <div class="well sidebar-nav">
+    <ul class="nav nav-list">
+      <li class="nav-header">Get Started - Installation</li>
+    <li><a href="ncservice.html" title="Option 1: using NCService"><span class="none"></span>Option 1: using NCService</a></li>
+    <li><a href="ansible.html" title="Option 2: using Ansible"><span class="none"></span>Option 2: using Ansible</a></li>
+    <li><a href="aws.html" title="Option 3: using Amazon Web Services"><span class="none"></span>Option 3: using Amazon Web Services</a></li>
+      <li class="nav-header">AsterixDB Primer</li>
+    <li><a href="sqlpp/primer-sqlpp.html" title="Option 1: using SQL++"><span class="none"></span>Option 1: using SQL++</a></li>
+    <li><a href="aql/primer.html" title="Option 2: using AQL"><span class="none"></span>Option 2: using AQL</a></li>
+      <li class="nav-header">Data Model</li>
+    <li><a href="datamodel.html" title="The Asterix Data Model"><span class="none"></span>The Asterix Data Model</a></li>
+      <li class="nav-header">Queries - SQL++</li>
+    <li><a href="sqlpp/manual.html" title="The SQL++ Query Language"><span class="none"></span>The SQL++ Query Language</a></li>
+    <li><a href="sqlpp/builtins.html" title="Builtin Functions"><span class="none"></span>Builtin Functions</a></li>
+      <li class="nav-header">Queries - AQL</li>
+    <li><a href="aql/manual.html" title="The Asterix Query Language (AQL)"><span class="none"></span>The Asterix Query Language (AQL)</a></li>
+    <li><a href="aql/builtins.html" title="Builtin Functions"><span class="none"></span>Builtin Functions</a></li>
+      <li class="nav-header">API/SDK</li>
+    <li class="active"><a href="#"><span class="none"></span>HTTP API</a></li>
+    <li><a href="csv.html" title="CSV Output"><span class="none"></span>CSV Output</a></li>
+      <li class="nav-header">Advanced Features</li>
+    <li><a href="aql/fulltext.html" title="Support of Full-text Queries"><span class="none"></span>Support of Full-text Queries</a></li>
+    <li><a href="aql/externaldata.html" title="Accessing External Data"><span class="none"></span>Accessing External Data</a></li>
+    <li><a href="feeds/tutorial.html" title="Support for Data Ingestion"><span class="none"></span>Support for Data Ingestion</a></li>
+    <li><a href="udf.html" title="User Defined Functions"><span class="none"></span>User Defined Functions</a></li>
+    <li><a href="aql/filters.html" title="Filter-Based LSM Index Acceleration"><span class="none"></span>Filter-Based LSM Index Acceleration</a></li>
+    <li><a href="aql/similarity.html" title="Support of Similarity Queries"><span class="none"></span>Support of Similarity Queries</a></li>
+</ul>
+          <hr />
+          <div id="poweredBy">
+            <div class="clear"></div>
+            <div class="clear"></div>
+            <div class="clear"></div>
+            <div class="clear"></div>
+<a href="./" title="AsterixDB" class="builtBy"><img class="builtBy"  alt="AsterixDB" src="images/asterixlogo.png"    /></a>
+            </div>
+          </div>
+        </div>
+        <div id="bodyColumn"  class="span10" >
+<!--
+ ! Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ ! or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ ! distributed with this work for additional information
+ ! regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ ! to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ ! "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ ! with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ !
+ !   http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ !
+ ! Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
+ ! software distributed under the License is distributed on an
+ ! "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
+ ! KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
+ ! specific language governing permissions and limitations
+ ! under the License.
+ !-->
+<h1>HTTP API to AsterixDB</h1>
+<div class="section">
+<h2><a name="Table_of_Contents"></a><a name="toc" id="toc">Table of Contents</a></h2>
+<ul>
+
+<li><a href="#queryservice">Query Service API</a></li>
+<li><a href="#querystatus">Query Status API</a></li>
+<li><a href="#queryresult">Query Result API</a></li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h2><a name="POST_.2Fquery.2Fservice_.5BBack_to_TOC.5D"></a><a name="queryservice" id="queryservice">POST /query/service</a><font size="4"> <a href="#toc">[Back to TOC]</a></font></h2>
+<p><b>Description</b> Returns result for query as JSON. The response is a JSON object that contains some result metadata along with either an embedded result or an opaque handle that can be used to navigate to the result (see the decription of the <tt>mode</tt> parameter for more details).</p>
+<p><b>Parameters</b></p>
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>statement</tt> - Specifies at least one valid SQL++ statement to run. The statements need to be urlencoded. Required.</li>
+<li><tt>pretty</tt> - If the parameter <tt>pretty</tt> is given with the value <tt>true</tt>, the result will be indented. (Optional)</li>
+<li><tt>client_context_id</tt> - A user-defined sequence of characters that the API receives and returns unchanged. This can be used e.g. to match individual requests, jobs, and responses. Another option could be to use it for groups of requests if an application decides to put e.g. an group identifier into that field to route groups of responses to a particular response processor.</li>
+<li><tt>mode</tt> - Result delivery mode. Possible values are <tt>immediate</tt>, <tt>deferred</tt>, <tt>async</tt> (default: <tt>immediate</tt>). If the delivery mode is <tt>immediate</tt> the query result is returned with the response. If the delivery mode is <tt>deferred</tt> the response contains a handle to the <a href="#queryresult">result</a>. If the delivery mode is <tt>async</tt> the response contains a handle to the query&#x2019;s <a href="#querystatus">status</a>.</li>
+<li><tt>args</tt> - (SQL++ only) A JSON array where each item is a value of a <a href="sqlpp/manual.html#Parameter_references">positional query parameter</a></li>
+<li><tt>$parameter_name</tt> - (SQL++ only) a JSON value of a <a href="sqlpp/manual.html#Parameter_references">named query parameter</a>.</li>
+</ul>
+<p><b>Command (immediate result delivery)</b></p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">$ curl -v --data-urlencode &quot;statement=select 1;&quot; \
+          --data pretty=true                     \
+          --data client_context_id=xyz           \
+          http://localhost:19002/query/service
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p><b>Sample response</b></p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">&gt; POST /query/service HTTP/1.1
+&gt; Host: localhost:19002
+&gt; User-Agent: curl/7.43.0
+&gt; Accept: */*
+&gt; Content-Length: 57
+&gt; Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
+&gt;
+&lt; HTTP/1.1 200 OK
+&lt; transfer-encoding: chunked
+&lt; connection: keep-alive
+&lt; content-type: application/json; charset=utf-8
+&lt;
+{
+    &quot;requestID&quot;: &quot;5f72e78c-482a-45bf-b174-6443c8273025&quot;,
+    &quot;clientContextID&quot;: &quot;xyz&quot;,
+    &quot;signature&quot;: &quot;*&quot;,
+    &quot;results&quot;: [ {
+        &quot;$1&quot; : 1
+    } ]
+    ,
+    &quot;status&quot;: &quot;success&quot;,
+    &quot;metrics&quot;: {
+        &quot;elapsedTime&quot;: &quot;20.263371ms&quot;,
+        &quot;executionTime&quot;: &quot;19.889389ms&quot;,
+        &quot;resultCount&quot;: 1,
+        &quot;resultSize&quot;: 15
+    }
+}
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p><b>Command (<a name="deferred" id="deferred">deferred result delivery</a>)</b></p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">$ curl -v --data-urlencode &quot;statement=select 1;&quot; \
+          --data mode=deferred                   \
+          http://localhost:19002/query/service
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p><b>Sample response</b></p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">&gt; POST /query/service HTTP/1.1
+&gt; Host: localhost:19002
+&gt; User-Agent: curl/7.43.0
+&gt; Accept: */*
+&gt; Content-Length: 37
+&gt; Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
+&gt;
+&lt; HTTP/1.1 200 OK
+&lt; transfer-encoding: chunked
+&lt; connection: keep-alive
+&lt; content-type: application/json; charset=utf-8
+&lt;
+{
+    &quot;requestID&quot;: &quot;6df7afb4-5f83-49b6-8c4b-f11ec84c4d7e&quot;,
+    &quot;signature&quot;: &quot;*&quot;,
+    &quot;handle&quot;: &quot;http://localhost:19002/query/service/result/7-0&quot;,
+    &quot;status&quot;: &quot;success&quot;,
+    &quot;metrics&quot;: {
+        &quot;elapsedTime&quot;: &quot;12.270570ms&quot;,
+        &quot;executionTime&quot;: &quot;11.948343ms&quot;,
+        &quot;resultCount&quot;: 0,
+        &quot;resultSize&quot;: 0
+    }
+}
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p><b>Command (<a name="async" id="async>">async result delivery</a>)</b></p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">$ curl -v --data-urlencode &quot;statement=select 1;&quot; \
+          --data mode=async                      \
+          http://localhost:19002/query/service
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p><b>Sample response</b></p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">&gt; POST /query/service HTTP/1.1
+&gt; Host: localhost:19002
+&gt; User-Agent: curl/7.43.0
+&gt; Accept: */*
+&gt; Content-Length: 34
+&gt; Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded
+&gt;
+&lt; HTTP/1.1 200 OK
+&lt; transfer-encoding: chunked
+&lt; connection: keep-alive
+&lt; content-type: application/json; charset=utf-8
+&lt;
+{
+    &quot;requestID&quot;: &quot;c5858420-d821-4c0c-81a4-2364386827c2&quot;,
+    &quot;signature&quot;: &quot;*&quot;,
+    &quot;status&quot;: &quot;running&quot;,
+    &quot;handle&quot;: &quot;http://localhost:19002/query/service/status/9-0&quot;,
+    &quot;metrics&quot;: {
+        &quot;elapsedTime&quot;: &quot;9.727006ms&quot;,
+        &quot;executionTime&quot;: &quot;9.402282ms&quot;,
+        &quot;resultCount&quot;: 0,
+        &quot;resultSize&quot;: 0
+    }
+}
+</pre></div></div>
+</div>
+<div class="section">
+<h2><a name="GET_.2Fquery.2Fservice.2Fstatus_.5BBack_to_TOC.5D"></a><a name="querystatus" id="querystatus">GET /query/service/status</a><font size="4"> <a href="#toc">[Back to TOC]</a></font></h2>
+<p><b>Description</b> Returns status of an <tt>async</tt> query request. The response is a JSON object that has a similar structure to the responses for the <a href="#queryservice">/query/service</a> endpoint. Possible status values for the status are <tt>running</tt>, <tt>success</tt>, <tt>timeout</tt>, <tt>failed</tt>, and <tt>fatal</tt>. If the status value is <tt>success</tt>, the response also contains a handle to the <a href="#queryresult">result</a>. URLs for this endpoint are usually not constructed by the application, they are simply extracted from the <tt>handle</tt> field of the response to a request to the <a href="#queryservice">/query/service</a> endpoint.</p>
+<p><b>Command</b></p>
+<p>This example shows a request/reponse for the (opaque) status handle that was returned by the <a href="#async">async result delivery</a> example.</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">$ curl -v http://localhost:19002/query/service/status/9-0
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p><b>Sample response</b></p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">&gt; GET /query/service/status/9-0 HTTP/1.1
+&gt; Host: localhost:19002
+&gt; User-Agent: curl/7.43.0
+&gt; Accept: */*
+&gt;
+&lt; HTTP/1.1 200 OK
+&lt; transfer-encoding: chunked
+&lt; connection: keep-alive
+&lt; content-type: application/json; charset=utf-8
+&lt;
+{
+    &quot;status&quot;: &quot;success&quot;,
+    &quot;handle&quot;: &quot;http://localhost:19002/query/service/result/9-0&quot;
+}
+</pre></div></div>
+</div>
+<div class="section">
+<h2><a name="GET_.2Fquery.2Fservice.2Fresult_.5BBack_to_TOC.5D"></a><a name="queryresult" id="queryresult">GET /query/service/result</a><font size="4"> <a href="#toc">[Back to TOC]</a></font></h2>
+<p><b>Description</b> Returns result set for an <tt>async</tt> or <tt>deferred</tt> query request. The response is a plain result without a wrapping JSON object. URLs for this endpoint are usually not constructed by the application, they are simply extracted from the <tt>handle</tt> field of the response to a request to the <a href="#queryservice">/query/service</a> or the <a href="#querystatus">/query/service/status</a> endpoint.</p>
+<p><b>Command</b></p>
+<p>This example shows a request/reponse for the (opaque) result handle that was returned by the <a href="#deferred">deferred result delivery</a> example.</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">$ curl -v http://localhost:19002/query/service/result/7-0
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p><b>Sample response</b></p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">&gt; GET /query/service/result/7-0 HTTP/1.1
+&gt; Host: localhost:19002
+&gt; User-Agent: curl/7.43.0
+&gt; Accept: */*
+&gt;
+&lt; HTTP/1.1 200 OK
+&lt; transfer-encoding: chunked
+&lt; connection: keep-alive
+&lt; content-type: application/json
+&lt;
+[ { &quot;$1&quot;: 1 }
+ ]
+</pre></div></div></div>
+        </div>
+      </div>
+    </div>
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+<!DOCTYPE html>
+<!--
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+        <li id="publishDate">Last Published: 2019-03-07</li>
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+    <ul class="nav nav-list">
+      <li class="nav-header">Get Started - Installation</li>
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+    <li><a href="../ansible.html" title="Option 2: using Ansible"><span class="none"></span>Option 2: using Ansible</a></li>
+    <li><a href="../aws.html" title="Option 3: using Amazon Web Services"><span class="none"></span>Option 3: using Amazon Web Services</a></li>
+      <li class="nav-header">AsterixDB Primer</li>
+    <li><a href="../sqlpp/primer-sqlpp.html" title="Option 1: using SQL++"><span class="none"></span>Option 1: using SQL++</a></li>
+    <li><a href="../aql/primer.html" title="Option 2: using AQL"><span class="none"></span>Option 2: using AQL</a></li>
+      <li class="nav-header">Data Model</li>
+    <li><a href="../datamodel.html" title="The Asterix Data Model"><span class="none"></span>The Asterix Data Model</a></li>
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+      <li class="nav-header">Advanced Features</li>
+    <li><a href="../aql/fulltext.html" title="Support of Full-text Queries"><span class="none"></span>Support of Full-text Queries</a></li>
+    <li><a href="../aql/externaldata.html" title="Accessing External Data"><span class="none"></span>Accessing External Data</a></li>
+    <li><a href="../feeds/tutorial.html" title="Support for Data Ingestion"><span class="none"></span>Support for Data Ingestion</a></li>
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+ ! "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ ! with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
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+ !
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+ ! software distributed under the License is distributed on an
+ ! "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
+ ! KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
+ ! specific language governing permissions and limitations
+ ! under the License.
+ !-->
+<h1>Builtin Functions</h1>
+<div class="section">
+<h2><a name="Table_of_Contents"></a><a name="toc" id="toc">Table of Contents</a></h2>
+<ul>
+
+<li><a href="#NumericFunctions">Numeric Functions</a></li>
+<li><a href="#StringFunctions">String Functions</a></li>
+<li><a href="#BinaryFunctions">Binary Functions</a></li>
+<li><a href="#SpatialFunctions">Spatial Functions</a></li>
+<li><a href="#SimilarityFunctions">Similarity Functions</a></li>
+<li><a href="#TokenizingFunctions">Tokenizing Functions</a></li>
+<li><a href="#TemporalFunctions">Temporal Functions</a></li>
+<li><a href="#ObjectFunctions">Object Functions</a></li>
+<li><a href="#AggregateFunctions">Aggregate Functions (Array Functions)</a></li>
+<li><a href="#ComparisonFunctions">Comparison Functions</a></li>
+<li><a href="#TypeFunctions">Type Functions</a></li>
+<li><a href="#ConditionalFunctions">Conditional Functions</a></li>
+<li><a href="#MiscFunctions">Miscellaneous Functions</a></li>
+</ul>
+<p>The system provides various classes of functions to support operations on numeric, string, spatial, and temporal data. This document explains how to use these functions.</p><!--
+ ! Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ ! or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ ! distributed with this work for additional information
+ ! regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ ! to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ ! "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
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+ !
+ !   http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ !
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+ ! software distributed under the License is distributed on an
+ ! "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
+ ! KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
+ ! specific language governing permissions and limitations
+ ! under the License.
+ !-->
+</div>
+<div class="section">
+<h2><a name="Numeric_Functions"></a><a name="NumericFunctions" id="NumericFunctions">Numeric Functions</a></h2>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="abs"></a>abs</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">abs(numeric_value)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Computes the absolute value of the argument.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>numeric_value</tt>: a <tt>tinyint</tt>/<tt>smallint</tt>/<tt>integer</tt>/<tt>bigint</tt>/<tt>float</tt>/<tt>double</tt> value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>The absolute value of the argument with the same type as the input argument,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-numeric input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: abs(2013), &quot;v2&quot;: abs(-4036), &quot;v3&quot;: abs(0), &quot;v4&quot;: abs(float(&quot;-2013.5&quot;)), &quot;v5&quot;: abs(double(&quot;-2013.593823748327284&quot;)) };
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: 2013, &quot;v2&quot;: 4036, &quot;v3&quot;: 0, &quot;v4&quot;: 2013.5, &quot;v5&quot;: 2013.5938237483274 }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="acos"></a>acos</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">acos(numeric_value)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Computes the arc cosine value of the argument.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>numeric_value</tt>: a <tt>tinyint</tt>/<tt>smallint</tt>/<tt>integer</tt>/<tt>bigint</tt>/<tt>float</tt>/<tt>double</tt> value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>the <tt>double</tt> arc cosine in radians for the argument, if the argument is in the range of -1 (inclusive) to 1 (inclusive),</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-numeric input value will cause a type error,</li>
+<li>&#x201c;NaN&#x201d; for other legitimate numeric values.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: acos(1), &quot;v2&quot;: acos(2), &quot;v3&quot;: acos(0), &quot;v4&quot;: acos(float(&quot;0.5&quot;)), &quot;v5&quot;: acos(double(&quot;-0.5&quot;)) };
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: 0.0, &quot;v2&quot;: &quot;NaN&quot;, &quot;v3&quot;: 1.5707963267948966, &quot;v4&quot;: 1.0471975511965979, &quot;v5&quot;: 2.0943951023931957 }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="asin"></a>asin</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">asin(numeric_value)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Computes the arc sine value of the argument.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>numeric_value</tt>: a <tt>tinyint</tt>/<tt>smallint</tt>/<tt>integer</tt>/<tt>bigint</tt>/<tt>float</tt>/<tt>double</tt> value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>the <tt>double</tt> arc sin in radians for the argument, if the argument is in the range of -1 (inclusive) to 1 (inclusive),</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-numeric input value will cause a type error,</li>
+<li>&#x201c;NaN&#x201d; for other legitimate numeric values.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: asin(1), &quot;v2&quot;: asin(2), &quot;v3&quot;: asin(0), &quot;v4&quot;: asin(float(&quot;0.5&quot;)), &quot;v5&quot;: asin(double(&quot;-0.5&quot;)) };
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: 1.5707963267948966, &quot;v2&quot;: &quot;NaN&quot;, &quot;v3&quot;: 0.0, &quot;v4&quot;: 0.5235987755982989, &quot;v5&quot;: -0.5235987755982989 }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="atan"></a>atan</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">atan(numeric_value)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Computes the arc tangent value of the argument.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>numeric_value</tt>: a <tt>tinyint</tt>/<tt>smallint</tt>/<tt>integer</tt>/<tt>bigint</tt>/<tt>float</tt>/<tt>double</tt> value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>the <tt>double</tt> arc tangent in radians for the argument,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-numeric input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: atan(1), &quot;v2&quot;: atan(2), &quot;v3&quot;: atan(0), &quot;v4&quot;: atan(float(&quot;0.5&quot;)), &quot;v5&quot;: atan(double(&quot;1000&quot;)) };
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: 0.7853981633974483, &quot;v2&quot;: 1.1071487177940904, &quot;v3&quot;: 0.0, &quot;v4&quot;: 0.4636476090008061, &quot;v5&quot;: 1.5697963271282298 }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="atan2"></a>atan2</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">atan2(numeric_value1, numeric_value2)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Computes the arc tangent value of numeric_value2/numeric_value1.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>numeric_value1</tt>: a <tt>tinyint</tt>/<tt>smallint</tt>/<tt>integer</tt>/<tt>bigint</tt>/<tt>float</tt>/<tt>double</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>numeric_value2</tt>: a <tt>tinyint</tt>/<tt>smallint</tt>/<tt>integer</tt>/<tt>bigint</tt>/<tt>float</tt>/<tt>double</tt> value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>the <tt>double</tt> arc tangent in radians for <tt>numeric_value1</tt> and <tt>numeric_value2</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-numeric input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: atan2(1, 2), &quot;v2&quot;: atan2(0, 4), &quot;v3&quot;: atan2(float(&quot;0.5&quot;), double(&quot;-0.5&quot;)) };
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: 0.4636476090008061, &quot;v2&quot;: 0.0, &quot;v3&quot;: 2.356194490192345 }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="ceil"></a>ceil</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">ceil(numeric_value)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Computes the smallest (closest to negative infinity) number with no fractional part that is not less than the value of the argument. If the argument is already equal to mathematical integer, then the result is the same as the argument.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>numeric_value</tt>: a <tt>tinyint</tt>/<tt>smallint</tt>/<tt>integer</tt>/<tt>bigint</tt>/<tt>float</tt>/<tt>double</tt> value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>The ceiling value for the given number in the same type as the input argument,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-numeric input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;v1&quot;: ceil(2013),
+  &quot;v2&quot;: ceil(-4036),
+  &quot;v3&quot;: ceil(0.3),
+  &quot;v4&quot;: ceil(float(&quot;-2013.2&quot;)),
+  &quot;v5&quot;: ceil(double(&quot;-2013.893823748327284&quot;))
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: 2013, &quot;v2&quot;: -4036, &quot;v3&quot;: 1.0, &quot;v4&quot;: -2013.0, &quot;v5&quot;: -2013.0 }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="cos"></a>cos</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">cos(numeric_value)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Computes the cosine value of the argument.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>numeric_value</tt>: a <tt>tinyint</tt>/<tt>smallint</tt>/<tt>integer</tt>/<tt>bigint</tt>/<tt>float</tt>/<tt>double</tt> value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>the <tt>double</tt> cosine value for the argument,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-numeric input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: cos(1), &quot;v2&quot;: cos(2), &quot;v3&quot;: cos(0), &quot;v4&quot;: cos(float(&quot;0.5&quot;)), &quot;v5&quot;: cos(double(&quot;1000&quot;)) };
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: 0.5403023058681398, &quot;v2&quot;: -0.4161468365471424, &quot;v3&quot;: 1.0, &quot;v4&quot;: 0.8775825618903728, &quot;v5&quot;: 0.562379076290703 }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="degrees"></a>degrees</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">degrees(numeric_value)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Converts radians to degrees</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>numeric_value</tt>: a <tt>tinyint</tt>/<tt>smallint</tt>/<tt>integer</tt>/<tt>bigint</tt>/<tt>float</tt>/<tt>double</tt> value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>The degrees value for the given radians value. The returned value has type <tt>double</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-numeric input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: degrees(pi()) };
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: 180.0 }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="e"></a>e</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">e()
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Return Value:</p>
+<ul>
+
+<li>e (base of the natural logarithm)</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: e() };
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: 2.718281828459045 }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="exp"></a>exp</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">exp(numeric_value)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Computes e<sup>numeric_value</sup>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>numeric_value</tt>: a <tt>tinyint</tt>/<tt>smallint</tt>/<tt>integer</tt>/<tt>bigint</tt>/<tt>float</tt>/<tt>double</tt> value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>e<sup>numeric_value</sup>,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-numeric input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: exp(1), &quot;v2&quot;: exp(2), &quot;v3&quot;: exp(0), &quot;v4&quot;: exp(float(&quot;0.5&quot;)), &quot;v5&quot;: exp(double(&quot;1000&quot;)) };
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: 2.718281828459045, &quot;v2&quot;: 7.38905609893065, &quot;v3&quot;: 1.0, &quot;v4&quot;: 1.6487212707001282, &quot;v5&quot;: &quot;Infinity&quot; }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="floor"></a>floor</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">floor(numeric_value)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Computes the largest (closest to positive infinity) number with no fractional part that is not greater than the value. If the argument is already equal to mathematical integer, then the result is the same as the argument.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>numeric_value</tt>: a <tt>tinyint</tt>/<tt>smallint</tt>/<tt>integer</tt>/<tt>bigint</tt>/<tt>float</tt>/<tt>double</tt> value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>The floor value for the given number in the same type as the input argument,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-numeric input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;v1&quot;: floor(2013),
+  &quot;v2&quot;: floor(-4036),
+  &quot;v3&quot;: floor(0.8),
+  &quot;v4&quot;: floor(float(&quot;-2013.2&quot;)),
+  &quot;v5&quot;: floor(double(&quot;-2013.893823748327284&quot;))
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: 2013, &quot;v2&quot;: -4036, &quot;v3&quot;: 0.0, &quot;v4&quot;: -2014.0, &quot;v5&quot;: -2014.0 }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="ln"></a>ln</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">ln(numeric_value)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Computes log<sub>e</sub>numeric_value.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>numeric_value</tt>: a <tt>tinyint</tt>/<tt>smallint</tt>/<tt>integer</tt>/<tt>bigint</tt>/<tt>float</tt>/<tt>double</tt> value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>log<sub>e</sub>numeric_value,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-numeric input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: ln(1), &quot;v2&quot;: ln(2), &quot;v3&quot;: ln(0), &quot;v4&quot;: ln(float(&quot;0.5&quot;)), &quot;v5&quot;: ln(double(&quot;1000&quot;)) };
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: 0.0, &quot;v2&quot;: 0.6931471805599453, &quot;v3&quot;: &quot;-Infinity&quot;, &quot;v4&quot;: -0.6931471805599453, &quot;v5&quot;: 6.907755278982137 }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="log"></a>log</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">log(numeric_value)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Computes log<sub>10</sub>numeric_value.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>numeric_value</tt>: a <tt>tinyint</tt>/<tt>smallint</tt>/<tt>integer</tt>/<tt>bigint</tt>/<tt>float</tt>/<tt>double</tt> value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>log<sub>10</sub>numeric_value,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-numeric input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: log(1), &quot;v2&quot;: log(2), &quot;v3&quot;: log(0), &quot;v4&quot;: log(float(&quot;0.5&quot;)), &quot;v5&quot;: log(double(&quot;1000&quot;)) };
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: 0.0, &quot;v2&quot;: 0.3010299956639812, &quot;v3&quot;: &quot;-Infinity&quot;, &quot;v4&quot;: -0.3010299956639812, &quot;v5&quot;: 3.0 }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="pi"></a>pi</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">pi()
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Return Value:</p>
+<ul>
+
+<li>Pi</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: pi() };
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: 3.141592653589793 }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="power"></a>power</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">power(numeric_value1, numeric_value2)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Computes numeric_value1<sup>numeric_value2</sup>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>numeric_value1</tt>: a <tt>tinyint</tt>/<tt>smallint</tt>/<tt>integer</tt>/<tt>bigint</tt>/<tt>float</tt>/<tt>double</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>numeric_value2</tt>: a <tt>tinyint</tt>/<tt>smallint</tt>/<tt>integer</tt>/<tt>bigint</tt>/<tt>float</tt>/<tt>double</tt> value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>numeric_value1<sup>numeric_value2</sup>,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-numeric input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: power(1, 2), &quot;v3&quot;: power(0, 4), &quot;v4&quot;: power(float(&quot;0.5&quot;), double(&quot;-0.5&quot;)) };
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: 1, &quot;v3&quot;: 0, &quot;v4&quot;: 1.4142135623730951 }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="radians"></a>radians</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">radians(numeric_value)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Converts degrees to radians</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>numeric_value</tt>: a <tt>tinyint</tt>/<tt>smallint</tt>/<tt>integer</tt>/<tt>bigint</tt>/<tt>float</tt>/<tt>double</tt> value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>The radians value for the given degrees value. The returned value has type <tt>double</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-numeric input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: radians(180) };
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: 3.141592653589793 }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="round"></a>round</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">round(numeric_value)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Computes the number with no fractional part that is closest (and also closest to positive infinity) to the argument.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>numeric_value</tt>: a <tt>tinyint</tt>/<tt>smallint</tt>/<tt>integer</tt>/<tt>bigint</tt>/<tt>float</tt>/<tt>double</tt> value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>The rounded value for the given number in the same type as the input argument,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-numeric input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;v1&quot;: round(2013),
+  &quot;v2&quot;: round(-4036),
+  &quot;v3&quot;: round(0.8),
+  &quot;v4&quot;: round(float(&quot;-2013.256&quot;)),
+  &quot;v5&quot;: round(double(&quot;-2013.893823748327284&quot;))
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: 2013, &quot;v2&quot;: -4036, &quot;v3&quot;: 1.0, &quot;v4&quot;: -2013.0, &quot;v5&quot;: -2014.0 }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="sign"></a>sign</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">sign(numeric_value)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Computes the sign of the argument.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>numeric_value</tt>: a <tt>tinyint</tt>/<tt>smallint</tt>/<tt>integer</tt>/<tt>bigint</tt>/<tt>float</tt>/<tt>double</tt> value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>the sign (a <tt>tinyint</tt>) of the argument, -1 for negative values, 0 for 0, and 1 for positive values,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-numeric input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: sign(1), &quot;v2&quot;: sign(2), &quot;v3&quot;: sign(0), &quot;v4&quot;: sign(float(&quot;0.5&quot;)), &quot;v5&quot;: sign(double(&quot;-1000&quot;)) };
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: 1, &quot;v2&quot;: 1, &quot;v3&quot;: 0, &quot;v4&quot;: 1, &quot;v5&quot;: -1 }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="sin"></a>sin</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">sin(numeric_value)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Computes the sine value of the argument.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>numeric_value</tt>: a <tt>tinyint</tt>/<tt>smallint</tt>/<tt>integer</tt>/<tt>bigint</tt>/<tt>float</tt>/<tt>double</tt> value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>the <tt>double</tt> sine value for the argument,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-numeric input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: sin(1), &quot;v2&quot;: sin(2), &quot;v3&quot;: sin(0), &quot;v4&quot;: sin(float(&quot;0.5&quot;)), &quot;v5&quot;: sin(double(&quot;1000&quot;)) };
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: 0.8414709848078965, &quot;v2&quot;: 0.9092974268256817, &quot;v3&quot;: 0.0, &quot;v4&quot;: 0.479425538604203, &quot;v5&quot;: 0.8268795405320025 }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="sqrt"></a>sqrt</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">sqrt(numeric_value)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Computes the square root of the argument.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>numeric_value</tt>: a <tt>tinyint</tt>/<tt>smallint</tt>/<tt>integer</tt>/<tt>bigint</tt>/<tt>float</tt>/<tt>double</tt> value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>the <tt>double</tt> square root value for the argument,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-numeric input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: sqrt(1), &quot;v2&quot;: sqrt(2), &quot;v3&quot;: sqrt(0), &quot;v4&quot;: sqrt(float(&quot;0.5&quot;)), &quot;v5&quot;: sqrt(double(&quot;1000&quot;)) };
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: 1.0, &quot;v2&quot;: 1.4142135623730951, &quot;v3&quot;: 0.0, &quot;v4&quot;: 0.7071067811865476, &quot;v5&quot;: 31.622776601683793 }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="tan"></a>tan</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">tan(numeric_value)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Computes the tangent value of the argument.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>numeric_value</tt>: a <tt>tinyint</tt>/<tt>smallint</tt>/<tt>integer</tt>/<tt>bigint</tt>/<tt>float</tt>/<tt>double</tt> value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>the <tt>double</tt> tangent value for the argument,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-numeric input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: tan(1), &quot;v2&quot;: tan(2), &quot;v3&quot;: tan(0), &quot;v4&quot;: tan(float(&quot;0.5&quot;)), &quot;v5&quot;: tan(double(&quot;1000&quot;)) };
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: 1.5574077246549023, &quot;v2&quot;: -2.185039863261519, &quot;v3&quot;: 0.0, &quot;v4&quot;: 0.5463024898437905, &quot;v5&quot;: 1.4703241557027185 }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="trunc"></a>trunc</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">trunc(numeric_value, number_digits)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Truncates the number to the given number of integer digits to the right of the decimal point (left if digits is negative). Digits is 0 if not given.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>numeric_value</tt>: a <tt>tinyint</tt>/<tt>smallint</tt>/<tt>integer</tt>/<tt>bigint</tt>/<tt>float</tt>/<tt>double</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>number_digits</tt>: a <tt>tinyint</tt>/<tt>smallint</tt>/<tt>integer</tt>/<tt>bigint</tt> value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>the <tt>double</tt> tangent value for the argument,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is <tt>missing</tt>,</li>
+<li>a type error will be raised if:
+<ul>
+
+<li>the first argument is any other non-numeric value,</li>
+<li>the second argument is any other non-tinyint, non-smallint, non-integer, and non-bigint value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: trunc(1, 1), &quot;v2&quot;: trunc(2, -2), &quot;v3&quot;: trunc(0.122, 2), &quot;v4&quot;: trunc(float(&quot;11.52&quot;), -1), &quot;v5&quot;: trunc(double(&quot;1000.5252&quot;), 3) };
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: 1, &quot;v2&quot;: 2, &quot;v3&quot;: 0.12, &quot;v4&quot;: 10.0, &quot;v5&quot;: 1000.525 }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul><!--
+ ! Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ ! or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ ! distributed with this work for additional information
+ ! regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ ! to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ ! "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ ! with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ !
+ !   http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ !
+ ! Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
+ ! software distributed under the License is distributed on an
+ ! "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
+ ! KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
+ ! specific language governing permissions and limitations
+ ! under the License.
+ !-->
+</div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="round_half_to_even"></a>round_half_to_even</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">round_half_to_even(numeric_value, [precision])
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Computes the closest numeric value to <tt>numeric_value</tt> that is a multiple of ten to the power of minus <tt>precision</tt>. <tt>precision</tt> is optional and by default value <tt>0</tt> is used.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>numeric_value</tt>: a <tt>tinyint</tt>/<tt>smallint</tt>/<tt>integer</tt>/<tt>bigint</tt>/<tt>float</tt>/<tt>double</tt> value.</li>
+<li><tt>precision</tt>: an optional <tt>tinyint</tt>/<tt>smallint</tt>/<tt>integer</tt>/<tt>bigint</tt> field representing the number of digits in the fraction of the the result</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>The rounded value for the given number in the same type as the input argument,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>a type error will be raised if:
+<ul>
+
+<li>the first argument is any other non-numeric value,</li>
+<li>or, the second argument is any other non-tinyint, non-smallint, non-integer, or non-bigint value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;v1&quot;: round_half_to_even(2013),
+  &quot;v2&quot;: round_half_to_even(-4036),
+  &quot;v3&quot;: round_half_to_even(0.8),
+  &quot;v4&quot;: round_half_to_even(float(&quot;-2013.256&quot;)),
+  &quot;v5&quot;: round_half_to_even(double(&quot;-2013.893823748327284&quot;)),
+  &quot;v6&quot;: round_half_to_even(double(&quot;-2013.893823748327284&quot;), 2),
+  &quot;v7&quot;: round_half_to_even(2013, 4),
+  &quot;v8&quot;: round_half_to_even(float(&quot;-2013.256&quot;), 5)
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: 2013, &quot;v2&quot;: -4036, &quot;v3&quot;: 1.0, &quot;v4&quot;: -2013.0, &quot;v5&quot;: -2014.0, &quot;v6&quot;: -2013.89, &quot;v7&quot;: 2013, &quot;v8&quot;: -2013.256 }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul><!--
+ ! Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ ! or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ ! distributed with this work for additional information
+ ! regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ ! to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ ! "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ ! with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ !
+ !   http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ !
+ ! Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
+ ! software distributed under the License is distributed on an
+ ! "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
+ ! KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
+ ! specific language governing permissions and limitations
+ ! under the License.
+ !-->
+</div></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h2><a name="String_Functions"></a><a name="StringFunctions" id="StringFunctions">String Functions</a></h2>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="concat"></a>concat</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">concat(string1, string2, ...)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Returns a concatenated string from arguments.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>string1</tt>: a string value,</li>
+<li><tt>string2</tt>: a string value,</li>
+<li>&#x2026;.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a concatenated string from arguments,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-string input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">concat(&quot;test &quot;, &quot;driven &quot;, &quot;development&quot;);
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">&quot;test driven development&quot;
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="contains"></a>contains</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">contains(string, substring_to_contain)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Checks whether the string <tt>string</tt> contains the string <tt>substring_to_contain</tt></p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>string</tt> : a <tt>string</tt> that might contain the given substring,</li>
+<li><tt>substring_to_contain</tt> : a target <tt>string</tt> that might be contained.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>boolean</tt> value, <tt>true</tt> if <tt>string</tt> contains <tt>substring_to_contain</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-string input value will cause a type error,</li>
+<li><tt>false</tt> otherwise.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Note: an <a href="similarity.html#UsingIndexesToSupportSimilarityQueries">n_gram index</a> can be utilized for this function.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Example:
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: contains(&quot;I like x-phone&quot;, &quot;phone&quot;), &quot;v2&quot;: contains(&quot;one&quot;, &quot;phone&quot;) };
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: true, &quot;v2&quot;: false }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="ends_with"></a>ends_with</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">ends_with(string, substring_to_end_with)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Checks whether the string <tt>string</tt> ends with the string <tt>substring_to_end_with</tt>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>string</tt> : a <tt>string</tt> that might end with the given string,</li>
+<li><tt>substring_to_end_with</tt> : a <tt>string</tt> that might be contained as the ending substring.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>boolean</tt> value, <tt>true</tt> if <tt>string</tt> contains <tt>substring_to_contain</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-string input value will cause a type error,</li>
+<li><tt>false</tt> otherwise.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;v1&quot;: ends_with(&quot; love product-b its shortcut_menu is awesome:)&quot;, &quot;:)&quot;),
+  &quot;v2&quot;: ends_with(&quot; awsome:)&quot;, &quot;:-)&quot;)
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: true, &quot;v2&quot;: false }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="initcap_.28or_title.29"></a>initcap (or title)</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">initcap(string)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Converts a given string <tt>string</tt> so that the first letter of each word is uppercase and every other letter is lowercase. The function has an alias called &#x201c;title&#x201d;.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>string</tt> : a <tt>string</tt> to be converted.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>string</tt> as the title form of the given <tt>string</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-string input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: initcap(&quot;ASTERIXDB is here!&quot;), &quot;v2&quot;: title(&quot;ASTERIXDB is here!&quot;) };
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: &quot;Asterixdb Is Here!&quot;, &quot;v2&quot;: &quot;Asterixdb Is Here!&quot; }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="length"></a>length</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">length(string)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Returns the length of the string <tt>string</tt>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>string</tt> : a <tt>string</tt> or <tt>null</tt> that represents the string to be checked.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>an <tt>bigint</tt> that represents the length of <tt>string</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-string input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">length(&quot;test string&quot;);
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">11
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="lower"></a>lower</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">lower(string)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Converts a given string <tt>string</tt> to its lowercase form.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>string</tt> : a <tt>string</tt> to be converted.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>string</tt> as the lowercase form of the given <tt>string</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-string input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">lower(&quot;ASTERIXDB&quot;);
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">&quot;asterixdb&quot;
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="ltrim"></a>ltrim</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">ltrim(string[, chars]);
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Returns a new string with all leading characters that appear in <tt>chars</tt> removed. By default, white space is the character to trim.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>string</tt> : a <tt>string</tt> to be trimmed,</li>
+<li><tt>chars</tt> : a <tt>string</tt> that contains characters that are used to trim.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a trimmed, new <tt>string</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-string input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">ltrim(&quot;me like x-phone&quot;, &quot;eml&quot;);
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">&quot; like x-phone&quot;
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="position"></a>position</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">position(string, string_pattern)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Returns the first position of <tt>string_pattern</tt> within <tt>string</tt>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>string</tt> : a <tt>string</tt> that might contain the pattern,</li>
+<li><tt>string_pattern</tt> : a pattern <tt>string</tt> to be matched.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>the first position that <tt>string_pattern</tt> appears within <tt>string</tt> (starting at 0), or -1 if it does not appear,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-string input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;v1&quot;: position(&quot;ppphonepp&quot;, &quot;phone&quot;),
+  &quot;v2&quot;: position(&quot;hone&quot;, &quot;phone&quot;)
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: 3, &quot;v2&quot;: -1 }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="regexp_contains"></a>regexp_contains</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">regexp_contains(string, string_pattern[, string_flags])
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Checks whether the strings <tt>string</tt> contains the regular expression pattern <tt>string_pattern</tt> (a Java regular expression pattern).</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>string</tt> : a <tt>string</tt> that might contain the pattern,</li>
+<li><tt>string_pattern</tt> : a pattern <tt>string</tt> to be matched,</li>
+<li><tt>string_flag</tt> : (Optional) a <tt>string</tt> with flags to be used during regular expression matching.
+<ul>
+
+<li>The following modes are enabled with these flags: dotall (s), multiline (m), case_insensitive (i), and comments and whitespace (x).</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>boolean</tt>, returns <tt>true</tt> if <tt>string</tt> contains the pattern <tt>string_pattern</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-string input value will cause a type error,</li>
+<li><tt>false</tt> otherwise.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;v1&quot;: regexp_contains(&quot;pphonepp&quot;, &quot;p*hone&quot;),
+  &quot;v2&quot;: regexp_contains(&quot;hone&quot;, &quot;p+hone&quot;)
+}
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: true, &quot;v2&quot;: false }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="regexp_like"></a>regexp_like</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">regexp_like(string, string_pattern[, string_flags])
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Checks whether the string <tt>string</tt> exactly matches the regular expression pattern <tt>string_pattern</tt> (a Java regular expression pattern).</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>string</tt> : a <tt>string</tt> that might contain the pattern,</li>
+<li><tt>string_pattern</tt> : a pattern <tt>string</tt> that might be contained,</li>
+<li><tt>string_flag</tt> : (Optional) a <tt>string</tt> with flags to be used during regular expression matching.
+<ul>
+
+<li>The following modes are enabled with these flags: dotall (s), multiline (m), case_insensitive (i), and comments and whitespace (x).</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>boolean</tt> value, <tt>true</tt> if <tt>string</tt> contains the pattern <tt>string_pattern</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-string input value will cause a type error,</li>
+<li><tt>false</tt> otherwise.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;v1&quot;: regexp_like(&quot; can't stand acast the network is horrible:(&quot;, &quot;.*acast.*&quot;),
+  &quot;v2&quot;: regexp_like(&quot;acast&quot;, &quot;.*acst.*&quot;)
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: true, &quot;v2&quot;: false }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="regexp_position"></a>regexp_position</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">regexp_position(string, string_pattern[, string_flags])
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Returns first position of the regular expression <tt>string_pattern</tt> (a Java regular expression pattern) within <tt>string</tt>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>string</tt> : a <tt>string</tt> that might contain the pattern,</li>
+<li><tt>string_pattern</tt> : a pattern <tt>string</tt> to be matched,</li>
+<li><tt>string_flag</tt> : (Optional) a <tt>string</tt> with flags to be used during regular expression matching.
+<ul>
+
+<li>The following modes are enabled with these flags: dotall (s), multiline (m), case_insensitive (i), and comments and whitespace (x).</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>the first position that the regular expression <tt>string_pattern</tt> appears in <tt>string</tt> (starting at 0), or -1 if it does not appear.</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-string input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;v1&quot;: regexp_position(&quot;pphonepp&quot;, &quot;p*hone&quot;),
+  &quot;v2&quot;: regexp_position(&quot;hone&quot;, &quot;p+hone&quot;)
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: 1, &quot;v2&quot;: -1 }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="regexp_replace"></a>regexp_replace</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">regexp_replace(string, string_pattern, string_replacement[, string_flags])
+regexp_replace(string, string_pattern, string_replacement[, replacement_limit])
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Checks whether the string <tt>string</tt> matches the given regular expression pattern <tt>string_pattern</tt> (a Java regular expression pattern), and replaces the matched pattern <tt>string_pattern</tt> with the new pattern <tt>string_replacement</tt>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>string</tt> : a <tt>string</tt> that might contain the pattern,</li>
+<li><tt>string_pattern</tt> : a pattern <tt>string</tt> to be matched,</li>
+<li><tt>string_replacement</tt> : a pattern <tt>string</tt> to be used as the replacement,</li>
+<li><tt>string_flag</tt> : (Optional) a <tt>string</tt> with flags to be used during replace.
+<ul>
+
+<li>The following modes are enabled with these flags: dotall (s), multiline (m), case_insensitive (i), and comments and whitespace (x).</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><tt>replacement_limit</tt>: (Optional) an <tt>integer</tt> specifying the maximum number of replacements to make (if negative then all occurrences will be replaced)</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>Returns a <tt>string</tt> that is obtained after the replacements,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-string input value will cause a type error,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">regexp_replace(&quot; like x-phone the voicemail_service is awesome&quot;, &quot; like x-phone&quot;, &quot;like product-a&quot;)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">&quot;like product-a the voicemail_service is awesome&quot;
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="repeat"></a>repeat</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">repeat(string, n)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Returns a string formed by repeating the input <tt>string</tt> <tt>n</tt> times.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>string</tt> : a <tt>string</tt> to be repeated,</li>
+<li><tt>n</tt> : an <tt>tinyint</tt>/<tt>smallint</tt>/<tt>integer</tt>/<tt>bigint</tt> value - how many times the string should be repeated.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a string that repeats the input <tt>string</tt> <tt>n</tt> times,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>a type error will be raised if:
+<ul>
+
+<li>the first argument is any other non-string value,</li>
+<li>or, the second argument is not a <tt>tinyint</tt>, <tt>smallint</tt>, <tt>integer</tt>, or <tt>bigint</tt>.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">repeat(&quot;test&quot;, 3);
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">&quot;testtesttest&quot;
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="replace"></a>replace</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">replace(string, search_string, replacement_string[, limit])
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Finds occurrences of the given substring <tt>search_string</tt> in the input string <tt>string</tt> and replaces them with the new substring <tt>replacement_string</tt>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>string</tt> : an input <tt>string</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>search_string</tt> : a <tt>string</tt>  substring to be searched for,</li>
+<li><tt>replacement_string</tt> : a <tt>string</tt> to be used as the replacement,</li>
+<li><tt>limit</tt> : (Optional) an <tt>integer</tt> - maximum number of occurrences to be replaced. If not specified or negative then all occurrences will be replaced</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>Returns a <tt>string</tt> that is obtained after the replacements,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-string input value or non-integer <tt>limit</tt> will cause a type error,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;v1&quot;: replace(&quot; like x-phone the voicemail_service is awesome&quot;, &quot; like x-phone&quot;, &quot;like product-a&quot;),
+  &quot;v2&quot;: replace(&quot;x-phone and x-phone&quot;, &quot;x-phone&quot;, &quot;product-a&quot;, 1)
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;v1&quot;: &quot;like product-a the voicemail_service is awesome&quot;,
+  &quot;v2&quot;: &quot;product-a and x-phone&quot;
+}
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="reverse"></a>reverse</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">reverse(string)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Returns a string formed by reversing characters in the input <tt>string</tt>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>string</tt> : a <tt>string</tt> to be reversed</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a string containing characters from the the input <tt>string</tt> in the reverse order,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>a type error will be raised if:
+<ul>
+
+<li>the first argument is any other non-string value</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">reverse(&quot;hello&quot;);
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">&quot;olleh&quot;
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="rtrim"></a>rtrim</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">rtrim(string[, chars]);
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Returns a new string with all trailing characters that appear in <tt>chars</tt> removed. By default, white space is the character to trim.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>string</tt> : a <tt>string</tt> to be trimmed,</li>
+<li><tt>chars</tt> : a <tt>string</tt> that contains characters that are used to trim.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a trimmed, new <tt>string</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-string input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;v1&quot;: rtrim(&quot;i like x-phone&quot;, &quot;x-phone&quot;),
+  &quot;v2&quot;: rtrim(&quot;i like x-phone&quot;, &quot;onexph&quot;)
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: &quot;i like &quot;, &quot;v2&quot;: &quot;i like &quot; }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="split"></a>split</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">split(string, sep)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Splits the input <tt>string</tt> into an array of substrings separated by the string <tt>sep</tt>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>string</tt> : a <tt>string</tt> to be split.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>an array of substrings by splitting the input <tt>string</tt> by <tt>sep</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-string input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">split(&quot;test driven development&quot;, &quot; &quot;);
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">[ &quot;test&quot;, &quot;driven&quot;, &quot;development&quot; ]
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="starts_with"></a>starts_with</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">starts_with(string, substring_to_start_with)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Checks whether the string <tt>string</tt> starts with the string <tt>substring_to_start_with</tt>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>string</tt> : a <tt>string</tt> that might start with the given string.</li>
+<li><tt>substring_to_start_with</tt> : a <tt>string</tt> that might be contained as the starting substring.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>boolean</tt>, returns <tt>true</tt> if <tt>string</tt> starts with the string <tt>substring_to_start_with</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-string input value will cause a type error,</li>
+<li><tt>false</tt> otherwise.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;v1&quot; : starts_with(&quot; like the plan, amazing&quot;, &quot; like&quot;),
+  &quot;v2&quot; : starts_with(&quot;I like the plan, amazing&quot;, &quot; like&quot;)
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: true, &quot;v2&quot;: false }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="substr"></a>substr</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">substr(string, offset[, length])
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Returns the substring from the given string <tt>string</tt> based on the given start offset <tt>offset</tt> with the optional <tt>length</tt>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>string</tt> : a <tt>string</tt> to be extracted,</li>
+<li><tt>offset</tt> : an <tt>tinyint</tt>/<tt>smallint</tt>/<tt>integer</tt>/<tt>bigint</tt> value as the starting offset of the substring in <tt>string</tt> (starting at 0). If negative then counted from the end of the string,</li>
+<li><tt>length</tt> : (Optional) an an <tt>tinyint</tt>/<tt>smallint</tt>/<tt>integer</tt>/<tt>bigint</tt> value as the length of the substring.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>string</tt> that represents the substring,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value, or if the substring could not be obtained because the starting offset is not within string bounds or <tt>length</tt> is negative.</li>
+<li>a type error will be raised if:
+<ul>
+
+<li>the first argument is any other non-string value,</li>
+<li>or, the second argument is not a <tt>tinyint</tt>, <tt>smallint</tt>, <tt>integer</tt>, or <tt>bigint</tt>,</li>
+<li>or, the third argument is not a <tt>tinyint</tt>, <tt>smallint</tt>, <tt>integer</tt>, or <tt>bigint</tt> if the argument is present.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">substr(&quot;test string&quot;, 6, 3);
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">&quot;str&quot;
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>The function has an alias <tt>substring</tt>.</p></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="trim"></a>trim</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">trim(string[, chars]);
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Returns a new string with all leading characters that appear in <tt>chars</tt> removed. By default, white space is the character to trim.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>string</tt> : a <tt>string</tt> to be trimmed,</li>
+<li><tt>chars</tt> : a <tt>string</tt> that contains characters that are used to trim.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a trimmed, new <tt>string</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-string input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">trim(&quot;i like x-phone&quot;, &quot;xphoen&quot;);
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">&quot; like &quot;
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="upper"></a>upper</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">upper(string)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Converts a given string <tt>string</tt> to its uppercase form.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>string</tt> : a <tt>string</tt> to be converted.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>string</tt> as the uppercase form of the given <tt>string</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-string input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">upper(&quot;hello&quot;)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">&quot;HELLO&quot;
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul><!--
+ ! Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ ! or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ ! distributed with this work for additional information
+ ! regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ ! to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ ! "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ ! with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ !
+ !   http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ !
+ ! Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
+ ! software distributed under the License is distributed on an
+ ! "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
+ ! KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
+ ! specific language governing permissions and limitations
+ ! under the License.
+ !-->
+</div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="string_concat"></a>string_concat</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">string_concat(array)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Concatenates an array of strings <tt>array</tt> into a single string.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>array</tt> : an <tt>array</tt> or <tt>multiset</tt> of <tt>string</tt>s (could be <tt>null</tt> or <tt>missing</tt>) to be concatenated.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>the concatenated <tt>string</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any element in the input array is <tt>missing</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any element in the input array is <tt>null</tt> but no element in the input array is <tt>missing</tt>,</li>
+<li>any other non-array input value or non-integer element in the input array will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">string_concat([&quot;ASTERIX&quot;, &quot; &quot;, &quot;ROCKS!&quot;]);
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">&quot;ASTERIX ROCKS!&quot;
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="string_join"></a>string_join</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">string_join(array, string)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Joins an array or multiset of strings <tt>array</tt> with the given separator <tt>string</tt> into a single string.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>array</tt> : an <tt>array</tt> or <tt>multiset</tt> of strings (could be <tt>null</tt>) to be joined.</li>
+<li><tt>string</tt> : a <tt>string</tt> to serve as the separator.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>the joined <tt>string</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the first argument array contains a <tt>missing</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the first argument array contains a <tt>null</tt> but does not contain a <tt>missing</tt>,</li>
+<li>a type error will be raised if:
+<ul>
+
+<li>the first argument is any other non-array value, or contains any other non-string value,</li>
+<li>or, the second argument is any other non-string value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">string_join([&quot;ASTERIX&quot;, &quot;ROCKS~&quot;], &quot;!! &quot;);
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">&quot;ASTERIX!! ROCKS~&quot;
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="string_to_codepoint"></a>string_to_codepoint</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">string_to_codepoint(string)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Converts the string <tt>string</tt> to its code_based representation.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>string</tt> : a <tt>string</tt> that will be converted.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>an <tt>array</tt> of the code points for the string <tt>string</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-string input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">string_to_codepoint(&quot;Hello ASTERIX!&quot;);
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">[ 72, 101, 108, 108, 111, 32, 65, 83, 84, 69, 82, 73, 88, 33 ]
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="codepoint_to_string"></a>codepoint_to_string</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">codepoint_to_string(array)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Converts the ordered code_based representation <tt>array</tt> to the corresponding string.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>array</tt> : an <tt>array</tt> of integer code_points.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>string</tt> representation of <tt>array</tt>.</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any element in the input array is <tt>missing</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any element in the input array is <tt>null</tt> but no element in the input array is <tt>missing</tt>,</li>
+<li>any other non-array input value or non-integer element in the input array will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">codepoint_to_string([72, 101, 108, 108, 111, 32, 65, 83, 84, 69, 82, 73, 88, 33]);
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">&quot;Hello ASTERIX!&quot;
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="substring_before"></a>substring_before</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">substring_before(string, string_pattern)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Returns the substring from the given string <tt>string</tt> before the given pattern <tt>string_pattern</tt>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>string</tt> : a <tt>string</tt> to be extracted.</li>
+<li><tt>string_pattern</tt> : a <tt>string</tt> pattern to be searched.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>string</tt> that represents the substring,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-string input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">substring_before(&quot; like x-phone&quot;, &quot;x-phone&quot;);
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">&quot; like &quot;
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="substring_after"></a>substring_after</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+<p>substring_after(string, string_pattern);</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Returns the substring from the given string <tt>string</tt> after the given pattern <tt>string_pattern</tt>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>string</tt> : a <tt>string</tt> to be extracted.</li>
+<li><tt>string_pattern</tt> : a <tt>string</tt> pattern to be searched.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>string</tt> that represents the substring,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-string input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">substring_after(&quot; like x-phone&quot;, &quot;xph&quot;);
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">&quot;one&quot;
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul><!--
+ ! Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ ! or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ ! distributed with this work for additional information
+ ! regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ ! to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ ! "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ ! with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ !
+ !   http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ !
+ ! Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
+ ! software distributed under the License is distributed on an
+ ! "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
+ ! KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
+ ! specific language governing permissions and limitations
+ ! under the License.
+ !-->
+</div></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h2><a name="Binary_Functions"></a><a name="BinaryFunctions" id="BinaryFunctions">Binary Functions</a></h2>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="parse_binary"></a>parse_binary</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+<p>parse_binary(string, encoding)</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Creates a <tt>binary</tt> from an string encoded in <tt>encoding</tt> format.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>string</tt> : an encoded <tt>string</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>encoding</tt> : a string notation specifies the encoding type of the given <tt>string</tt>. Currently we support <tt>hex</tt> and <tt>base64</tt> format.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>binary</tt> that is decoded from the given <tt>string</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-string input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+<p>[ parse_binary(&#x201c;ABCDEF0123456789&#x201d;,&#x201c;hex&#x201d;), parse_binary(&#x201c;abcdef0123456789&#x201d;,&#x201c;HEX&#x201d;), parse_binary(&#x2018;QXN0ZXJpeAE=&#x2019;,&#x201c;base64&#x201d;) ];</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+<p>[ hex(&#x201c;ABCDEF0123456789&#x201d;), hex(&#x201c;ABCDEF0123456789&#x201d;), hex(&#x201c;4173746572697801&#x201d;) ]</p>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="print_binary"></a>print_binary</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+<p>print_binary(binary, encoding)</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Prints a <tt>binary</tt> to the required encoding <tt>string</tt> format.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>binary</tt> : a <tt>binary</tt> data need to be printed.</li>
+<li><tt>encoding</tt> : a string notation specifies the expected encoding type. Currently we support <tt>hex</tt> and <tt>base64</tt> format.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>string</tt> that represents the encoded format of a <tt>binary</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-string input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">[ print_binary(hex(&quot;ABCDEF0123456789&quot;), &quot;base64&quot;), print_binary(base64(&quot;q83vASNFZ4k=&quot;), &quot;hex&quot;) ]
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result are:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">[ &quot;q83vASNFZ4k=&quot;, &quot;ABCDEF0123456789&quot; ]
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="binary_length"></a>binary_length</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+<p>binary_length(binary)</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Returns the number of bytes storing the binary data.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>binary</tt> : a <tt>binary</tt> value to be checked.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>an <tt>bigint</tt> that represents the number of bytes,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-binary input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">binary_length(hex(&quot;00AA&quot;))
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+<p>2</p>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="sub_binary"></a>sub_binary</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+<p>sub_binary(binary, offset[, length])</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Returns the sub binary from the given <tt>binary</tt> based on the given start offset with the optional <tt>length</tt>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>binary</tt> : a <tt>binary</tt> to be extracted,</li>
+<li><tt>offset</tt> : a <tt>tinyint</tt>, <tt>smallint</tt>, <tt>integer</tt>, or <tt>bigint</tt> value as the starting offset of the sub binary in <tt>binary</tt> (starting at 0),</li>
+<li><tt>length</tt> : (Optional) a <tt>tinyint</tt>, <tt>smallint</tt>, <tt>integer</tt>, or <tt>bigint</tt> value as the length of the sub binary.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>binary</tt> that represents the sub binary,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>a type error will be raised if:
+<ul>
+
+<li>the first argument is any other non-binary value,</li>
+<li>or, the second argument is any other non-integer value,</li>
+<li>or, the third argument is any other non-integer value, if it is present.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">sub_binary(hex(&quot;AABBCCDD&quot;), 4);
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">hex(&quot;DD&quot;)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="binary_concat"></a>binary_concat</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+<p>binary_concat(array)</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Concatenates a binary <tt>array</tt> or <tt>multiset</tt> into a single binary.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>array</tt> : an <tt>array</tt> or <tt>multiset</tt> of binaries (could be <tt>null</tt> or <tt>missing</tt>) to be concatenated.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value  :
+<ul>
+
+<li>the concatenated <tt>binary</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any element in the input array is <tt>missing</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any element in the input array is <tt>null</tt> but no element in the input array is <tt>missing</tt>,</li>
+<li>any other non-array input value or non-binary element in the input array will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+<p>binary_concat([hex(&#x201c;42&#x201d;), hex(&quot;&quot;), hex(&#x2018;42&#x2019;)]);</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is</p>
+<p>hex(&#x201c;4242&#x201d;)</p>
+</li>
+</ul><!--
+ ! Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ ! or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ ! distributed with this work for additional information
+ ! regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ ! to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ ! "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ ! with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ !
+ !   http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ !
+ ! Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
+ ! software distributed under the License is distributed on an
+ ! "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
+ ! KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
+ ! specific language governing permissions and limitations
+ ! under the License.
+ !-->
+</div></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h2><a name="Spatial_Functions"></a><a name="SpatialFunctions" id="SpatialFunctions">Spatial Functions</a></h2>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="create_point"></a>create_point</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">create_point(x, y)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Creates the primitive type <tt>point</tt> using an <tt>x</tt> and <tt>y</tt> value.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:</li>
+<li><tt>x</tt> : a <tt>double</tt> that represents the x-coordinate,</li>
+<li><tt>y</tt> : a <tt>double</tt> that represents the y-coordinate.</li>
+<li>Return Value:</li>
+<li>a <tt>point</tt> representing the ordered pair (<tt>x</tt>, <tt>y</tt>),</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-double input value will cause a type error.</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;point&quot;: create_point(30.0,70.0) };
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;point&quot;: point(&quot;30.0,70.0&quot;) }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="create_line"></a>create_line</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">create_line(point1, point2)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Creates the primitive type <tt>line</tt> using <tt>point1</tt> and <tt>point2</tt>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>point1</tt> : a <tt>point</tt> that represents the start point of the line.</li>
+<li><tt>point2</tt> : a <tt>point</tt> that represents the end point of the line.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a spatial <tt>line</tt> created using the points provided in <tt>point1</tt> and <tt>point2</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-point input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;line&quot;: create_line(create_point(30.0,70.0), create_point(50.0,90.0)) };
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;line&quot;: line(&quot;30.0,70.0 50.0,90.0&quot;) }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="create_rectangle"></a>create_rectangle</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">create_rectangle(point1, point2)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Creates the primitive type <tt>rectangle</tt> using <tt>point1</tt> and <tt>point2</tt>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>point1</tt> : a <tt>point</tt> that represents the lower_left point of the rectangle.</li>
+<li><tt>point2</tt> : a <tt>point</tt> that represents the upper_right point of the rectangle.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a spatial <tt>rectangle</tt> created using the points provided in <tt>point1</tt> and <tt>point2</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-point input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;rectangle&quot;: create_rectangle(create_point(30.0,70.0), create_point(50.0,90.0)) };
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;rectangle&quot;: rectangle(&quot;30.0,70.0 50.0,90.0&quot;) }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="create_circle"></a>create_circle</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">create_circle(point, radius)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Creates the primitive type <tt>circle</tt> using <tt>point</tt> and <tt>radius</tt>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>point</tt> : a <tt>point</tt> that represents the center of the circle.</li>
+<li><tt>radius</tt> : a <tt>double</tt> that represents the radius of the circle.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a spatial <tt>circle</tt> created using the center point and the radius provided in <tt>point</tt> and <tt>radius</tt>.</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>a type error will be raised if:
+<ul>
+
+<li>the first argument is any other non-point value,</li>
+<li>or, the second argument is any other non-double value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;circle&quot;: create_circle(create_point(30.0,70.0), 5.0) }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;circle&quot;: circle(&quot;30.0,70.0 5.0&quot;) }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="create_polygon"></a>create_polygon</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">create_polygon(array)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Creates the primitive type <tt>polygon</tt> using the double values provided in the argument <tt>array</tt>. Each two consecutive double values represent a point starting from the first double value in the array. Note that at least six double values should be specified, meaning a total of three points.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>array</tt> : an array of doubles representing the points of the polygon.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>polygon</tt>, represents a spatial simple polygon created using the points provided in <tt>array</tt>.</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any element in the input array is <tt>missing</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any element in the input array is <tt>null</tt> but no element in the input array is <tt>missing</tt>,</li>
+<li>any other non-array input value or non-double element in the input array will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;polygon&quot;: create_polygon([1.0,1.0,2.0,2.0,3.0,3.0,4.0,4.0]) };
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;polygon&quot;: polygon(&quot;1.0,1.0 2.0,2.0 3.0,3.0 4.0,4.0&quot;) }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="get_x.2Fget_y"></a>get_x/get_y</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">get_x(point) or get_y(point)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Returns the x or y coordinates of a point <tt>point</tt>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>point</tt> : a <tt>point</tt>.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>double</tt> representing the x or y coordinates of the point <tt>point</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-point input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;x_coordinate&quot;: get_x(create_point(2.3,5.0)), &quot;y_coordinate&quot;: get_y(create_point(2.3,5.0)) };
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;x_coordinate&quot;: 2.3, &quot;y_coordinate&quot;: 5.0 }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="get_points"></a>get_points</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">get_points(spatial_object)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Returns an ordered array of the points forming the spatial object <tt>spatial_object</tt>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>spatial_object</tt> : a <tt>point</tt>, <tt>line</tt>, <tt>rectangle</tt>, <tt>circle</tt>, or <tt>polygon</tt>.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>an <tt>array</tt> of the points forming the spatial object <tt>spatial_object</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-spatial-object input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">get_points(create_polygon([1.0,1.0,2.0,2.0,3.0,3.0,4.0,4.0]))
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">[ point(&quot;1.0,1.0&quot;), point(&quot;2.0,2.0&quot;), point(&quot;3.0,3.0&quot;), point(&quot;4.0,4.0&quot;) ]
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="get_center.2Fget_radius"></a>get_center/get_radius</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">get_center(circle_expression) or get_radius(circle_expression)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Returns the center and the radius of a circle <tt>circle_expression</tt>, respectively.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>circle_expression</tt> : a <tt>circle</tt>.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>point</tt> or <tt>double</tt>, represent the center or radius of the circle <tt>circle_expression</tt>.</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-circle input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;circle_radius&quot;: get_radius(create_circle(create_point(6.0,3.0), 1.0)),
+  &quot;circle_center&quot;: get_center(create_circle(create_point(6.0,3.0), 1.0))
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;circle_radius&quot;: 1.0, &quot;circle_center&quot;: point(&quot;6.0,3.0&quot;) }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="spatial_distance"></a>spatial_distance</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">spatial_distance(point1, point2)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Returns the Euclidean distance between <tt>point1</tt> and <tt>point2</tt>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>point1</tt> : a <tt>point</tt>.</li>
+<li><tt>point2</tt> : a <tt>point</tt>.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>double</tt> as the Euclidean distance between <tt>point1</tt> and <tt>point2</tt>.</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-point input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">spatial_distance(point(&quot;47.44,80.65&quot;), create_point(30.0,70.0));
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">20.434678857275934
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="spatial_area"></a>spatial_area</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">spatial_area(spatial_2d_expression)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Returns the spatial area of <tt>spatial_2d_expression</tt>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>spatial_2d_expression</tt> : a <tt>rectangle</tt>, <tt>circle</tt>, or <tt>polygon</tt>.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>double</tt> representing the area of <tt>spatial_2d_expression</tt>.</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-2d-spatial-object will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">spatial_area(create_circle(create_point(0.0,0.0), 5.0));
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">78.53981625
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="spatial_intersect"></a>spatial_intersect</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">spatial_intersect(spatial_object1, spatial_object2)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Checks whether <tt>@arg1</tt> and <tt>@arg2</tt> spatially intersect each other.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>spatial_object1</tt> : a <tt>point</tt>, <tt>line</tt>, <tt>rectangle</tt>, <tt>circle</tt>, or <tt>polygon</tt>.</li>
+<li><tt>spatial_object2</tt> : a <tt>point</tt>, <tt>line</tt>, <tt>rectangle</tt>, <tt>circle</tt>, or <tt>polygon</tt>.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>boolean</tt> representing whether <tt>spatial_object1</tt> and <tt>spatial_object2</tt> spatially overlap with each other,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-spatial-object input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">spatial_intersect(point(&quot;39.28,70.48&quot;), create_rectangle(create_point(30.0,70.0), create_point(40.0,80.0)));
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">true
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="spatial_cell"></a>spatial_cell</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">spatial_cell(point1, point2, x_increment, y_increment)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Returns the grid cell that <tt>point1</tt> belongs to.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>point1</tt> : a <tt>point</tt> representing the point of interest that its grid cell will be returned.</li>
+<li><tt>point2</tt> : a <tt>point</tt> representing the origin of the grid.</li>
+<li><tt>x_increment</tt> : a <tt>double</tt>, represents X increments.</li>
+<li><tt>y_increment</tt> : a <tt>double</tt>, represents Y increments.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>rectangle</tt> representing the grid cell that <tt>point1</tt> belongs to,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>a type error will be raised if:
+<ul>
+
+<li>the first or second argument is any other non-point value,</li>
+<li>or, the second or third argument is any other non-double value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">spatial_cell(point(&quot;39.28,70.48&quot;), create_point(20.0,50.0), 5.5, 6.0);
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">rectangle(&quot;36.5,68.0 42.0,74.0&quot;);
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul><!--
+ ! Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ ! or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ ! distributed with this work for additional information
+ ! regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ ! to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ ! "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ ! with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ !
+ !   http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ !
+ ! Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
+ ! software distributed under the License is distributed on an
+ ! "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
+ ! KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
+ ! specific language governing permissions and limitations
+ ! under the License.
+ !-->
+</div></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h2><a name="Similarity_Functions"></a><a name="SimilarityFunctions" id="SimilarityFunctions">Similarity Functions</a></h2>
+<p>AsterixDB supports queries with different similarity functions, including <a class="externalLink" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Levenshtein_distance">edit distance</a> and <a class="externalLink" href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jaccard_index">Jaccard</a>.</p>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="edit_distance"></a>edit_distance</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">edit_distance(expression1, expression2)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Returns the edit distance of <tt>expression1</tt> and <tt>expression2</tt>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>expression1</tt> : a <tt>string</tt> or a homogeneous <tt>array</tt> of a comparable item type.</li>
+<li><tt>expression2</tt> : The same type as <tt>expression1</tt>.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>an <tt>bigint</tt> that represents the edit distance between <tt>expression1</tt> and <tt>expression2</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-string input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Note: an <a href="similarity.html#UsingIndexesToSupportSimilarityQueries">n_gram index</a> can be utilized for this function.</li>
+<li>Example:
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">edit_distance(&quot;SuzannaTillson&quot;, &quot;Suzanna Tilson&quot;);
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">2
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="edit_distance_check"></a>edit_distance_check</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">edit_distance_check(expression1, expression2, threshold)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Checks whether the edit distance of <tt>expression1</tt> and <tt>expression2</tt> is within a given threshold.</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Arguments:</p>
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>expression1</tt> : a <tt>string</tt> or a homogeneous <tt>array</tt> of a comparable item type.</li>
+<li><tt>expression2</tt> : The same type as <tt>expression1</tt>.</li>
+<li><tt>threshold</tt> : a <tt>bigint</tt> that represents the distance threshold.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>an <tt>array</tt> with two items:
+<ul>
+
+<li>The first item contains a <tt>boolean</tt> value representing whether the edit distance of <tt>expression1</tt> and <tt>expression2</tt> is within the given threshold.</li>
+<li>The second item contains an <tt>integer</tt> that represents the edit distance of <tt>expression1</tt> and <tt>expression2</tt> if the first item is true.</li>
+<li>If the first item is false, then the second item is set to 2147483647.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>a type error will be raised if:
+<ul>
+
+<li>the first or second argument is any other non-string value,</li>
+<li>or, the third argument is any other non-bigint value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Note: an <a href="similarity.html#UsingIndexesToSupportSimilarityQueries">n_gram index</a> can be utilized for this function.</li>
+<li>Example:
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">edit_distance_check(&quot;happy&quot;,&quot;hapr&quot;,2);
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">[ true, 2 ]
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="edit_distance_contains"></a>edit_distance_contains</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">edit_distance_contains(expression1, expression2, threshold)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Checks whether <tt>expression1</tt> contains <tt>expression2</tt> with an <a class="externalLink" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Levenshtein_distance">edit distance</a> within a given threshold.</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Arguments:</p>
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>expression1</tt> : a <tt>string</tt> or a homogeneous <tt>array</tt> of a comparable item type.</li>
+<li><tt>expression2</tt> : The same type as <tt>expression1</tt>.</li>
+<li><tt>threshold</tt> : a <tt>bigint</tt> that represents the distance threshold.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>an <tt>array</tt> with two items:
+<ul>
+
+<li>The first item contains a <tt>boolean</tt> value representing whether <tt>expression1</tt> can contain <tt>expression2</tt>.</li>
+<li>The second item contains an <tt>integer</tt> that represents the required edit distance for <tt>expression1</tt> to contain <tt>expression2</tt> if the first item is true.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>a type error will be raised if:
+<ul>
+
+<li>the first or second argument is any other non-string value,</li>
+<li>or, the third argument is any other non-bigint value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Note: an <a href="similarity.html#UsingIndexesToSupportSimilarityQueries">n_gram index</a> can be utilized for this function.</li>
+<li>Example:
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">edit_distance_contains(&quot;happy&quot;,&quot;hapr&quot;,2);
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">[ true, 1 ]
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="similarity_jaccard"></a>similarity_jaccard</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">similarity_jaccard(array1, array2)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Returns the <a class="externalLink" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jaccard_index">Jaccard similarity</a> of <tt>array1</tt> and <tt>array2</tt>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>array1</tt> : an <tt>array</tt> or <tt>multiset</tt>.</li>
+<li><tt>array2</tt> : an <tt>array</tt> or <tt>multiset</tt>.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>float</tt> that represents the Jaccard similarity of <tt>array1</tt> and <tt>array2</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any element in any input array is <tt>missing</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any element in any input array is <tt>null</tt> but no element in the input array is <tt>missing</tt>,</li>
+<li>any other non-array input value or non-integer element in any input array will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Note: a <a href="similarity.html#UsingIndexesToSupportSimilarityQueries">keyword index</a> can be utilized for this function.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Example:
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">similarity_jaccard([1,5,8,9], [1,5,9,10]);
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">0.6
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="similarity_jaccard_check"></a>similarity_jaccard_check</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">similarity_jaccard_check(array1, array2, threshold)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Checks whether <tt>array1</tt> and <tt>array2</tt> have a <a class="externalLink" href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jaccard_index">Jaccard similarity</a> greater than or equal to threshold.  Again, the &#x201c;check&#x201d; version of Jaccard is faster than the &#x201c;non_check&#x201d; version.</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Arguments:</p>
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>array1</tt> : an <tt>array</tt> or <tt>multiset</tt>.</li>
+<li><tt>array2</tt> : an <tt>array</tt> or <tt>multiset</tt>.</li>
+<li><tt>threshold</tt> : a <tt>double</tt> that represents the similarity threshold.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>an <tt>array</tt> with two items:
+<ul>
+
+<li>The first item contains a <tt>boolean</tt> value representing whether <tt>array1</tt> and <tt>array2</tt> are similar.</li>
+<li>The second item contains a <tt>float</tt> that represents the Jaccard similarity of <tt>array1</tt> and <tt>array2</tt> if it is greater than or equal to the threshold, or 0 otherwise.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any element in any input array is <tt>missing</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any element in any input array is <tt>null</tt> but no element in the input array is <tt>missing</tt>,</li>
+<li>a type error will be raised if:
+<ul>
+
+<li>the first or second argument is any other non-array value,
+<ul>
+
+<li>or, the third argument is any other non-double value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Note: a <a href="similarity.html#UsingIndexesToSupportSimilarityQueries">keyword index</a> can be utilized for this function.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Example:
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">similarity_jaccard_check([1,5,8,9], [1,5,9,10], 0.6);
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">[ false, 0.0 ]
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul><!--
+ ! Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ ! or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ ! distributed with this work for additional information
+ ! regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ ! to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ ! "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ ! with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ !
+ !   http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ !
+ ! Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
+ ! software distributed under the License is distributed on an
+ ! "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
+ ! KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
+ ! specific language governing permissions and limitations
+ ! under the License.
+ !-->
+</div></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h2><a name="Tokenizing_Functions"></a><a name="TokenizingFunctions" id="TokenizingFunctions">Tokenizing Functions</a></h2>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="word_tokens"></a>word_tokens</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">word_tokens(string)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Returns an array of word tokens of <tt>string</tt> using non_alphanumeric characters as delimiters.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>string</tt> : a <tt>string</tt> that will be tokenized.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>an <tt>array</tt> of <tt>string</tt> word tokens,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-string input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">word_tokens(&quot;I like the phone, awesome!&quot;);
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">[ &quot;i&quot;, &quot;like&quot;, &quot;the&quot;, &quot;phone&quot;, &quot;awesome&quot; ]
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul><!--
+ ! Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ ! or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ ! distributed with this work for additional information
+ ! regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ ! to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ ! "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ ! with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ !
+ !   http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ !
+ ! Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
+ ! software distributed under the License is distributed on an
+ ! "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
+ ! KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
+ ! specific language governing permissions and limitations
+ ! under the License.
+ !-->
+</div></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h2><a name="Temporal_Functions"></a><a name="TemporalFunctions" id="TemporalFunctions">Temporal Functions</a></h2>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="get_year.2Fget_month.2Fget_day.2Fget_hour.2Fget_minute.2Fget_second.2Fget_millisecond"></a>get_year/get_month/get_day/get_hour/get_minute/get_second/get_millisecond</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">get_year/get_month/get_day/get_hour/get_minute/get_second/get_millisecond(temporal_value)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Accessors for accessing fields in a temporal value</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>temporal_value</tt> : a temporal value represented as one of the following types: <tt>date</tt>, <tt>datetime</tt>, <tt>time</tt>, and <tt>duration</tt>.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>an <tt>bigint</tt> value representing the field to be extracted,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-interval input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;year&quot;: get_year(date(&quot;2010-10-30&quot;)),
+  &quot;month&quot;: get_month(datetime(&quot;1987-11-19T23:49:23.938&quot;)),
+  &quot;day&quot;: get_day(date(&quot;2010-10-30&quot;)),
+  &quot;hour&quot;: get_hour(time(&quot;12:23:34.930+07:00&quot;)),
+  &quot;min&quot;: get_minute(duration(&quot;P3Y73M632DT49H743M3948.94S&quot;)),
+  &quot;second&quot;: get_second(datetime(&quot;1987-11-19T23:49:23.938&quot;)),
+  &quot;ms&quot;: get_millisecond(duration(&quot;P3Y73M632DT49H743M3948.94S&quot;))
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;year&quot;: 2010, &quot;month&quot;: 11, &quot;day&quot;: 30, &quot;hour&quot;: 5, &quot;min&quot;: 28, &quot;second&quot;: 23, &quot;ms&quot;: 94 }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="adjust_datetime_for_timezone"></a>adjust_datetime_for_timezone</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">adjust_datetime_for_timezone(datetime, string)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Adjusts the given datetime <tt>datetime</tt> by applying the timezone information <tt>string</tt>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>datetime</tt> : a <tt>datetime</tt> value to be adjusted.</li>
+<li><tt>string</tt> : a <tt>string</tt> representing the timezone information.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>string</tt> value representing the new datetime after being adjusted by the timezone information,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>a type error will be raised if:
+<ul>
+
+<li>the first argument is any other non-datetime value,</li>
+<li>or, the second argument is any other non-string value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">adjust_datetime_for_timezone(datetime(&quot;2008-04-26T10:10:00&quot;), &quot;+08:00&quot;);
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">&quot;2008-04-26T18:10:00.000+08:00&quot;
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="adjust_time_for_timezone"></a>adjust_time_for_timezone</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">adjust_time_for_timezone(time, string)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Adjusts the given time <tt>time</tt> by applying the timezone information <tt>string</tt>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>time</tt> : a <tt>time</tt> value to be adjusted.</li>
+<li><tt>string</tt> : a <tt>string</tt> representing the timezone information.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>string</tt> value representing the new time after being adjusted by the timezone information,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>a type error will be raised if:
+<ul>
+
+<li>the first argument is any other non-time value,</li>
+<li>or, the second argument is any other non-string value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">adjust_time_for_timezone(get_time_from_datetime(datetime(&quot;2008-04-26T10:10:00&quot;)), &quot;+08:00&quot;);
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">&quot;18:10:00.000+08:00&quot;
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="calendar_duration_from_datetime"></a>calendar_duration_from_datetime</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">calendar_duration_from_datetime(datetime, duration_value)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Gets a user_friendly representation of the duration <tt>duration_value</tt> based on the given datetime <tt>datetime</tt>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>datetime</tt> : a <tt>datetime</tt> value to be used as the reference time point.</li>
+<li><tt>duration_value</tt> : a <tt>duration</tt> value to be converted.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>duration</tt> value with the duration as <tt>duration_value</tt> but with a user_friendly representation,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>a type error will be raised if:
+<ul>
+
+<li>the first argument is any other non-datetime value,</li>
+<li>or, the second argument is any other non-duration input value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">calendar_duration_from_datetime(
+      datetime(&quot;2016-03-26T10:10:00&quot;),
+      datetime(&quot;2016-03-26T10:10:00&quot;) - datetime(&quot;2011-01-01T00:00:00&quot;)
+);
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">duration(&quot;P5Y2M24DT10H10M&quot;)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="get_year_month_duration.2Fget_day_time_duration"></a>get_year_month_duration/get_day_time_duration</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">get_year_month_duration/get_day_time_duration(duration_value)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Extracts the correct <tt>duration</tt> subtype from <tt>duration_value</tt>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>duration_value</tt> : a <tt>duration</tt> value to be converted.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>year_month_duration</tt> value or a <tt>day_time_duration</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-duration input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">get_year_month_duration(duration(&quot;P12M50DT10H&quot;));
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">year_month_duration(&quot;P1Y&quot;)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="months_from_year_month_duration.2Fmilliseconds_from_day_time_duration"></a>months_from_year_month_duration/milliseconds_from_day_time_duration</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">months_from_year_month_duration/milliseconds_from_day_time_duration(duration_value)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Extracts the number of months or the number of milliseconds from the <tt>duration</tt> subtype.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>duration_value</tt> : a <tt>duration</tt> of the correct subtype.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>an <tt>bigint</tt> representing the number or months/milliseconds,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-duration input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">months_from_year_month_duration(get_year_month_duration(duration(&quot;P5Y7MT50M&quot;)));
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">67
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="duration_from_months.2Fduration_from_ms"></a>duration_from_months/duration_from_ms</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">duration_from_months/duration_from_ms(number_value)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Creates a <tt>duration</tt> from <tt>number_value</tt>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>number_value</tt> : a <tt>bigint</tt> representing the number of months/milliseconds</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>duration</tt> containing <tt>number_value</tt> value for months/milliseconds,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-duration input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">duration_from_months(8);
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">duration(&quot;P8M&quot;)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="duration_from_interval"></a>duration_from_interval</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">duration_from_interval(interval_value)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Creates a <tt>duration</tt> from <tt>interval_value</tt>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>interval_value</tt> : an <tt>interval</tt> value</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>duration</tt> representing the time in the <tt>interval_value</tt></li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-duration input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;dr1&quot; : duration_from_interval(interval(date(&quot;2010-10-30&quot;), date(&quot;2010-12-21&quot;))),
+  &quot;dr2&quot; : duration_from_interval(interval(datetime(&quot;2012-06-26T01:01:01.111&quot;), datetime(&quot;2012-07-27T02:02:02.222&quot;))),
+  &quot;dr3&quot; : duration_from_interval(interval(time(&quot;12:32:38&quot;), time(&quot;20:29:20&quot;))),
+  &quot;dr4&quot; : duration_from_interval(null)
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;dr1&quot;: day_time_duration(&quot;P52D&quot;),
+  &quot;dr2&quot;: day_time_duration(&quot;P31DT1H1M1.111S&quot;),
+  &quot;dr3&quot;: day_time_duration(&quot;PT7H56M42S&quot;),
+  &quot;dr4&quot;: null
+}
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="current_date"></a>current_date</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">current_date()
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Gets the current date.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments: None</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>date</tt> value of the date when the function is called.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="current_time"></a>current_time</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">current_time()
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Get the current time</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments: None</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>time</tt> value of the time when the function is called.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="current_datetime"></a>current_datetime</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">current_datetime()
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Get the current datetime</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments: None</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>datetime</tt> value of the datetime when the function is called.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="get_date_from_datetime"></a>get_date_from_datetime</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">get_date_from_datetime(datetime)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Gets the date value from the given datetime value <tt>datetime</tt>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>datetime</tt>: a <tt>datetime</tt> value to be extracted from.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>date</tt> value from the datetime,</li>
+<li>any other non-datetime input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="get_time_from_datetime"></a>get_time_from_datetime</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">get_time_from_datetime(datetime)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Get the time value from the given datetime value <tt>datetime</tt></p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>datetime</tt>: a <tt>datetime</tt> value to be extracted from.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>time</tt> value from the datetime.</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-datetime input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">get_time_from_datetime(datetime(&quot;2016-03-26T10:10:00&quot;));
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">time(&quot;10:10:00.000Z&quot;)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="day_of_week"></a>day_of_week</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">day_of_week(date)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Finds the day of the week for a given date (1_7)</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>date</tt>: a <tt>date</tt> value (Can also be a <tt>datetime</tt>)</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>an <tt>tinyint</tt> representing the day of the week (1_7),</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-date input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">day_of_week(datetime(&quot;2012-12-30T12:12:12.039Z&quot;));
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">7
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="date_from_unix_time_in_days"></a>date_from_unix_time_in_days</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">date_from_unix_time_in_days(numeric_value)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Gets a date representing the time after <tt>numeric_value</tt> days since 1970_01_01.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>numeric_value</tt>: a <tt>tinyint</tt>/<tt>smallint</tt>/<tt>integer</tt>/<tt>bigint</tt> value representing the number of days.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>date</tt> value as the time after <tt>numeric_value</tt> days since 1970-01-01,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-numeric input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="datetime_from_unix_time_in_ms"></a>datetime_from_unix_time_in_ms</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">datetime_from_unix_time_in_ms(numeric_value)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Gets a datetime representing the time after <tt>numeric_value</tt> milliseconds since 1970_01_01T00:00:00Z.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>numeric_value</tt>: a <tt>tinyint</tt>/<tt>smallint</tt>/<tt>integer</tt>/<tt>bigint</tt> value representing the number of milliseconds.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>datetime</tt> value as the time after <tt>numeric_value</tt> milliseconds since 1970-01-01T00:00:00Z,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-numeric input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="datetime_from_unix_time_in_secs"></a>datetime_from_unix_time_in_secs</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">datetime_from_unix_time_in_secs(numeric_value)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Gets a datetime representing the time after <tt>numeric_value</tt> seconds since 1970_01_01T00:00:00Z.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>numeric_value</tt>: a <tt>tinyint</tt>/<tt>smallint</tt>/<tt>integer</tt>/<tt>bigint</tt> value representing the number of seconds.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>datetime</tt> value as the time after <tt>numeric_value</tt> seconds since 1970_01_01T00:00:00Z,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-numeric input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="datetime_from_date_time"></a>datetime_from_date_time</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>Syntax:</li>
+</ul>
+<p>datetime_from_date_time(date,time)</p>
+<ul>
+
+<li>Gets a datetime representing the combination of <tt>date</tt> and <tt>time</tt>
+<ul>
+
+<li>Arguments:</li>
+<li><tt>date</tt>: a <tt>date</tt> value</li>
+<li><tt>time</tt> a <tt>time</tt> value</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>datetime</tt> value by combining <tt>date</tt> and <tt>time</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>a type error will be raised if
+<ul>
+
+<li>the first argument is any other non-date value,</li>
+<li>or, the second argument is any other non-time value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="time_from_unix_time_in_ms"></a>time_from_unix_time_in_ms</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">time_from_unix_time_in_ms(numeric_value)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Gets a time representing the time after <tt>numeric_value</tt> milliseconds since 00:00:00.000Z.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>numeric_value</tt>: a <tt>tinyint</tt>/<tt>smallint</tt>/<tt>integer</tt>/<tt>bigint</tt> value representing the number of milliseconds.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>time</tt> value as the time after <tt>numeric_value</tt> milliseconds since 00:00:00.000Z,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-numeric input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;date&quot;: date_from_unix_time_in_days(15800),
+  &quot;datetime&quot;: datetime_from_unix_time_in_ms(1365139700000),
+  &quot;time&quot;: time_from_unix_time_in_ms(3748)
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;date&quot;: date(&quot;2013-04-05&quot;), &quot;datetime&quot;: datetime(&quot;2013-04-05T05:28:20.000Z&quot;), &quot;time&quot;: time(&quot;00:00:03.748Z&quot;) }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="unix_time_from_date_in_days"></a>unix_time_from_date_in_days</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">unix_time_from_date_in_days(date_value)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Gets an integer value representing the number of days since 1970_01_01 for <tt>date_value</tt>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>date_value</tt>: a <tt>date</tt> value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>bigint</tt> value representing the number of days,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-date input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="unix_time_from_datetime_in_ms"></a>unix_time_from_datetime_in_ms</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">unix_time_from_datetime_in_ms(datetime_value)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Gets an integer value representing the time in milliseconds since 1970_01_01T00:00:00Z for <tt>datetime_value</tt>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>datetime_value</tt> : a <tt>datetime</tt> value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>bigint</tt> value representing the number of milliseconds,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-datetime input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="unix_time_from_datetime_in_secs"></a>unix_time_from_datetime_in_secs</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">unix_time_from_datetime_in_secs(datetime_value)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Gets an integer value representing the time in seconds since 1970_01_01T00:00:00Z for <tt>datetime_value</tt>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>datetime_value</tt> : a <tt>datetime</tt> value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>bigint</tt> value representing the number of seconds,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-datetime input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="unix_time_from_time_in_ms"></a>unix_time_from_time_in_ms</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">unix_time_from_time_in_ms(time_value)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Gets an integer value representing the time the milliseconds since 00:00:00.000Z for <tt>time_value</tt>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>time_value</tt> : a <tt>time</tt> value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>bigint</tt> value representing the number of milliseconds,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-datetime input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;date&quot;: date_from_unix_time_in_days(15800),
+  &quot;datetime&quot;: datetime_from_unix_time_in_ms(1365139700000),
+  &quot;time&quot;: time_from_unix_time_in_ms(3748)
+}
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;date&quot;: date(&quot;2013-04-05&quot;), &quot;datetime&quot;: datetime(&quot;2013-04-05T05:28:20.000Z&quot;), &quot;time&quot;: time(&quot;00:00:03.748Z&quot;) }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="parse_date.2Fparse_time.2Fparse_datetime"></a>parse_date/parse_time/parse_datetime</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>Syntax:</li>
+</ul>
+<p>parse_date/parse_time/parse_datetime(date,formatting_expression)</p>
+<ul>
+
+<li>Creates a <tt>date/time/date_time</tt> value by treating <tt>date</tt> with formatting <tt>formatting_expression</tt></li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>date</tt>: a <tt>string</tt> value representing the <tt>date/time/datetime</tt>.</li>
+<li><tt>formatting_expression</tt> a <tt>string</tt> value providing the formatting for <tt>date_expression</tt>.Characters used to create date expression:</li>
+<li><tt>h</tt> hours</li>
+<li><tt>m</tt> minutes</li>
+<li><tt>s</tt> seconds</li>
+<li><tt>n</tt> milliseconds</li>
+<li><tt>a</tt> am/pm</li>
+<li><tt>z</tt> timezone</li>
+<li><tt>Y</tt> year</li>
+<li><tt>M</tt> month</li>
+<li><tt>D</tt> day</li>
+<li><tt>W</tt> weekday</li>
+<li><tt>_</tt>, <tt>'</tt>, <tt>/</tt>, <tt>.</tt>, <tt>,</tt>, <tt>T</tt> seperators for both time and date</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>date/time/date_time</tt> value corresponding to <tt>date</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>a type error will be raised if:</li>
+<li>the first argument is any other non-date value,</li>
+<li>the second argument is any other non-string value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">parse_time(&quot;30:30&quot;,&quot;m:s&quot;);
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">time(&quot;00:30:30.000Z&quot;)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="print_date.2Fprint_time.2Fprint_datetime"></a>print_date/print_time/print_datetime</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">print_date/print_time/print_datetime(date,formatting_expression)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Creates a <tt>string</tt> representing a <tt>date/time/date_time</tt> value of the <tt>date</tt> using the formatting <tt>formatting_expression</tt></p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>date</tt>: a <tt>date/time/datetime</tt> value.</li>
+<li><tt>formatting_expression</tt> a <tt>string</tt> value providing the formatting for <tt>date_expression</tt>. Characters used to create date expression:</li>
+<li><tt>h</tt> hours</li>
+<li><tt>m</tt> minutes</li>
+<li><tt>s</tt> seconds</li>
+<li><tt>n</tt> milliseconds</li>
+<li><tt>a</tt> am/pm</li>
+<li><tt>z</tt> timezone</li>
+<li><tt>Y</tt> year</li>
+<li><tt>M</tt> month</li>
+<li><tt>D</tt> day</li>
+<li><tt>W</tt> weekday</li>
+<li><tt>_</tt>, <tt>'</tt>, <tt>/</tt>, <tt>.</tt>, <tt>,</tt>, <tt>T</tt> seperators for both time and date</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>string</tt> value corresponding to <tt>date</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>a type error will be raised if:
+<ul>
+
+<li>the first argument is any other non-date value,</li>
+<li>the second argument is any other non-string value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">print_time(time(&quot;00:30:30.000Z&quot;),&quot;m:s&quot;);
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">&quot;30:30&quot;
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="get_interval_start.2C_get_interval_end"></a>get_interval_start, get_interval_end</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">get_interval_start/get_interval_end(interval)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Gets the start/end of the given interval.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>interval</tt>: the interval to be accessed.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>time</tt>, <tt>date</tt>, or <tt>datetime</tt> (depending on the time instances of the interval) representing the starting or ending time,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-interval value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;start&quot;: get_interval_start(interval_start_from_date(&quot;1984-01-01&quot;, &quot;P1Y&quot;)),
+  &quot;end&quot;: get_interval_end(interval_start_from_date(&quot;1984-01-01&quot;, &quot;P1Y&quot;))
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;start&quot;: date(&quot;1984_01_01&quot;), &quot;end&quot;: date(&quot;1985_01_01&quot;) }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="get_interval_start_date.2Fget_interval_start_datetimeget_interval_start_time.2C_get_interval_end_date.2Fget_interval_end_datetime.2Fget_interval_end_time"></a>get_interval_start_date/get_interval_start_datetimeget_interval_start_time, get_interval_end_date/get_interval_end_datetime/get_interval_end_time</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">get_interval_start_date/get_interval_start_datetime/get_interval_start_time/get_interval_end_date/get_interval_end_datetime/get_interval_end_time(interval)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Gets the start/end of the given interval for the specific date/datetime/time type.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>interval</tt>: the interval to be accessed.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>time</tt>, <tt>date</tt>, or <tt>datetime</tt> (depending on the function) representing the starting or ending time,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-interval value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;start1&quot;: get_interval_start_date(interval_start_from_date(&quot;1984-01-01&quot;, &quot;P1Y&quot;)),
+  &quot;end1&quot;: get_interval_end_date(interval_start_from_date(&quot;1984-01-01&quot;, &quot;P1Y&quot;)),
+  &quot;start2&quot;: get_interval_start_datetime(interval_start_from_datetime(&quot;1984-01-01T08:30:00.000&quot;, &quot;P1Y1H&quot;)),
+  &quot;end2&quot;: get_interval_end_datetime(interval_start_from_datetime(&quot;1984-01-01T08:30:00.000&quot;, &quot;P1Y1H&quot;)),
+  &quot;start3&quot;: get_interval_start_time(interval_start_from_time(&quot;08:30:00.000&quot;, &quot;P1H&quot;)),
+  &quot;end3&quot;: get_interval_end_time(interval_start_from_time(&quot;08:30:00.000&quot;, &quot;P1H&quot;))
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;start1&quot;: date(&quot;1984-01-01&quot;),
+  &quot;end1&quot;: date(&quot;1985-01-01&quot;),
+  &quot;start2&quot;: datetime(&quot;1984-01-01T08:30:00.000Z&quot;),
+  &quot;end2&quot;: datetime(&quot;1985-01-01T09:30:00.000Z&quot;),
+  &quot;start3&quot;: time(&quot;08:30:00.000Z&quot;),
+  &quot;end3&quot;: time(&quot;09:30:00.000Z&quot;)
+}
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="get_overlapping_interval"></a>get_overlapping_interval</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">get_overlapping_interval(interval1, interval2)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Gets the start/end of the given interval for the specific date/datetime/time type.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>interval1</tt>: an <tt>interval</tt> value</li>
+<li><tt>interval2</tt>: an <tt>interval</tt> value</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>an <tt>interval</tt> that is overlapping <tt>interval1</tt> and <tt>interval2</tt>. If <tt>interval1</tt> and <tt>interval2</tt> do not overlap <tt>null</tt> is returned. Note each interval must be of the same type.</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-interval input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;overlap1&quot;: get_overlapping_interval(interval(time(&quot;11:23:39&quot;), time(&quot;18:27:19&quot;)), interval(time(&quot;12:23:39&quot;), time(&quot;23:18:00&quot;))),
+  &quot;overlap2&quot;: get_overlapping_interval(interval(time(&quot;12:23:39&quot;), time(&quot;18:27:19&quot;)), interval(time(&quot;07:19:39&quot;), time(&quot;09:18:00&quot;))),
+  &quot;overlap3&quot;: get_overlapping_interval(interval(date(&quot;1980-11-30&quot;), date(&quot;1999-09-09&quot;)), interval(date(&quot;2013-01-01&quot;), date(&quot;2014-01-01&quot;))),
+  &quot;overlap4&quot;: get_overlapping_interval(interval(date(&quot;1980-11-30&quot;), date(&quot;2099-09-09&quot;)), interval(date(&quot;2013-01-01&quot;), date(&quot;2014-01-01&quot;))),
+  &quot;overlap5&quot;: get_overlapping_interval(interval(datetime(&quot;1844-03-03T11:19:39&quot;), datetime(&quot;2000-10-30T18:27:19&quot;)), interval(datetime(&quot;1989-03-04T12:23:39&quot;), datetime(&quot;2009-10-10T23:18:00&quot;))),
+  &quot;overlap6&quot;: get_overlapping_interval(interval(datetime(&quot;1989-03-04T12:23:39&quot;), datetime(&quot;2000-10-30T18:27:19&quot;)), interval(datetime(&quot;1844-03-03T11:19:39&quot;), datetime(&quot;1888-10-10T23:18:00&quot;)))
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;overlap1&quot;: interval(time(&quot;12:23:39.000Z&quot;), time(&quot;18:27:19.000Z&quot;)),
+  &quot;overlap2&quot;: null,
+  &quot;overlap3&quot;: null,
+  &quot;overlap4&quot;: interval(date(&quot;2013-01-01&quot;), date(&quot;2014_01_01&quot;)),
+  &quot;overlap5&quot;: interval(datetime(&quot;1989-03-04T12:23:39.000Z&quot;), datetime(&quot;2000-10-30T18:27:19.000Z&quot;)),
+  &quot;overlap6&quot;: null
+}
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="interval_bin"></a>interval_bin</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">interval_bin(time_to_bin, time_bin_anchor, duration_bin_size)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Returns the <tt>interval</tt> value representing the bin containing the <tt>time_to_bin</tt> value.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>time_to_bin</tt>: a date/time/datetime value representing the time to be binned.</li>
+<li><tt>time_bin_anchor</tt>: a date/time/datetime value representing an anchor of a bin starts. The type of this argument should be the same as the first <tt>time_to_bin</tt> argument.</li>
+<li><tt>duration_bin_size</tt>: the duration value representing the size of the bin, in the type of year_month_duration or day_time_duration. The type of this duration should be compatible with the type of <tt>time_to_bin</tt>, so that the arithmetic operation between <tt>time_to_bin</tt> and <tt>duration_bin_size</tt> is well_defined. Currently AsterixDB supports the following arithmetic operations:
+<ul>
+
+<li>datetime +|_ year_month_duration</li>
+<li>datetime +|_ day_time_duration</li>
+<li>date +|_ year_month_duration</li>
+<li>date +|_ day_time_duration</li>
+<li>time +|_ day_time_duration</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>interval</tt> value representing the bin containing the <tt>time_to_bin</tt> value. Note that the internal type of this interval value should be the same as the <tt>time_to_bin</tt> type,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>a type error will be raised if:
+<ul>
+
+<li>the first argument or the second argument is any other non-date/non-time/non-datetime value,</li>
+<li>or, the second argument is any other non-year_month_duration/non-day_time_duration value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;bin1&quot;: interval_bin(date(&quot;2010-10-30&quot;), date(&quot;1990-01-01&quot;), year_month_duration(&quot;P1Y&quot;)),
+  &quot;bin2&quot;: interval_bin(datetime(&quot;1987-11-19T23:49:23.938&quot;), datetime(&quot;1990-01-01T00:00:00.000Z&quot;), year_month_duration(&quot;P6M&quot;)),
+  &quot;bin3&quot;: interval_bin(time(&quot;12:23:34.930+07:00&quot;), time(&quot;00:00:00&quot;), day_time_duration(&quot;PT1M&quot;)),
+  &quot;bin4&quot;: interval_bin(datetime(&quot;1987-11-19T23:49:23.938&quot;), datetime(&quot;2013-01-01T00:00:00.000&quot;), day_time_duration(&quot;PT24H&quot;))
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;bin1&quot;: interval(date(&quot;2010-01-01&quot;),date(&quot;2011-01-01&quot;)),
+  &quot;bin2&quot;: interval(datetime(&quot;1987-07-01T00:00:00.000Z&quot;), datetime(&quot;1988-01-01T00:00:00.000Z&quot;)),
+  &quot;bin3&quot;: interval(time(&quot;05:23:00.000Z&quot;), time(&quot;05:24:00.000Z&quot;)),
+  &quot;bin4&quot;: interval(datetime(&quot;1987-11-19T00:00:00.000Z&quot;), datetime(&quot;1987-11-20T00:00:00.000Z&quot;))
+}
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="interval_start_from_date.2Ftime.2Fdatetime"></a>interval_start_from_date/time/datetime</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">interval_start_from_date/time/datetime(date/time/datetime, duration)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Construct an <tt>interval</tt> value by the given starting <tt>date</tt>/<tt>time</tt>/<tt>datetime</tt> and the <tt>duration</tt> that the interval lasts.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>date/time/datetime</tt>: a <tt>string</tt> representing a <tt>date</tt>, <tt>time</tt> or <tt>datetime</tt>, or a <tt>date</tt>/<tt>time</tt>/<tt>datetime</tt> value, representing the starting time point.</li>
+<li><tt>duration</tt>: a <tt>string</tt> or <tt>duration</tt> value representing the duration of the interval. Note that duration cannot be negative value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>an <tt>interval</tt> value representing the interval starting from the given time point with the length of duration,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>a type error will be raised if:
+<ul>
+
+<li>the first argument or the second argument is any other non-date/non-time/non-datetime value,</li>
+<li>or, the second argument is any other non-duration value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;interval1&quot;: interval_start_from_date(&quot;1984-01-01&quot;, &quot;P1Y&quot;),
+  &quot;interval2&quot;: interval_start_from_time(time(&quot;02:23:28.394&quot;), &quot;PT3H24M&quot;),
+  &quot;interval3&quot;: interval_start_from_datetime(&quot;1999-09-09T09:09:09.999&quot;, duration(&quot;P2M30D&quot;))
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expectecd result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;interval1&quot;: interval(date(&quot;1984-01-01&quot;), date(&quot;1985-01-01&quot;)),
+  &quot;interval2&quot;: interval(time(&quot;02:23:28.394Z&quot;), time(&quot;05:47:28.394Z&quot;)),
+  &quot;interval3&quot;: interval(datetime(&quot;1999-09-09T09:09:09.999Z&quot;), datetime(&quot;1999-12-09T09:09:09.999Z&quot;))
+}
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="overlap_bins"></a>overlap_bins</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Return Value:</p>
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>interval</tt> value representing the bin containing the <tt>time_to_bin</tt> value. Note that the internal type of this interval value should be the same as the <tt>time_to_bin</tt> type.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">overlap_bins(interval, time_bin_anchor, duration_bin_size)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Returns an ordered list of <tt>interval</tt> values representing each bin that is overlapping the <tt>interval</tt>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>interval</tt>: an <tt>interval</tt> value</li>
+<li><tt>time_bin_anchor</tt>: a date/time/datetime value representing an anchor of a bin starts. The type of this argument should be the same as the first <tt>time_to_bin</tt> argument.</li>
+<li><tt>duration_bin_size</tt>: the duration value representing the size of the bin, in the type of year_month_duration or day_time_duration. The type of this duration should be compatible with the type of <tt>time_to_bin</tt>, so that the arithmetic operation between <tt>time_to_bin</tt> and <tt>duration_bin_size</tt> is well_defined. Currently AsterixDB supports the following arithmetic operations:
+<ul>
+
+<li>datetime +|_ year_month_duration</li>
+<li>datetime +|_ day_time_duration</li>
+<li>date +|_ year_month_duration</li>
+<li>date +|_ day_time_duration</li>
+<li>time +|_ day_time_duration</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a ordered list of <tt>interval</tt> values representing each bin that is overlapping the <tt>interval</tt>. Note that the internal type as <tt>time_to_bin</tt> and <tt>duration_bin_size</tt>.</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>a type error will be raised if:
+<ul>
+
+<li>the first arugment is any other non-interval value,</li>
+<li>or, the second argument is any other non-date/non-time/non-datetime value,</li>
+<li>or, the second argument is any other non-year_month_duration/non-day_time_duration value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;timebins&quot;: overlap_bins(interval(time(&quot;17:23:37&quot;), time(&quot;18:30:21&quot;)), time(&quot;00:00:00&quot;), day_time_duration(&quot;PT30M&quot;)),
+  &quot;datebins&quot;: overlap_bins(interval(date(&quot;1984-03-17&quot;), date(&quot;2013-08-22&quot;)), date(&quot;1990-01-01&quot;), year_month_duration(&quot;P10Y&quot;)),
+  &quot;datetimebins&quot;: overlap_bins(interval(datetime(&quot;1800-01-01T23:59:48.938&quot;), datetime(&quot;2015-07-26T13:28:30.218&quot;)),
+                              datetime(&quot;1900-01-01T00:00:00.000&quot;), year_month_duration(&quot;P100Y&quot;))
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;timebins&quot;: [
+                interval(time(&quot;17:00:00.000Z&quot;), time(&quot;17:30:00.000Z&quot;)),
+                interval(time(&quot;17:30:00.000Z&quot;), time(&quot;18:00:00.000Z&quot;)),
+                interval(time(&quot;18:00:00.000Z&quot;), time(&quot;18:30:00.000Z&quot;)),
+                interval(time(&quot;18:30:00.000Z&quot;), time(&quot;19:00:00.000Z&quot;))
+              ],
+  &quot;datebins&quot;: [
+                interval(date(&quot;1980-01-01&quot;), date(&quot;1990-01-01&quot;)),
+                interval(date(&quot;1990-01-01&quot;), date(&quot;2000-01-01&quot;)),
+                interval(date(&quot;2000-01-01&quot;), date(&quot;2010-01-01&quot;)),
+                interval(date(&quot;2010-01-01&quot;), date(&quot;2020-01-01&quot;))
+              ],
+  &quot;datetimebins&quot;: [
+                    interval(datetime(&quot;1800-01-01T00:00:00.000Z&quot;), datetime(&quot;1900-01-01T00:00:00.000Z&quot;)),
+                    interval(datetime(&quot;1900-01-01T00:00:00.000Z&quot;), datetime(&quot;2000-01-01T00:00:00.000Z&quot;)),
+                    interval(datetime(&quot;2000-01-01T00:00:00.000Z&quot;), datetime(&quot;2100-01-01T00:00:00.000Z&quot;))
+                   ]
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul><!--
+ ! Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ ! or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ ! distributed with this work for additional information
+ ! regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ ! to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ ! "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ ! with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ !
+ !   http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ !
+ ! Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
+ ! software distributed under the License is distributed on an
+ ! "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
+ ! KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
+ ! specific language governing permissions and limitations
+ ! under the License.
+ !-->
+</div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="interval_before.2C_interval_after"></a>interval_before, interval_after</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">interval_before(interval1, interval2)
+interval_after(interval1, interval2)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>These two functions check whether an interval happens before/after another interval.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>interval1</tt>, <tt>interval2</tt>: two intervals to be compared</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>boolean</tt> value. Specifically, <tt>interval_before(interval1, interval2)</tt> is true if and only if <tt>interval1.end &lt; interval2.start</tt>, and <tt>interval_after(interval1, interval2)</tt> is true if and only if <tt>interval1.start &gt; interval2.end</tt>.</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-interval input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Examples:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;interval_before&quot;: interval_before(interval(date(&quot;2000-01-01&quot;), date(&quot;2005-01-01&quot;)),
+                                     interval(date(&quot;2005-05-01&quot;), date(&quot;2012-09-09&quot;))),
+  &quot;interval_after&quot;: interval_after(interval(date(&quot;2005-05-01&quot;), date(&quot;2012-09-09&quot;)),
+                                   interval(date(&quot;2000-01-01&quot;), date(&quot;2005-01-01&quot;)))
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;interval_before&quot;: true, &quot;interval_after&quot;: true }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="interval_covers.2C_interval_covered_by"></a>interval_covers, interval_covered_by</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">interval_covers(interval1, interval2)
+interval_covered_by(interval1, interval2)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>These two functions check whether one interval covers the other interval.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>interval1</tt>, <tt>interval2</tt>: two intervals to be compared</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>a <tt>boolean</tt> value. Specifically, <tt>interval_covers(interval1, interval2)</tt> is true if and only if</p>
+<p>interval1.start &lt;= interval2.start AND interval1.end &gt;= interval2.end</p>
+<p><tt>interval_covered_by(interval1, interval2)</tt> is true if and only if</p>
+<p>interval2.start &lt;= interval1.start AND interval2.end &gt;= interval1.end</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</p>
+</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-interval input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Examples:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;interval_covers&quot;: interval_covers(interval(date(&quot;2000-01-01&quot;), date(&quot;2005-01-01&quot;)),
+                                     interval(date(&quot;2000-03-01&quot;), date(&quot;2004-09-09&quot;))),
+  &quot;interval_covered_by&quot;: interval_covered_by(interval(date(&quot;2006-08-01&quot;), date(&quot;2007-03-01&quot;)),
+                                             interval(date(&quot;2004-09-10&quot;), date(&quot;2012-08-01&quot;)))
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;interval_covers&quot;: true, &quot;interval_covered_by&quot;: true }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="interval_overlaps.2C_interval_overlapped_by"></a>interval_overlaps, interval_overlapped_by</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">interval_overlaps(interval1, interval2)
+interval_overlapped_by(interval1, interval2)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>These functions check whether two intervals overlap with each other.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>interval1</tt>, <tt>interval2</tt>: two intervals to be compared</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>boolean</tt> value. Specifically, <tt>interval_overlaps(interval1, interval2)</tt> is true if and only if
+<p>interval1.start &lt; interval2.start AND interval2.end &gt; interval1.end AND interval1.end &gt; interval2.start</p></li>
+</ul>
+<p><tt>interval_overlapped_by(interval1, interval2)</tt> is true if and only if</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">interval2.start &lt; interval1.start
+AND interval1.end &gt; interval2.end
+AND interval2.end &gt; interval1.start
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-interval input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+<p>Note that <tt>interval_overlaps</tt> and <tt>interval_overlapped_by</tt> are following the Allen&#x2019;s relations on the definition of overlap.</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Examples:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;overlaps&quot;: interval_overlaps(interval(date(&quot;2000-01-01&quot;), date(&quot;2005-01-01&quot;)),
+                                interval(date(&quot;2004-05-01&quot;), date(&quot;2012-09-09&quot;))),
+  &quot;overlapped_by&quot;: interval_overlapped_by(interval(date(&quot;2006-08-01&quot;), date(&quot;2007-03-01&quot;)),
+                                          interval(date(&quot;2004-05-01&quot;), date(&quot;2012-09-09&quot;))))
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;overlaps&quot;: true, &quot;overlapped_by&quot;: true }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="interval_overlapping"></a>interval_overlapping</h3>
+<p>Note that <tt>interval_overlapping</tt> is not an Allen&#x2019;s Relation, but syntactic sugar we added for the case that the intersect of two intervals is not empty. Basically this function returns true if any of these functions return true: <tt>interval_overlaps</tt>, <tt>interval_overlapped_by</tt>, <tt>interval_covers</tt>, or <tt>interval_covered_by</tt>.</p>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">interval_overlapping(interval1, interval2)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>This functions check whether two intervals share any points with each other.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>interval1</tt>, <tt>interval2</tt>: two intervals to be compared</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>a <tt>boolean</tt> value. Specifically, <tt>interval_overlapping(interval1, interval2)</tt> is true if</p>
+<p>interval1.start &lt; interval2.end AND interval1.end &gt; interval2.start</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</p>
+</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-interval input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Examples:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;overlapping1&quot;: interval_overlapping(interval(date(&quot;2000-01-01&quot;), date(&quot;2005-01-01&quot;)),
+                                       interval(date(&quot;2004-05-01&quot;), date(&quot;2012-09-09&quot;))),
+  &quot;overlapping2&quot;: interval_overlapping(interval(date(&quot;2006-08-01&quot;), date(&quot;2007-03-01&quot;)),
+                                       interval(date(&quot;2004-09-10&quot;), date(&quot;2006-12-31&quot;)))
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;overlapping1&quot;: true, &quot;overlapping2&quot;: true }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="interval_meets.2C_interval_met_by"></a>interval_meets, interval_met_by</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">interval_meets(interval1, interval2)
+interval_met_by(interval1, interval2)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>These two functions check whether an interval meets with another interval.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>interval1</tt>, <tt>interval2</tt>: two intervals to be compared</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>boolean</tt> value. Specifically, <tt>interval_meets(interval1, interval2)</tt> is true if and only if <tt>interval1.end = interval2.start</tt>, and <tt>interval_met_by(interval1, interval2)</tt> is true if and only if <tt>interval1.start = interval2.end</tt>. If any of the two inputs is <tt>null</tt>, <tt>null</tt> is returned.</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-interval input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Examples:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;meets&quot;: interval_meets(interval(date(&quot;2000-01-01&quot;), date(&quot;2005-01-01&quot;)),
+                          interval(date(&quot;2005-01-01&quot;), date(&quot;2012-09-09&quot;))),
+  &quot;metby&quot;: interval_met_by(interval(date(&quot;2006-08-01&quot;), date(&quot;2007-03-01&quot;)),
+                           interval(date(&quot;2004-09-10&quot;), date(&quot;2006-08-01&quot;)))
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;meets&quot;: true, &quot;metby&quot;: true }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="interval_starts.2C_interval_started_by"></a>interval_starts, interval_started_by</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">interval_starts(interval1, interval2)
+interval_started_by(interval1, interval2)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>These two functions check whether one interval starts with the other interval.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>interval1</tt>, <tt>interval2</tt>: two intervals to be compared</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>boolean</tt> value. Specifically, <tt>interval_starts(interval1, interval2)</tt> returns true if and only if
+<p>interval1.start = interval2.start AND interval1.end &lt;= interval2.end</p></li>
+</ul>
+<p><tt>interval_started_by(interval1, interval2)</tt> returns true if and only if</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">interval1.start = interval2.start
+AND interval2.end &lt;= interval1.end
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-interval input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Examples:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;interval_starts&quot;: interval_starts(interval(date(&quot;2000-01-01&quot;), date(&quot;2005-01-01&quot;)),
+                                     interval(date(&quot;2000-01-01&quot;), date(&quot;2012-09-09&quot;))),
+  &quot;interval_started_by&quot;: interval_started_by(interval(date(&quot;2006-08-01&quot;), date(&quot;2007-03-01&quot;)),
+                                             interval(date(&quot;2006-08-01&quot;), date(&quot;2006-08-02&quot;)))
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;interval_starts&quot;: true, &quot;interval_started_by&quot;: true }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="interval_ends.2C_interval_ended_by"></a>interval_ends, interval_ended_by</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">interval_ends(interval1, interval2)
+interval_ended_by(interval1, interval2)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>These two functions check whether one interval ends with the other interval.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>interval1</tt>, <tt>interval2</tt>: two intervals to be compared</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>a <tt>boolean</tt> value. Specifically, <tt>interval_ends(interval1, interval2)</tt> returns true if and only if</p>
+<p>interval1.end = interval2.end AND interval1.start &gt;= interval2.start</p>
+<p><tt>interval_ended_by(interval1, interval2)</tt> returns true if and only if</p>
+<p>interval2.end = interval1.end AND interval2.start &gt;= interval1.start</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</p>
+</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-interval input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Examples:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;interval_ends&quot;: interval_ends(interval(date(&quot;2000-01-01&quot;), date(&quot;2005-01-01&quot;)),
+                                 interval(date(&quot;1998-01-01&quot;), date(&quot;2005-01-01&quot;))),
+  &quot;interval_ended_by&quot;: interval_ended_by(interval(date(&quot;2006-08-01&quot;), date(&quot;2007-03-01&quot;)),
+                                         interval(date(&quot;2006-09-10&quot;), date(&quot;2007-03-01&quot;)))
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;interval_ends&quot;: true, &quot;interval_ended_by&quot;: true }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul><!--
+ ! Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ ! or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ ! distributed with this work for additional information
+ ! regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ ! to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ ! "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ ! with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ !
+ !   http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ !
+ ! Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
+ ! software distributed under the License is distributed on an
+ ! "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
+ ! KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
+ ! specific language governing permissions and limitations
+ ! under the License.
+ !-->
+</div></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h2><a name="Object_Functions"></a><a name="ObjectFunctions" id="ObjectFunctions">Object Functions</a></h2>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="get_object_fields"></a>get_object_fields</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">get_object_fields(input_object)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Access the object field names, type and open status for a given object.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>input_object</tt> : a object value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>an array of <tt>object</tt> values that include the field_name <tt>string</tt>, field_type <tt>string</tt>, is_open <tt>boolean</tt> (used for debug purposes only: <tt>true</tt> if field is open and <tt>false</tt> otherwise), and optional nested <tt>orderedList</tt> for the values of a nested object,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-object input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">get_object_fields(
+                  {
+                    &quot;id&quot;: 1,
+                    &quot;project&quot;: &quot;AsterixDB&quot;,
+                    &quot;address&quot;: {&quot;city&quot;: &quot;Irvine&quot;, &quot;state&quot;: &quot;CA&quot;},
+                    &quot;related&quot;: [&quot;Hivestrix&quot;, &quot;Preglix&quot;, &quot;Apache VXQuery&quot;]
+                  }
+                 );
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">[
+  { &quot;field-name&quot;: &quot;id&quot;, &quot;field-type&quot;: &quot;INT64&quot;, &quot;is-open&quot;: false },
+  { &quot;field-name&quot;: &quot;project&quot;, &quot;field-type&quot;: &quot;STRING&quot;, &quot;is-open&quot;: false },
+  { &quot;field-name&quot;: &quot;address&quot;, &quot;field-type&quot;: &quot;RECORD&quot;, &quot;is-open&quot;: false,
+    &quot;nested&quot;: [
+                { &quot;field-name&quot;: &quot;city&quot;, &quot;field-type&quot;: &quot;STRING&quot;, &quot;is-open&quot;: false },
+                { &quot;field-name&quot;: &quot;state&quot;, &quot;field-type&quot;: &quot;STRING&quot;, &quot;is-open&quot;: false }
+              ]
+  },
+  { &quot;field-name&quot;:
+        &quot;related&quot;,
+        &quot;field-type&quot;: &quot;ORDEREDLIST&quot;,
+        &quot;is-open&quot;: false,
+        &quot;list&quot;: [
+                  { &quot;field-type&quot;: &quot;STRING&quot; },
+                  { &quot;field-type&quot;: &quot;STRING&quot; },
+                  { &quot;field-type&quot;: &quot;STRING&quot; }
+                ]
+  }
+]
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>]</p></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="get_object_field_value"></a>get_object_field_value</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">get_object_field_value(input_object, string)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Access the field name given in the <tt>string_expression</tt> from the <tt>object_expression</tt>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>input_object</tt> : a <tt>object</tt> value.</li>
+<li><tt>string</tt> : a <tt>string</tt> representing the top level field name.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>an <tt>any</tt> value saved in the designated field of the object,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>a type error will be raised if:
+<ul>
+
+<li>the first argument is any other non-object value,</li>
+<li>or, the second argument is any other non-string value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">get_object_field_value({
+                         &quot;id&quot;: 1,
+                         &quot;project&quot;: &quot;AsterixDB&quot;,
+                         &quot;address&quot;: {&quot;city&quot;: &quot;Irvine&quot;, &quot;state&quot;: &quot;CA&quot;},
+                         &quot;related&quot;: [&quot;Hivestrix&quot;, &quot;Preglix&quot;, &quot;Apache VXQuery&quot;]
+                        },
+                        &quot;project&quot;
+                       );
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">&quot;AsterixDB&quot;
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="object_remove_fields"></a>object_remove_fields</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">object_remove_fields(input_object, field_names)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Remove indicated fields from a object given a list of field names.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>input_object</tt>:  a object value.</li>
+<li><tt>field_names</tt>: an array of strings and/or array of array of strings.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Return Value:</p>
+<ul>
+
+<li>a new object value without the fields listed in the second argument,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>a type error will be raised if:
+<ul>
+
+<li>the first argument is any other non-object value,</li>
+<li>or, the second argument is any other non-array value or recursively contains non-string items.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">object_remove_fields(
+                       {
+                         &quot;id&quot;:1,
+                         &quot;project&quot;:&quot;AsterixDB&quot;,
+                         &quot;address&quot;:{&quot;city&quot;:&quot;Irvine&quot;, &quot;state&quot;:&quot;CA&quot;},
+                         &quot;related&quot;:[&quot;Hivestrix&quot;, &quot;Preglix&quot;, &quot;Apache VXQuery&quot;]
+                       },
+                       [[&quot;address&quot;, &quot;city&quot;], &quot;related&quot;]
+                     );
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;id&quot;:1,
+  &quot;project&quot;:&quot;AsterixDB&quot;,
+  &quot;address&quot;:{ &quot;state&quot;: &quot;CA&quot; }
+}
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="object_add_fields"></a>object_add_fields</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">object_add_fields(input_object, fields)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Add fields to a object given a list of field names.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>input_object</tt> : a object value.</li>
+<li><tt>fields</tt>: an array of field descriptor objects where each object has field_name and  field_value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a new object value with the new fields included,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>a type error will be raised if:
+<ul>
+
+<li>the first argument is any other non-object value,</li>
+<li>the second argument is any other non-array value, or contains non-object items.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">object_add_fields(
+                   {
+                     &quot;id&quot;:1,
+                     &quot;project&quot;:&quot;AsterixDB&quot;,
+                     &quot;address&quot;:{&quot;city&quot;:&quot;Irvine&quot;, &quot;state&quot;:&quot;CA&quot;},
+                     &quot;related&quot;:[&quot;Hivestrix&quot;, &quot;Preglix&quot;, &quot;Apache VXQuery&quot;]
+                    },
+                    [{&quot;field-name&quot;:&quot;employment_location&quot;, &quot;field-value&quot;:create_point(30.0,70.0)}]
+                  );
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+   &quot;id&quot;:1,
+   &quot;project&quot;:&quot;AsterixDB&quot;,
+   &quot;address&quot;:{&quot;city&quot;:&quot;Irvine&quot;, &quot;state&quot;:&quot;CA&quot;},
+   &quot;related&quot;:[&quot;Hivestrix&quot;, &quot;Preglix&quot;, &quot;Apache VXQuery&quot;]
+   &quot;employment_location&quot;: point(&quot;30.0,70.0&quot;)
+ }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="object_merge"></a>object_merge</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">object_merge(object1, object2)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Merge two different objects into a new object.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>object1</tt> : a object value.</li>
+<li><tt>object2</tt> : a object value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a new object value with fields from both input objects. If a field&#x2019;s names in both objects are the same, an exception is issued,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-object input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">object_merge(
+              {
+                &quot;id&quot;:1,
+                &quot;project&quot;:&quot;AsterixDB&quot;,
+                &quot;address&quot;:{&quot;city&quot;:&quot;Irvine&quot;, &quot;state&quot;:&quot;CA&quot;},
+                &quot;related&quot;:[&quot;Hivestrix&quot;, &quot;Preglix&quot;, &quot;Apache VXQuery&quot;]
+              },
+              {
+                &quot;user_id&quot;: 22,
+                &quot;employer&quot;: &quot;UC Irvine&quot;,
+                &quot;employment_type&quot;: &quot;visitor&quot;
+              }
+            );
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;employment_type&quot;: &quot;visitor&quot;,
+  &quot;address&quot;: {
+    &quot;city&quot;: &quot;Irvine&quot;,
+    &quot;state&quot;: &quot;CA&quot;
+  },
+  &quot;related&quot;: [
+    &quot;Hivestrix&quot;,
+    &quot;Preglix&quot;,
+    &quot;Apache VXQuery&quot;
+  ],
+  &quot;user_id&quot;: 22,
+  &quot;project&quot;: &quot;AsterixDB&quot;,
+  &quot;employer&quot;: &quot;UC Irvine&quot;,
+  &quot;id&quot;: 1
+}
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="object_length"></a>object_length</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">object_length(input_object)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Returns number of top-level fields in the given object</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>input_object</tt> : an object value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>an integer that represents the number of top-level fields in the given object,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value or any other non-object value</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">object_length(
+               {
+                 &quot;id&quot;: 1,
+                 &quot;project&quot;: &quot;AsterixDB&quot;,
+                 &quot;address&quot;: {&quot;city&quot;: &quot;Irvine&quot;, &quot;state&quot;: &quot;CA&quot;},
+               }
+             );
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">3
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="object_names"></a>object_names</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">object_names(input_object)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Returns names of top-level fields in the given object</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>input_object</tt> : an object value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>an array with top-level field names of the given object,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value or any other non-object value</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">object_names(
+               {
+                 &quot;id&quot;: 1,
+                 &quot;project&quot;: &quot;AsterixDB&quot;,
+                 &quot;address&quot;: {&quot;city&quot;: &quot;Irvine&quot;, &quot;state&quot;: &quot;CA&quot;},
+               }
+             );
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">[ &quot;id&quot;, &quot;project&quot;, &quot;address&quot; ]
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="object_remove"></a>object_remove</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">object_remove(input_object, field_name)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Returns a new object that has the same fields as the input object except the field to be removed</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>input_object</tt> : an object value.</li>
+<li><tt>field_name</tt> : a string field name.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>A new object that has the same fields as <tt>input_object</tt> except the field <tt>field_name</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument <tt>input_object</tt> or <tt>field_name</tt> is missing,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument <tt>input_object</tt> is <tt>null</tt> or any other non-object value, or the argument <tt>field_name</tt> is <tt>null</tt> or any other non-string value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">object_remove(
+               {
+                 &quot;id&quot;: 1,
+                 &quot;project&quot;: &quot;AsterixDB&quot;,
+                 &quot;address&quot;: {&quot;city&quot;: &quot;Irvine&quot;, &quot;state&quot;: &quot;CA&quot;}
+               }
+               , &quot;address&quot;
+             );
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;id&quot;: 1,
+  &quot;project&quot;: &quot;AsterixDB&quot;,
+}
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="object_rename"></a>object_rename</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">object_rename(input_object, old_field, new_field)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Returns a new object that has the same fields as <tt>input_object</tt> with field <tt>old_field</tt> replaced by <tt>new_field</tt></p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>input_object</tt> : an object value.</li>
+<li><tt>old_field</tt> : a string representing the old (original) field name inside the object <tt>input_object</tt>.</li>
+<li><tt>new_field</tt> : a string representing the new field name to replace <tt>old_field</tt> inside the object <tt>input_object</tt>.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>A new object that has the same fields as <tt>input_object</tt> with field <tt>old_field</tt> replaced by <tt>new_field</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is <tt>null</tt> or <tt>input_object</tt> is non-object value, or <tt>old_field</tt> is non-string value, or <tt>new_field</tt> is any non-string value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">object_rename(
+               {
+                 &quot;id&quot;: 1,
+                 &quot;project&quot;: &quot;AsterixDB&quot;,
+                 &quot;address&quot;: {&quot;city&quot;: &quot;Irvine&quot;, &quot;state&quot;: &quot;CA&quot;}
+               }
+               , &quot;address&quot;
+               , &quot;location&quot;
+             );
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;id&quot;: 1,
+  &quot;project&quot;: &quot;AsterixDB&quot;,
+  &quot;location&quot;: {&quot;city&quot;: &quot;Irvine&quot;, &quot;state&quot;: &quot;CA&quot;}
+}
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="object_wrap"></a>object_wrap</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">object_wrap(input_object)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Returns the value of the single name-value pair that appears in <tt>input_object</tt>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>input_object</tt> : an object value that consists of exactly one name-value pair.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>The value of the single name-value pair that appears in <tt>input_object</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if <tt>input_object</tt> is <tt>missing</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if <tt>input_object</tt> is null, or an empty object, or there is more than one name-value pair in <tt>input_object</tt>, or any non-object value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">object_wrap(
+             {
+               &quot;id&quot;: 1
+             }
+           );
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  1
+}
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="object_replace"></a>object_replace</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">object_replace(input_object, old_value, new_value)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Returns a new object that has the same fields as <tt>input_object</tt> with all occurrences of value <tt>old_value</tt> replaced by <tt>new_value</tt></p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>input_object</tt> : an object value.</li>
+<li><tt>old_value</tt> : a primitive type value to be replaced by <tt>new_value</tt>.</li>
+<li><tt>new_value</tt> : a value to replace <tt>old_value</tt>.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>A new object that has the same fields as <tt>input_object</tt> with all occurrences of value <tt>old_value</tt> replaced by <tt>new_value</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if <tt>input_object</tt>  or <tt>old_value</tt> is null,</li>
+<li>a type error will be raised if:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>old_value</tt> is not a primitive type value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">object_replace(
+               {
+                 &quot;id&quot;: 1,
+                 &quot;project&quot;: &quot;AsterixDB&quot;,
+                 &quot;address&quot;: {&quot;city&quot;: &quot;Irvine&quot;, &quot;state&quot;: &quot;CA&quot;}
+               }
+               , &quot;AsterixDB&quot;
+               , &quot;Apache AsterixDB&quot;
+             );
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;id&quot;: 1,
+  &quot;project&quot;: &quot;Apache AsterixDB&quot;,
+  &quot;location&quot;: {&quot;city&quot;: &quot;Irvine&quot;, &quot;state&quot;: &quot;CA&quot;}
+}
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="object_add"></a>object_add</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">object_add(input_object, field_name, field_value)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Returns a new object that has the same fields as <tt>input_object</tt> as well as the new field <tt>field_name</tt>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>input_object</tt> : an object value.</li>
+<li><tt>field_name</tt> : a string representing a field name to be added.</li>
+<li><tt>field_value</tt> : a value to be assigned to the new field <tt>field_name</tt>.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>A new object that has the same fields as <tt>input_object</tt> as well as the new field <tt>field_name</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if <tt>input_object</tt> or <tt>field_name</tt> is <tt>missing</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if <tt>input_object</tt> or <tt>field_name</tt> is <tt>null</tt>, or <tt>input_object</tt> is not an object, or <tt>field_name</tt> is not a string,</li>
+<li><tt>input_object</tt> if <tt>field_name</tt>already exists in <tt>input_object</tt> or <tt>field_value</tt> is missing.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">object_add(
+               {
+                 &quot;id&quot;: 1,
+                 &quot;project&quot;: &quot;AsterixDB&quot;,
+                 &quot;address&quot;: {&quot;city&quot;: &quot;Irvine&quot;, &quot;state&quot;: &quot;CA&quot;}
+               }
+               , &quot;company&quot;
+               , &quot;Apache&quot;
+             );
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;id&quot;: 1,
+  &quot;project&quot;: &quot;AsterixDB&quot;,
+  &quot;location&quot;: {&quot;city&quot;: &quot;Irvine&quot;, &quot;state&quot;: &quot;CA&quot;},
+  &quot;company&quot;: &quot;Apache&quot;
+}
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="object_put"></a>object_put</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">object_put(input_object, field_name, field_value)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Adds, modifies, or removes a field of an object.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>input_object</tt> : an object value.</li>
+<li><tt>field_name</tt> : a string representing a field name to be added.</li>
+<li><tt>field_value</tt> : a value to be assigned to the new field <tt>field_name</tt>.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a new object that has the same fields as <tt>input_object</tt> as well as the new field <tt>field_name</tt>, or with updated <tt>field_name</tt> value to <tt>field_value</tt> if <tt>field_name</tt> already exists in <tt>input_object</tt>, or with <tt>field_name</tt>removed if <tt>field_name</tt> already exists in <tt>input_object</tt> and <tt>field_value</tt> is <tt>missing</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if <tt>input_object</tt> or <tt>field_name</tt> is <tt>missing</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if <tt>input_object</tt> or <tt>field_name</tt> is <tt>null</tt>, or <tt>input_object</tt> is not an object, or <tt>field_name</tt> is not not a string.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">object_put(
+               {
+                 &quot;id&quot;: 1,
+                 &quot;project&quot;: &quot;AsterixDB&quot;,
+                 &quot;address&quot;: {&quot;city&quot;: &quot;Irvine&quot;, &quot;state&quot;: &quot;CA&quot;}
+               }
+               , &quot;project&quot;
+               , &quot;Apache AsterixDB&quot;
+             );
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;id&quot;: 1,
+  &quot;project&quot;: &quot;Apache AsterixDB&quot;,
+  &quot;location&quot;: {&quot;city&quot;: &quot;Irvine&quot;, &quot;state&quot;: &quot;CA&quot;}
+}
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="object_values"></a>object_values</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">object_values(input_object)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Returns an array of the values of the fields in <tt>input_object</tt>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>input_object</tt> : an object value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>An array of the values of the fields in <tt>input_object</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if <tt>input_object</tt> is <tt>missing</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if <tt>input_object</tt> is null or any non-object value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">object_values(
+               {
+                 &quot;id&quot;: 1,
+                 &quot;project&quot;: &quot;AsterixDB&quot;,
+                 &quot;address&quot;: {&quot;city&quot;: &quot;Irvine&quot;, &quot;state&quot;: &quot;CA&quot;}
+               }
+             );
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">[
+  1,
+  &quot;AsterixDB&quot;,
+  {&quot;city&quot;: &quot;Irvine&quot;, &quot;state&quot;: &quot;CA&quot;}
+]
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="object_pairs"></a>object_pairs</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">object_pairs(input_object)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Returns an array of objects describing fields of <tt>input_object</tt>. For each field of the <tt>input_object</tt> the returned array contains an object with two fields <tt>name</tt> and <tt>value</tt> which are set to the <tt>input_object</tt>&#x2019;s field name and value.</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Arguments:</p>
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>input_object</tt> : an object value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>An array of the <tt>name</tt>/<tt>value</tt> pairs of the fields in <tt>input_object</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if <tt>input_object</tt> is <tt>missing</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if <tt>input_object</tt> is null or any non-object value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">object_pairs(
+              {
+                &quot;id&quot;: 1,
+                &quot;project&quot;: &quot;AsterixDB&quot;,
+                &quot;address&quot;: {&quot;city&quot;: &quot;Irvine&quot;, &quot;state&quot;: &quot;CA&quot;}
+              }
+            );
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">[
+  { &quot;name&quot;: &quot;id&quot;, &quot;value&quot;: 1 },
+  { &quot;name&quot;: &quot;project&quot;, &quot;value&quot;: &quot;AsterixDB&quot; },
+  { &quot;name&quot;: &quot;address&quot;, &quot;value&quot;: {&quot;city&quot;: &quot;Irvine&quot;, &quot;state&quot;: &quot;CA&quot;} }
+]
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="pairs"></a>pairs</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">pairs(input_object)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Returns an array of arrays describing fields of <tt>input_object</tt>, including nested fields. For each field of the <tt>input_object</tt> the returned array contains an array with two elements. The first element is the name and the second one is the value of the <tt>input_object</tt>&#x2019;s field. The input object is introspected recursively, so all fields of its nested objects are returned. Nested objects contained in arrays and multisets are also processed by this function.</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Arguments:</p>
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>input_object</tt> : an object value (or an array or a multiset)</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>An array of arrays with name, value pairs of the fields in <tt>input_object</tt>, including nested fields. Each inner array has exactly two items: name and value of the <tt>input_object</tt>&#x2019;s field.</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if <tt>input_object</tt> is <tt>missing</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if <tt>input_object</tt> is null or a value of a primitive data type.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">pairs(
+       {
+         &quot;id&quot;: 1,
+         &quot;project&quot;: &quot;AsterixDB&quot;,
+         &quot;address&quot;: {&quot;city&quot;: &quot;Irvine&quot;, &quot;state&quot;: &quot;CA&quot;}
+       }
+     );
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">[
+  [ &quot;id&quot;, 1 ],
+  [ &quot;project&quot;, &quot;AsterixDB&quot; ],
+  [ &quot;address&quot;, { &quot;city&quot;: &quot;Irvine&quot;, &quot;state&quot;: &quot;CA&quot; } ],
+  [ &quot;city&quot;, &quot;Irvine&quot; ],
+  [ &quot;state&quot;, &quot;CA&quot; ]
+]
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul><!--
+ ! Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ ! or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ ! distributed with this work for additional information
+ ! regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ ! to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ ! "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ ! with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ !
+ !   http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ !
+ ! Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
+ ! software distributed under the License is distributed on an
+ ! "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
+ ! KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
+ ! specific language governing permissions and limitations
+ ! under the License.
+ !-->
+</div></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h2><a name="Aggregate_Functions_.28Array_Functions.29"></a><a name="AggregateFunctions" id="AggregateFunctions">Aggregate Functions (Array Functions) </a></h2>
+<p>This section contains detailed descriptions of each SQL++ aggregate function (i.e., array function). Note that as described in the SQL++ query reference documentation, standard SQL aggregate functions (e.g., <tt>MIN</tt>, <tt>MAX</tt>, <tt>SUM</tt>, <tt>COUNT</tt>, and <tt>AVG</tt>) are not real functions in SQL++ but just syntactic sugars over corresponding SQL++ builtin aggregate functions (e.g., <tt>ARRAY_MIN</tt>, <tt>ARRAY_MAX</tt>, <tt>ARRAY_SUM</tt>, <tt>ARRAY_COUNT</tt>, and <tt>ARRAY_AVG</tt>).</p>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="array_count"></a>array_count</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">array_count(collection)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Gets the number of non-null and non-missing items in the given collection.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>collection</tt> could be:
+<ul>
+
+<li>an <tt>array</tt> or <tt>multiset</tt> to be counted,</li>
+<li>or, a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>or, a <tt>missing</tt> value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>bigint</tt> value representing the number of non-null and non-missing items in the given collection,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> is returned if the input is <tt>null</tt> or <tt>missing</tt>,</li>
+<li>any other non-array and non-multiset input value will cause an error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">array_count( ['hello', 'world', 1, 2, 3, null, missing] );
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">5
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="array_avg"></a>array_avg</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">array_avg(num_collection)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Gets the average value of the non-null and non-missing numeric items in the given collection.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>num_collection</tt> could be:
+<ul>
+
+<li>an <tt>array</tt> or <tt>multiset</tt> containing numeric values, <tt>null</tt>s or <tt>missing</tt>s,</li>
+<li>or, a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>or, a <tt>missing</tt> value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>double</tt> value representing the average of the non-null and non-missing numbers in the given collection,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> is returned if the input is <tt>null</tt> or <tt>missing</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> is returned if the given collection does not contain any non-null and non-missing items,</li>
+<li>any other non-array and non-multiset input value will cause a type error,</li>
+<li>any other non-numeric value in the input collection will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">array_avg( [1.2, 2.3, 3.4, 0, null] );
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">1.725
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="array_sum"></a>array_sum</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">array_sum(num_collection)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Gets the sum of non-null and non-missing items in the given collection.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>num_collection</tt> could be:
+<ul>
+
+<li>an <tt>array</tt> or <tt>multiset</tt> containing numeric values, <tt>null</tt>s or <tt>missing</tt>s,</li>
+<li>or, a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>or, a <tt>missing</tt> value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>the sum of the non-null and non-missing numbers in the given collection. The returning type is decided by the item type with the highest order in the numeric type promotion order (<tt>tinyint</tt>-&gt; <tt>smallint</tt>-&gt;<tt>integer</tt>-&gt;<tt>bigint</tt>-&gt;<tt>float</tt>-&gt;<tt>double</tt>) among items.</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> is returned if the input is <tt>null</tt> or <tt>missing</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> is returned if the given collection does not contain any non-null and non-missing items,</li>
+<li>any other non-array and non-multiset input value will cause a type error,</li>
+<li>any other non-numeric value in the input collection will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">array_sum( [1.2, 2.3, 3.4, 0, null, missing] );
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">6.9
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="array_sql_min"></a>array_sql_min</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">array_min(num_collection)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Gets the min value of non-null and non-missing comparable items in the given collection.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>num_collection</tt> could be:
+<ul>
+
+<li>an <tt>array</tt> or <tt>multiset</tt>,</li>
+<li>or, a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>or, a <tt>missing</tt> value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>the min value of non-null and non-missing values in the given collection. The returning type is decided by the item type with the highest order in the type promotion order (<tt>tinyint</tt>-&gt; <tt>smallint</tt>-&gt;<tt>integer</tt>-&gt;<tt>bigint</tt>-&gt;<tt>float</tt>-&gt;<tt>double</tt>) among numeric items.</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> is returned if the input is <tt>null</tt> or <tt>missing</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> is returned if the given collection does not contain any non-null and non-missing items,</li>
+<li>multiple incomparable items in the input array or multiset will cause a type error,</li>
+<li>any other non-array and non-multiset input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">array_min( [1.2, 2.3, 3.4, 0, null, missing] );
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">0.0
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="array_max"></a>array_max</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">array_max(num_collection)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Gets the max value of the non-null and non-missing comparable items in the given collection.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>num_collection</tt> could be:
+<ul>
+
+<li>an <tt>array</tt> or <tt>multiset</tt>,</li>
+<li>or, a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>or, a <tt>missing</tt> value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>the max value of non-null and non-missing numbers in the given collection. The returning type is decided by the item type with the highest order in the type promotion order (<tt>tinyint</tt>-&gt; <tt>smallint</tt>-&gt;<tt>integer</tt>-&gt;<tt>bigint</tt>-&gt;<tt>float</tt>-&gt;<tt>double</tt>) among numeric items.</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> is returned if the input is <tt>null</tt> or <tt>missing</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> is returned if the given collection does not contain any non-null and non-missing items,</li>
+<li>multiple incomparable items in the input array or multiset will cause a type error,</li>
+<li>any other non-array and non-multiset input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">array_max( [1.2, 2.3, 3.4, 0, null, missing] );
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">3.4
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="strict_count"></a>strict_count</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">strict_count(collection)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Gets the number of items in the given collection.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>collection</tt> could be:
+<ul>
+
+<li>an <tt>array</tt> or <tt>multiset</tt> containing the items to be counted,</li>
+<li>or a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>or a <tt>missing</tt> value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>bigint</tt> value representing the number of items in the given collection,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> is returned if the input is <tt>null</tt> or <tt>missing</tt>.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">strict_count( [1, 2, null, missing] );
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">4
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="strict_avg"></a>strict_avg</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">strict_avg(num_collection)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Gets the average value of the numeric items in the given collection.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>num_collection</tt> could be:
+<ul>
+
+<li>an <tt>array</tt> or <tt>multiset</tt> containing numeric values, <tt>null</tt>s or <tt>missing</tt>s,</li>
+<li>or, a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>or, a <tt>missing</tt> value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>double</tt> value representing the average of the numbers in the given collection,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> is returned if the input is <tt>null</tt> or <tt>missing</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> is returned if there is a <tt>null</tt> or <tt>missing</tt> in the input collection,</li>
+<li>any other non-numeric value in the input collection will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">strict_avg( [100, 200, 300] );
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">[ 200.0 ]
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="strict_sum"></a>strict_sum</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">strict_sum(num_collection)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Gets the sum of the items in the given collection.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>num_collection</tt> could be:
+<ul>
+
+<li>an <tt>array</tt> or <tt>multiset</tt> containing numeric values, <tt>null</tt>s or <tt>missing</tt>s,</li>
+<li>or, a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>or, a <tt>missing</tt> value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>the sum of the numbers in the given collection. The returning type is decided by the item type with the highest order in the numeric type promotion order (<tt>tinyint</tt>-&gt; <tt>smallint</tt>-&gt;<tt>integer</tt>-&gt;<tt>bigint</tt>-&gt;<tt>float</tt>-&gt;<tt>double</tt>) among items.</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> is returned if the input is <tt>null</tt> or <tt>missing</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> is returned if there is a <tt>null</tt> or <tt>missing</tt> in the input collection,</li>
+<li>any other non-numeric value in the input collection will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">strict_sum( [100, 200, 300] );
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">600
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="array_min"></a>array_min</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">strict_min(num_collection)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Gets the min value of comparable items in the given collection.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>num_collection</tt> could be:
+<ul>
+
+<li>an <tt>array</tt> or <tt>multiset</tt>,</li>
+<li>or, a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>or, a <tt>missing</tt> value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>the min value of the given collection. The returning type is decided by the item type with the highest order in the type promotion order (<tt>tinyint</tt>-&gt; <tt>smallint</tt>-&gt;<tt>integer</tt>-&gt;<tt>bigint</tt>-&gt;<tt>float</tt>-&gt;<tt>double</tt>) among numeric items.</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> is returned if the input is <tt>null</tt> or <tt>missing</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> is returned if there is a <tt>null</tt> or <tt>missing</tt> in the input collection,</li>
+<li>multiple incomparable items in the input array or multiset will cause a type error,</li>
+<li>any other non-array and non-multiset input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">strict_min( [10.2, 100, 5] );
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">5.0
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="array_max"></a>array_max</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">strict_max(num_collection)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Gets the max value of numeric items in the given collection.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>num_collection</tt> could be:
+<ul>
+
+<li>an <tt>array</tt> or <tt>multiset</tt>,</li>
+<li>or, a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>or, a <tt>missing</tt> value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>The max value of the given collection. The returning type is decided by the item type with the highest order in the type promotion order (<tt>tinyint</tt>-&gt; <tt>smallint</tt>-&gt;<tt>integer</tt>-&gt;<tt>bigint</tt>-&gt;<tt>float</tt>-&gt;<tt>double</tt>) among numeric items.</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> is returned if the input is <tt>null</tt> or <tt>missing</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> is returned if there is a <tt>null</tt> or <tt>missing</tt> in the input collection,</li>
+<li>multiple incomparable items in the input array or multiset will cause a type error,</li>
+<li>any other non-array and non-multiset input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">strict_max( [10.2, 100, 5] );
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">100.0
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul><!--
+ ! Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ ! or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ ! distributed with this work for additional information
+ ! regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ ! to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ ! "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ ! with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ !
+ !   http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ !
+ ! Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
+ ! software distributed under the License is distributed on an
+ ! "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
+ ! KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
+ ! specific language governing permissions and limitations
+ ! under the License.
+ !-->
+</div></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h2><a name="Comparison_Functions"></a><a name="ComparisonFunctions" id="ComparisonFunctions">Comparison Functions</a></h2>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="greatest"></a>greatest</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">greatest(numeric_value1, numeric_value2, ...)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Computes the greatest value among arguments.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>numeric_value1</tt>: a <tt>tinyint</tt>/<tt>smallint</tt>/<tt>integer</tt>/<tt>bigint</tt>/<tt>float</tt>/<tt>double</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>numeric_value2</tt>: a <tt>tinyint</tt>/<tt>smallint</tt>/<tt>integer</tt>/<tt>bigint</tt>/<tt>float</tt>/<tt>double</tt> value,</li>
+<li>&#x2026;.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>the greatest values among arguments. The returning type is decided by the item type with the highest order in the numeric type promotion order (<tt>tinyint</tt>-&gt; <tt>smallint</tt>-&gt;<tt>integer</tt>-&gt;<tt>bigint</tt>-&gt;<tt>float</tt>-&gt;<tt>double</tt>) among items.</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value or <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-numeric input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: greatest(1, 2, 3), &quot;v2&quot;: greatest(float(&quot;0.5&quot;), double(&quot;-0.5&quot;), 5000) };
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: 3, &quot;v2&quot;: 5000.0 }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="least"></a>least</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">least(numeric_value1, numeric_value2, ...)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Computes the least value among arguments.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>numeric_value1</tt>: a <tt>tinyint</tt>/<tt>smallint</tt>/<tt>integer</tt>/<tt>bigint</tt>/<tt>float</tt>/<tt>double</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>numeric_value2</tt>: a <tt>tinyint</tt>/<tt>smallint</tt>/<tt>integer</tt>/<tt>bigint</tt>/<tt>float</tt>/<tt>double</tt> value,</li>
+<li>&#x2026;.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>the least values among arguments. The returning type is decided by the item type with the highest order in the numeric type promotion order (<tt>tinyint</tt>-&gt; <tt>smallint</tt>-&gt;<tt>integer</tt>-&gt;<tt>bigint</tt>-&gt;<tt>float</tt>-&gt;<tt>double</tt>) among items.</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value or <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-numeric input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: least(1, 2, 3), &quot;v2&quot;: least(float(&quot;0.5&quot;), double(&quot;-0.5&quot;), 5000) };
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: 1, &quot;v2&quot;: -0.5 }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul><!--
+ ! Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ ! or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ ! distributed with this work for additional information
+ ! regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ ! to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ ! "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ ! with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ !
+ !   http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ !
+ ! Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
+ ! software distributed under the License is distributed on an
+ ! "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
+ ! KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
+ ! specific language governing permissions and limitations
+ ! under the License.
+ !-->
+</div></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h2><a name="Type_Functions"></a><a name="TypeFunctions" id="TypeFunctions">Type Functions</a></h2>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="is_array"></a>is_array</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">is_array(expr)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Checks whether the given expression is evaluated to be an <tt>array</tt> value.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>expr</tt> : an expression (any type is allowed).</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>boolean</tt> on whether the argument is an <tt>array</tt> value or not,</li>
+<li>a <tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>a <tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;a&quot;: is_array(true),
+  &quot;b&quot;: is_array(false),
+  &quot;c&quot;: isarray(null),
+  &quot;d&quot;: isarray(missing),
+  &quot;e&quot;: isarray(&quot;d&quot;),
+  &quot;f&quot;: isarray(4.0),
+  &quot;g&quot;: isarray(5),
+  &quot;h&quot;: isarray([&quot;1&quot;, 2]),
+  &quot;i&quot;: isarray({&quot;a&quot;:1})
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;a&quot;: false, &quot;b&quot;: false, &quot;c&quot;: null, &quot;e&quot;: false, &quot;f&quot;: false, &quot;g&quot;: false, &quot;h&quot;: true, &quot;i&quot;: false }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>The function has an alias <tt>isarray</tt>.</p></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="is_atomic_.28is_atom.29"></a>is_atomic (is_atom)</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">is_atomic(expr)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Checks whether the given expression is evaluated to be a value of a <a href="../datamodel.html#PrimitiveTypes">primitive</a> type.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>expr</tt> : an expression (any type is allowed).</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>boolean</tt> on whether the argument is a primitive type or not,</li>
+<li>a <tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>a <tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;a&quot;: is_atomic(true),
+  &quot;b&quot;: is_atomic(false),
+  &quot;c&quot;: isatomic(null),
+  &quot;d&quot;: isatomic(missing),
+  &quot;e&quot;: isatomic(&quot;d&quot;),
+  &quot;f&quot;: isatom(4.0),
+  &quot;g&quot;: isatom(5),
+  &quot;h&quot;: isatom([&quot;1&quot;, 2]),
+  &quot;i&quot;: isatom({&quot;a&quot;:1})
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;a&quot;: true, &quot;b&quot;: true, &quot;c&quot;: null, &quot;e&quot;: true, &quot;f&quot;: true, &quot;g&quot;: true, &quot;h&quot;: false, &quot;i&quot;: false }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>The function has three aliases: <tt>isatomic</tt>, <tt>is_atom</tt>, and <tt>isatom</tt>.</p></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="is_boolean_.28is_bool.29"></a>is_boolean (is_bool)</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">is_boolean(expr)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Checks whether the given expression is evaluated to be a <tt>boolean</tt> value.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>expr</tt> : an expression (any type is allowed).</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>boolean</tt> on whether the argument is a <tt>boolean</tt> value or not,</li>
+<li>a <tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>a <tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;a&quot;: isboolean(true),
+  &quot;b&quot;: isboolean(false),
+  &quot;c&quot;: is_boolean(null),
+  &quot;d&quot;: is_boolean(missing),
+  &quot;e&quot;: isbool(&quot;d&quot;),
+  &quot;f&quot;: isbool(4.0),
+  &quot;g&quot;: isbool(5),
+  &quot;h&quot;: isbool([&quot;1&quot;, 2]),
+  &quot;i&quot;: isbool({&quot;a&quot;:1})
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;a&quot;: true, &quot;b&quot;: true, &quot;c&quot;: null, &quot;e&quot;: false, &quot;f&quot;: false, &quot;g&quot;: false, &quot;h&quot;: false, &quot;i&quot;: false }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>The function has three aliases: <tt>isboolean</tt>, <tt>is_bool</tt>, and <tt>isbool</tt>.</p></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="is_number_.28is_num.29"></a>is_number (is_num)</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">is_number(expr)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Checks whether the given expression is evaluated to be a numeric value.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>expr</tt> : an expression (any type is allowed).</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>boolean</tt> on whether the argument is a <tt>smallint</tt>/<tt>tinyint</tt>/<tt>integer</tt>/<tt>bigint</tt>/<tt>float</tt>/<tt>double</tt> value or not,</li>
+<li>a <tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>a <tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;a&quot;: is_number(true),
+  &quot;b&quot;: is_number(false),
+  &quot;c&quot;: isnumber(null),
+  &quot;d&quot;: isnumber(missing),
+  &quot;e&quot;: isnumber(&quot;d&quot;),
+  &quot;f&quot;: isnum(4.0),
+  &quot;g&quot;: isnum(5),
+  &quot;h&quot;: isnum([&quot;1&quot;, 2]),
+  &quot;i&quot;: isnum({&quot;a&quot;:1})
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;a&quot;: false, &quot;b&quot;: false, &quot;c&quot;: null, &quot;e&quot;: false, &quot;f&quot;: true, &quot;g&quot;: true, &quot;h&quot;: false, &quot;i&quot;: false }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>The function has three aliases: <tt>isnumber</tt>, <tt>is_num</tt>, and <tt>isnum</tt>.</p></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="is_object_.28is_obj.29"></a>is_object (is_obj)</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">is_object(expr)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Checks whether the given expression is evaluated to be a <tt>object</tt> value.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>expr</tt> : an expression (any type is allowed).</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>boolean</tt> on whether the argument is a <tt>object</tt> value or not,</li>
+<li>a <tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>a <tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;a&quot;: is_object(true),
+  &quot;b&quot;: is_object(false),
+  &quot;c&quot;: isobject(null),
+  &quot;d&quot;: isobject(missing),
+  &quot;e&quot;: isobj(&quot;d&quot;),
+  &quot;f&quot;: isobj(4.0),
+  &quot;g&quot;: isobj(5),
+  &quot;h&quot;: isobj([&quot;1&quot;, 2]),
+  &quot;i&quot;: isobj({&quot;a&quot;:1})
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+<p>{ &#x201c;a&#x201d;: false, &#x201c;b&#x201d;: false, &#x201c;c&#x201d;: null, &#x201c;e&#x201d;: false, &#x201c;f&#x201d;: false, &#x201c;g&#x201d;: false, &#x201c;h&#x201d;: false, &#x201c;i&#x201d;: true }</p>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>The function has three aliases: <tt>isobject</tt>, <tt>is_obj</tt>, and <tt>isobj</tt>.</p></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="is_string_.28is_str.29"></a>is_string (is_str)</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">is_string(expr)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Checks whether the given expression is evaluated to be a <tt>string</tt> value.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>expr</tt> : an expression (any type is allowed).</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>boolean</tt> on whether the argument is a <tt>string</tt> value or not,</li>
+<li>a <tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>a <tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;a&quot;: is_string(true),
+  &quot;b&quot;: isstring(false),
+  &quot;c&quot;: isstring(null),
+  &quot;d&quot;: isstr(missing),
+  &quot;e&quot;: isstr(&quot;d&quot;),
+  &quot;f&quot;: isstr(4.0),
+  &quot;g&quot;: isstr(5),
+  &quot;h&quot;: isstr([&quot;1&quot;, 2]),
+  &quot;i&quot;: isstr({&quot;a&quot;:1})
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;a&quot;: false, &quot;b&quot;: false, &quot;c&quot;: null, &quot;e&quot;: true, &quot;f&quot;: false, &quot;g&quot;: false, &quot;h&quot;: false, &quot;i&quot;: false }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>The function has three aliases: <tt>isstring</tt>, <tt>is_str</tt>, and <tt>isstr</tt>.</p></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="is_null"></a>is_null</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">is_null(expr)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Checks whether the given expression is evaluated to be a <tt>null</tt> value.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>expr</tt> : an expression (any type is allowed).</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>boolean</tt> on whether the variable is a <tt>null</tt> or not,</li>
+<li>a <tt>missing</tt> if the input is <tt>missing</tt>.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: is_null(null), &quot;v2&quot;: is_null(1), &quot;v3&quot;: is_null(missing) };
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: true, &quot;v2&quot;: false }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>The function has an alias <tt>isnull</tt>.</p></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="is_missing"></a>is_missing</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">is_missing(expr)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Checks whether the given expression is evaluated to be a <tt>missing</tt> value.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>expr</tt> : an expression (any type is allowed).</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>boolean</tt> on whether the variable is a <tt>missing</tt> or not.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: is_missing(null), &quot;v2&quot;: is_missing(1), &quot;v3&quot;: is_missing(missing) };
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: false, &quot;v2&quot;: false, &quot;v3&quot;: true }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>The function has an alias <tt>ismissing</tt>.</p></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="is_unknown"></a>is_unknown</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">is_unknown(expr)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Checks whether the given variable is a <tt>null</tt> value or a <tt>missing</tt> value.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>expr</tt> : an expression (any type is allowed).</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>boolean</tt> on whether the variable is a <tt>null</tt>/``missing<tt>value (</tt>true<tt>) or not (</tt>false`).</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: is_unknown(null), &quot;v2&quot;: is_unknown(1), &quot;v3&quot;: is_unknown(missing) };
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: true, &quot;v2&quot;: false, &quot;v3&quot;: true }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>The function has an alias <tt>isunknown</tt>.</p></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="to_array"></a>to_array</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">to_array(expr)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Converts input value to an <tt>array</tt> value</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>expr</tt> : an expression</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>if the argument is <tt>missing</tt> then <tt>missing</tt> is returned</li>
+<li>if the argument is <tt>null</tt> then <tt>null</tt> is returned</li>
+<li>if the argument is of <tt>array</tt> type then it is returned as is</li>
+<li>if the argument is of <tt>multiset</tt> type then it is returned as an <tt>array</tt> with elements in an undefined order</li>
+<li>otherwise an <tt>array</tt> containing the input expression as its single item is returned</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;v1&quot;: to_array(&quot;asterix&quot;),
+  &quot;v2&quot;: to_array([&quot;asterix&quot;]),
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: [&quot;asterix&quot;], &quot;v2&quot;: [&quot;asterix&quot;] }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>The function has an alias <tt>toarray</tt>.</p></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="to_atomic_.28to_atom.29"></a>to_atomic (to_atom)</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">to_atomic(expr)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Converts input value to a <a href="../datamodel.html#PrimitiveTypes">primitive</a> value</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>expr</tt> : an expression</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>if the argument is <tt>missing</tt> then <tt>missing</tt> is returned</li>
+<li>if the argument is <tt>null</tt> then <tt>null</tt> is returned</li>
+<li>if the argument is of primitive type then it is returned as is</li>
+<li>if the argument is of <tt>array</tt> or <tt>multiset</tt> type and has only one element then the result of invoking to_atomic() on that element is returned</li>
+<li>if the argument is of <tt>object</tt> type and has only one field then the result of invoking to_atomic() on the value of that field is returned</li>
+<li>otherwise <tt>null</tt> is returned</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;v1&quot;: to_atomic(&quot;asterix&quot;),
+  &quot;v2&quot;: to_atomic([&quot;asterix&quot;]),
+  &quot;v3&quot;: to_atomic([0, 1]),
+  &quot;v4&quot;: to_atomic({&quot;value&quot;: &quot;asterix&quot;}),
+  &quot;v5&quot;: to_number({&quot;x&quot;: 1, &quot;y&quot;: 2})
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: &quot;asterix&quot;, &quot;v2&quot;: &quot;asterix&quot;, &quot;v3&quot;: null, &quot;v4&quot;: &quot;asterix&quot;, &quot;v5&quot;: null }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>The function has three aliases: <tt>toatomic</tt>, <tt>to_atom</tt>, and <tt>toatom</tt>.</p></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="to_boolean_.28to_bool.29"></a>to_boolean (to_bool)</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">to_boolean(expr)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Converts input value to a <tt>boolean</tt> value</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>expr</tt> : an expression</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>if the argument is <tt>missing</tt> then <tt>missing</tt> is returned</li>
+<li>if the argument is <tt>null</tt> then <tt>null</tt> is returned</li>
+<li>if the argument is of <tt>boolean</tt> type then it is returned as is</li>
+<li>if the argument is of numeric type then <tt>false</tt> is returned if it is <tt>0</tt> or <tt>NaN</tt>, otherwise <tt>true</tt></li>
+<li>if the argument is of <tt>string</tt> type then <tt>false</tt> is returned if it&#x2019;s empty, otherwise <tt>true</tt></li>
+<li>if the argument is of <tt>array</tt> or <tt>multiset</tt> type then <tt>false</tt> is returned if it&#x2019;s size is <tt>0</tt>, otherwise <tt>true</tt></li>
+<li>if the argument is of <tt>object</tt> type then <tt>false</tt> is returned if it has no fields, otherwise <tt>true</tt></li>
+<li>type error is raised for all other input types</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;v1&quot;: to_boolean(0),
+  &quot;v2&quot;: to_boolean(1),
+  &quot;v3&quot;: to_boolean(&quot;&quot;),
+  &quot;v4&quot;: to_boolean(&quot;asterix&quot;)
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: false, &quot;v2&quot;: true, &quot;v3&quot;: false, &quot;v4&quot;: true }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>The function has three aliases: <tt>toboolean</tt>, <tt>to_bool</tt>, and <tt>tobool</tt>.</p></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="to_bigint"></a>to_bigint</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">to_bigint(expr)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Converts input value to an integer value</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>expr</tt> : an expression</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>if the argument is <tt>missing</tt> then <tt>missing</tt> is returned</li>
+<li>if the argument is <tt>null</tt> then <tt>null</tt> is returned</li>
+<li>if the argument is of <tt>boolean</tt> type then <tt>1</tt> is returned if it is <tt>true</tt>, <tt>0</tt> if it is <tt>false</tt></li>
+<li>if the argument is of numeric integer type then it is returned as the same value of <tt>bigint</tt> type</li>
+<li>if the argument is of numeric <tt>float</tt>/<tt>double</tt> type then it is converted to <tt>bigint</tt> type</li>
+<li>if the argument is of <tt>string</tt> type and can be parsed as integer then that integer value is returned, otherwise <tt>null</tt> is returned</li>
+<li>if the argument is of <tt>array</tt>/<tt>multiset</tt>/<tt>object</tt> type then <tt>null</tt> is returned</li>
+<li>type error is raised for all other input types</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;v1&quot;: to_bigint(false),
+  &quot;v2&quot;: to_bigint(true),
+  &quot;v3&quot;: to_bigint(10),
+  &quot;v4&quot;: to_bigint(float(&quot;1e100&quot;)),
+  &quot;v5&quot;: to_bigint(double(&quot;1e1000&quot;)),
+  &quot;v6&quot;: to_bigint(&quot;20&quot;)
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: 0, &quot;v2&quot;: 1, &quot;v3&quot;: 10, &quot;v4&quot;: 9223372036854775807, &quot;v5&quot;: 9223372036854775807, &quot;v6&quot;: 20 }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>The function has an alias <tt>tobigint</tt>.</p></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="to_double"></a>to_double</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">to_double(expr)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Converts input value to a <tt>double</tt> value</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>expr</tt> : an expression</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>if the argument is <tt>missing</tt> then <tt>missing</tt> is returned</li>
+<li>if the argument is <tt>null</tt> then <tt>null</tt> is returned</li>
+<li>if the argument is of <tt>boolean</tt> type then <tt>1.0</tt> is returned if it is <tt>true</tt>, <tt>0.0</tt> if it is <tt>false</tt></li>
+<li>if the argument is of numeric type then it is returned as the value of <tt>double</tt> type</li>
+<li>if the argument is of <tt>string</tt> type and can be parsed as <tt>double</tt> then that <tt>double</tt> value is returned, otherwise <tt>null</tt> is returned</li>
+<li>if the argument is of <tt>array</tt>/<tt>multiset</tt>/<tt>object</tt> type then <tt>null</tt> is returned</li>
+<li>type error is raised for all other input types</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;v1&quot;: to_double(false),
+  &quot;v2&quot;: to_double(true),
+  &quot;v3&quot;: to_double(10),
+  &quot;v4&quot;: to_double(11.5),
+  &quot;v5&quot;: to_double(&quot;12.5&quot;)
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: 0.0, &quot;v2&quot;: 1.0, &quot;v3&quot;: 10.0, &quot;v4&quot;: 11.5, &quot;v5&quot;: 12.5 }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>The function has an alias <tt>todouble</tt>.</p></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="to_number_.28to_num.29"></a>to_number (to_num)</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">to_number(expr)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Converts input value to a numeric value</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>expr</tt> : an expression</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>if the argument is <tt>missing</tt> then <tt>missing</tt> is returned</li>
+<li>if the argument is <tt>null</tt> then <tt>null</tt> is returned</li>
+<li>if the argument is of numeric type then it is returned as is</li>
+<li>if the argument is of <tt>boolean</tt> type then <tt>1</tt> is returned if it is <tt>true</tt>, <tt>0</tt> if it is <tt>false</tt></li>
+<li>if the argument is of <tt>string</tt> type and can be parsed as <tt>bigint</tt> then that <tt>bigint</tt> value is returned, otherwise if it can be parsed as <tt>double</tt> then that <tt>double</tt> value is returned, otherwise <tt>null</tt> is returned</li>
+<li>if the argument is of <tt>array</tt>/<tt>multiset</tt>/<tt>object</tt> type then <tt>null</tt> is returned</li>
+<li>type error is raised for all other input types</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;v1&quot;: to_number(false),
+  &quot;v2&quot;: to_number(true),
+  &quot;v3&quot;: to_number(10),
+  &quot;v4&quot;: to_number(11.5),
+  &quot;v5&quot;: to_number(&quot;12.5&quot;)
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: 0, &quot;v2&quot;: 1, &quot;v3&quot;: 10, &quot;v4&quot;: 11.5, &quot;v5&quot;: 12.5 }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>The function has three aliases: <tt>tonumber</tt>, <tt>to_num</tt>, and <tt>tonum</tt>.</p></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="to_object_.28to_obj.29"></a>to_object (to_obj)</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">to_object(expr)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Converts input value to an <tt>object</tt> value</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>expr</tt> : an expression</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>if the argument is <tt>missing</tt> then <tt>missing</tt> is returned</li>
+<li>if the argument is <tt>null</tt> then <tt>null</tt> is returned</li>
+<li>if the argument is of <tt>object</tt> type then it is returned as is</li>
+<li>otherwise an empty <tt>object</tt> is returned</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;v1&quot;: to_object({&quot;value&quot;: &quot;asterix&quot;}),
+  &quot;v2&quot;: to_object(&quot;asterix&quot;)
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: {&quot;value&quot;: &quot;asterix&quot;}, &quot;v2&quot;: {} }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>The function has three aliases: <tt>toobject</tt>, <tt>to_obj</tt>, and <tt>toobj</tt>.</p></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="to_string_.28to_str.29"></a>to_string (to_str)</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">to_string(expr)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Converts input value to a string value</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>expr</tt> : an expression</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>if the argument is <tt>missing</tt> then <tt>missing</tt> is returned</li>
+<li>if the argument is <tt>null</tt> then <tt>null</tt> is returned</li>
+<li>if the argument is of <tt>boolean</tt> type then <tt>&quot;true&quot;</tt> is returned if it is <tt>true</tt>, <tt>&quot;false&quot;</tt> if it is <tt>false</tt></li>
+<li>if the argument is of numeric type then its string representation is returned</li>
+<li>if the argument is of <tt>string</tt> type then it is returned as is</li>
+<li>if the argument is of <tt>array</tt>/<tt>multiset</tt>/<tt>object</tt> type then <tt>null</tt> is returned</li>
+<li>type error is raised for all other input types</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;v1&quot;: to_string(false),
+  &quot;v2&quot;: to_string(true),
+  &quot;v3&quot;: to_string(10),
+  &quot;v4&quot;: to_string(11.5),
+  &quot;v5&quot;: to_string(&quot;asterix&quot;)
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: &quot;false&quot;, &quot;v2&quot;: &quot;true&quot;, &quot;v3&quot;: &quot;10&quot;, &quot;v4&quot;: &quot;11.5&quot;, &quot;v5&quot;: &quot;asterix&quot; }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>The function has three aliases: <tt>tostring</tt>, <tt>to_str</tt>, and <tt>tostr</tt>.</p><!--
+ ! Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ ! or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ ! distributed with this work for additional information
+ ! regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ ! to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ ! "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ ! with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ !
+ !   http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ !
+ ! Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
+ ! software distributed under the License is distributed on an
+ ! "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
+ ! KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
+ ! specific language governing permissions and limitations
+ ! under the License.
+ !-->
+</div></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h2><a name="Conditional_Functions"></a><a name="ConditionalFunctions" id="ConditionalFunctions">Conditional Functions</a></h2>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="if_null_.28ifnull.29"></a>if_null (ifnull)</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">if_null(expression1, expression2, ... expressionN)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Finds first argument which value is not <tt>null</tt> and returns that value</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>expressionI</tt> : an expression (any type is allowed).</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>null</tt> if all arguments evaluate to <tt>null</tt> or no arguments specified</li>
+<li>a value of the first non-<tt>null</tt> argument otherwise</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+    &quot;a&quot;: if_null(),
+    &quot;b&quot;: if_null(null),
+    &quot;c&quot;: if_null(null, &quot;asterixdb&quot;),
+    &quot;d&quot;: is_missing(if_null(missing))
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;a&quot;: null, &quot;b&quot;: null, &quot;c&quot;: &quot;asterixdb&quot;, &quot;d&quot;: true }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>The function has an alias <tt>ifnull</tt>.</p></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="if_missing_.28ifmissing.29"></a>if_missing (ifmissing)</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">if_missing(expression1, expression2, ... expressionN)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Finds first argument which value is not <tt>missing</tt> and returns that value</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>expressionI</tt> : an expression (any type is allowed).</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>null</tt> if all arguments evaluate to <tt>missing</tt> or no arguments specified</li>
+<li>a value of the first non-<tt>missing</tt> argument otherwise</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+    &quot;a&quot;: if_missing(),
+    &quot;b&quot;: if_missing(missing),
+    &quot;c&quot;: if_missing(missing, &quot;asterixdb&quot;),
+    &quot;d&quot;: if_missing(null, &quot;asterixdb&quot;)
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;a&quot;: null, &quot;b&quot;: null, &quot;c&quot;: &quot;asterixdb&quot;, &quot;d&quot;: null }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>The function has an alias <tt>ifmissing</tt>.</p></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="if_missing_or_null_.28ifmissingornull.29"></a>if_missing_or_null (ifmissingornull)</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">if_missing_or_null(expression1, expression2, ... expressionN)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Finds first argument which value is not <tt>null</tt> or <tt>missing</tt> and returns that value</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>expressionI</tt> : an expression (any type is allowed).</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>null</tt> if all arguments evaluate to either <tt>null</tt> or <tt>missing</tt>, or no arguments specified</li>
+<li>a value of the first non-<tt>null</tt>, non-<tt>missing</tt> argument otherwise</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+    &quot;a&quot;: if_missing_or_null(),
+    &quot;b&quot;: if_missing_or_null(null, missing),
+    &quot;c&quot;: if_missing_or_null(null, missing, &quot;asterixdb&quot;)
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;a&quot;: null, &quot;b&quot;: null, &quot;c&quot;: &quot;asterixdb&quot; }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>The function has an alias <tt>ifmissingornull</tt>.</p></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="if_inf_.28ifinf.29"></a>if_inf (ifinf)</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">if_inf(expression1, expression2, ... expressionN)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Finds first argument which is a non-infinite (<tt>INF</tt> or<tt>-INF</tt>) number</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>expressionI</tt> : an expression (any type is allowed).</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>missing</tt> if <tt>missing</tt> argument was encountered before the first non-infinite number argument</li>
+<li>a <tt>null</tt> if <tt>null</tt> argument or any other non-number argument was encountered before the first non-infinite number argument</li>
+<li>the first non-infinite number argument otherwise</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+    &quot;a&quot;: is_null(if_inf(null)),
+    &quot;b&quot;: is_missing(if_inf(missing)),
+    &quot;c&quot;: is_null(if_inf(double(&quot;INF&quot;))),
+    &quot;d&quot;: if_inf(1, null, missing) ],
+    &quot;e&quot;: is_null(if_inf(null, missing, 1)) ],
+    &quot;f&quot;: is_missing(if_inf(missing, null, 1)) ],
+    &quot;g&quot;: if_inf(float(&quot;INF&quot;), 1) ],
+    &quot;h&quot;: to_string(if_inf(float(&quot;INF&quot;), double(&quot;NaN&quot;), 1)) ]
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;a&quot;: true, &quot;b&quot;: true, &quot;c&quot;: true, &quot;d&quot;: 1, &quot;e&quot;: true, &quot;f&quot;: true, &quot;g&quot;: 1, &quot;h&quot;: &quot;NaN&quot; }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>The function has an alias <tt>ifinf</tt>.</p></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="if_nan_.28ifnan.29"></a>if_nan (ifnan)</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">if_nan(expression1, expression2, ... expressionN)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Finds first argument which is a non-<tt>NaN</tt> number</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>expressionI</tt> : an expression (any type is allowed).</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>missing</tt> if <tt>missing</tt> argument was encountered before the first non-<tt>NaN</tt> number argument</li>
+<li>a <tt>null</tt> if <tt>null</tt> argument or any other non-number argument was encountered before the first non-<tt>NaN</tt> number argument</li>
+<li>the first non-<tt>NaN</tt> number argument otherwise</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+    &quot;a&quot;: is_null(if_nan(null)),
+    &quot;b&quot;: is_missing(if_nan(missing)),
+    &quot;c&quot;: is_null(if_nan(double(&quot;NaN&quot;))),
+    &quot;d&quot;: if_nan(1, null, missing) ],
+    &quot;e&quot;: is_null(if_nan(null, missing, 1)) ],
+    &quot;f&quot;: is_missing(if_nan(missing, null, 1)) ],
+    &quot;g&quot;: if_nan(float(&quot;NaN&quot;), 1) ],
+    &quot;h&quot;: to_string(if_nan(float(&quot;NaN&quot;), double(&quot;INF&quot;), 1)) ]
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;a&quot;: true, &quot;b&quot;: true, &quot;c&quot;: true, &quot;d&quot;: 1, &quot;e&quot;: true, &quot;f&quot;: true, &quot;g&quot;: 1, &quot;h&quot;: &quot;INF&quot; }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>The function has an alias <tt>ifnan</tt>.</p></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="if_nan_or_inf_.28ifnanorinf.29"></a>if_nan_or_inf (ifnanorinf)</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">if_nan_or_inf(expression1, expression2, ... expressionN)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Finds first argument which is a non-infinite (<tt>INF</tt> or<tt>-INF</tt>) and non-<tt>NaN</tt> number</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>expressionI</tt> : an expression (any type is allowed).</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>missing</tt> if <tt>missing</tt> argument was encountered before the first non-infinite and non-<tt>NaN</tt> number argument</li>
+<li>a <tt>null</tt> if <tt>null</tt> argument or any other non-number argument was encountered before the first non-infinite and non-<tt>NaN</tt> number argument</li>
+<li>the first non-infinite and non-<tt>NaN</tt> number argument otherwise</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+    &quot;a&quot;: is_null(if_nan_or_inf(null)),
+    &quot;b&quot;: is_missing(if_nan_or_inf(missing)),
+    &quot;c&quot;: is_null(if_nan_or_inf(double(&quot;NaN&quot;), double(&quot;INF&quot;))),
+    &quot;d&quot;: if_nan_or_inf(1, null, missing) ],
+    &quot;e&quot;: is_null(if_nan_or_inf(null, missing, 1)) ],
+    &quot;f&quot;: is_missing(if_nan_or_inf(missing, null, 1)) ],
+    &quot;g&quot;: if_nan_or_inf(float(&quot;NaN&quot;), float(&quot;INF&quot;), 1) ],
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;a&quot;: true, &quot;b&quot;: true, &quot;c&quot;: true, &quot;d&quot;: 1, &quot;e&quot;: true, &quot;f&quot;: true, &quot;g&quot;: 1 }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>The function has an alias <tt>ifnanorinf</tt>.</p></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="null_if_.28nullif.29"></a>null_if (nullif)</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">null_if(expression1, expression2)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Compares two arguments and returns <tt>null</tt> if they are equal, otherwise returns the first argument.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>expressionI</tt> : an expression (any type is allowed).</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if
+<ul>
+
+<li>any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value, or</li>
+<li><tt>argument1</tt> = <tt>argument2</tt></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>a value of the first argument otherwise</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+    &quot;a&quot;: null_if(&quot;asterixdb&quot;, &quot;asterixdb&quot;),
+    &quot;b&quot;: null_if(1, 2)
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;a&quot;: null, &quot;b&quot;: 1 }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>The function has an alias <tt>nullif</tt>.</p></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="missing_if_.28missingif.29"></a>missing_if (missingif)</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">missing_if(expression1, expression2)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Compares two arguments and returns <tt>missing</tt> if they are equal, otherwise returns the first argument.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>expressionI</tt> : an expression (any type is allowed).</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if
+<ul>
+
+<li>any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value, or</li>
+<li>no argument is a <tt>null</tt> value and <tt>argument1</tt> = <tt>argument2</tt></li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value</li>
+<li>a value of the first argument otherwise</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+    &quot;a&quot;: missing_if(&quot;asterixdb&quot;, &quot;asterixdb&quot;)
+    &quot;b&quot;: missing_if(1, 2),
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;b&quot;: 1 }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>The function has an alias <tt>missingif</tt>.</p></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="nan_if_.28nanif.29"></a>nan_if (nanif)</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">nan_if(expression1, expression2)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Compares two arguments and returns <tt>NaN</tt> value if they are equal, otherwise returns the first argument.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>expressionI</tt> : an expression (any type is allowed).</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value</li>
+<li><tt>NaN</tt> value of type <tt>double</tt> if <tt>argument1</tt> = <tt>argument2</tt></li>
+<li>a value of the first argument otherwise</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+    &quot;a&quot;: to_string(nan_if(&quot;asterixdb&quot;, &quot;asterixdb&quot;)),
+    &quot;b&quot;: nan_if(1, 2)
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;a&quot;: &quot;NaN&quot;, &quot;b&quot;: 1 }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>The function has an alias <tt>nanif</tt>.</p></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="posinf_if_.28posinfif.29"></a>posinf_if (posinfif)</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">posinf_if(expression1, expression2)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Compares two arguments and returns <tt>+INF</tt> value if they are equal, otherwise returns the first argument.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>expressionI</tt> : an expression (any type is allowed).</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value</li>
+<li><tt>+INF</tt> value of type <tt>double</tt> if <tt>argument1</tt> = <tt>argument2</tt></li>
+<li>a value of the first argument otherwise</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+    &quot;a&quot;: to_string(posinf_if(&quot;asterixdb&quot;, &quot;asterixdb&quot;)),
+    &quot;b&quot;: posinf_if(1, 2)
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;a&quot;: &quot;+INF&quot;, &quot;b&quot;: 1 }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>The function has an alias <tt>posinfif</tt>.</p></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="neginf_if_.28neginfif.29"></a>neginf_if (neginfif)</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">neginf_if(expression1, expression2)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Compares two arguments and returns <tt>-INF</tt> value if they are equal, otherwise returns the first argument.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>expressionI</tt> : an expression (any type is allowed).</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value</li>
+<li><tt>-INF</tt> value of type <tt>double</tt> if <tt>argument1</tt> = <tt>argument2</tt></li>
+<li>a value of the first argument otherwise</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+    &quot;a&quot;: to_string(neginf_if(&quot;asterixdb&quot;, &quot;asterixdb&quot;)),
+    &quot;b&quot;: neginf_if(1, 2)
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;a&quot;: &quot;-INF&quot;, &quot;b&quot;: 1 }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul>
+<p>The function has an alias <tt>neginfif</tt>.</p><!--
+ ! Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ ! or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
+ ! distributed with this work for additional information
+ ! regarding copyright ownership.  The ASF licenses this file
+ ! to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
+ ! "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
+ ! with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
+ !
+ !   http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
+ !
+ ! Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
+ ! software distributed under the License is distributed on an
+ ! "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
+ ! KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
+ ! specific language governing permissions and limitations
+ ! under the License.
+ !-->
+</div></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h2><a name="Miscellaneous_Functions"></a><a name="MiscFunctions" id="MiscFunctions">Miscellaneous Functions</a></h2>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="uuid"></a>uuid</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">uuid()
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Generates a <tt>uuid</tt>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li>none</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a generated, random <tt>uuid</tt>.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="len"></a>len</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+<p>len(array)</p>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Returns the length of the array array.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>array</tt> : an <tt>array</tt>, <tt>multiset</tt>, <tt>null</tt>, or <tt>missing</tt>, represents the collection that needs to be checked.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>an <tt>integer</tt> that represents the length of input array or the size of the input multiset,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">len([&quot;Hello&quot;, &quot;World&quot;])
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">2
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="not"></a>not</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">not(expr)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Inverts a <tt>boolean</tt> value</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>expr</tt> : an expression</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>a <tt>boolean</tt>, the inverse of <tt>expr</tt>,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li>other non-boolean argument value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Example:
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: `not`(true), &quot;v2&quot;: `not`(false), &quot;v3&quot;: `not`(null), &quot;v4&quot;: `not`(missing) };
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;v1&quot;: false, &quot;v2&quot;: true, &quot;v3&quot;: null }
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="random"></a>random</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">random( [seed_value] )
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Returns a random number, accepting an optional seed value</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>seed_value</tt>: an optional <tt>tinyint</tt>/<tt>smallint</tt>/<tt>integer</tt>/<tt>bigint</tt>/<tt>float</tt>/<tt>double</tt> value representing the seed number.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>A random number of type <tt>double</tt> between 0 and 1,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if the argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if the argument is a <tt>null</tt> value,</li>
+<li>any other non-numeric input value will cause a type error.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{
+  &quot;v1&quot;: random(),
+  &quot;v2&quot;: random(unix_time_from_datetime_in_ms(current_datetime()))
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="range"></a>range</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">range(start_numeric_value, end_numeric_value)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Generates a series of <tt>bigint</tt> values based start the <tt>start_numeric_value</tt> until the <tt>end_numeric_value</tt>.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:</li>
+<li><tt>start_numeric_value</tt>: a <tt>tinyint</tt>/<tt>smallint</tt>/<tt>integer</tt>/<tt>bigint</tt> value representing the start value.</li>
+<li><tt>end_numeric_value</tt>: a <tt>tinyint</tt>/<tt>smallint</tt>/<tt>integer</tt>/<tt>bigint</tt> value representing the max final value.</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li>an array that starts with the integer value of <tt>start_numeric_value</tt> and ends with the integer value of <tt>end_numeric_value</tt>, where the value of each entry in the array is the integer successor of the value in the preceding entry.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Example:
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">range(0, 3);
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">[ 0, 1, 2, 3 ]
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="switch_case"></a>switch_case</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">switch_case(
+    condition,
+    case1, case1_result,
+    case2, case2_result,
+    ...,
+    default, default_result
+)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Switches amongst a sequence of cases and returns the result of the first matching case. If no match is found, the result of the default case is returned.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>condition</tt>: a variable (any type is allowed).</li>
+<li><tt>caseI/default</tt>: a variable (any type is allowed).</li>
+<li><tt>caseI/default_result</tt>: a variable (any type is allowed).</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>caseI_result</tt> if <tt>condition</tt> matches <tt>caseI</tt>, otherwise <tt>default_result</tt>.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Example 1:
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">switch_case(
+    &quot;a&quot;,
+    &quot;a&quot;, 0,
+    &quot;x&quot;, 1,
+    &quot;y&quot;, 2,
+    &quot;z&quot;, 3
+);
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">0
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example 2:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">switch_case(
+    &quot;a&quot;,
+    &quot;x&quot;, 1,
+    &quot;y&quot;, 2,
+    &quot;z&quot;, 3
+);
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">3
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="deep_equal"></a>deep_equal</h3>
+<ul>
+
+<li>
+
+<p>Syntax:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">deep_equal(expr1, expr2)
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Assess the equality between two expressions of any type (e.g., object, arrays, or multiset). Two objects are deeply equal iff both their types and values are equal.</p>
+</li>
+<li>Arguments:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>expr1</tt> : an expression,</li>
+<li><tt>expr2</tt> : an expression.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>Return Value:
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>true</tt> or <tt>false</tt> depending on the data equality,</li>
+<li><tt>missing</tt> if any argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value,</li>
+<li><tt>null</tt> if any argument is a <tt>null</tt> value but no argument is a <tt>missing</tt> value.</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>Example:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">deep_equal(
+           {
+             &quot;id&quot;:1,
+             &quot;project&quot;:&quot;AsterixDB&quot;,
+             &quot;address&quot;:{&quot;city&quot;:&quot;Irvine&quot;, &quot;state&quot;:&quot;CA&quot;},
+             &quot;related&quot;:[&quot;Hivestrix&quot;, &quot;Preglix&quot;, &quot;Apache VXQuery&quot;]
+           },
+           {
+             &quot;id&quot;:1,
+             &quot;project&quot;:&quot;AsterixDB&quot;,
+             &quot;address&quot;:{&quot;city&quot;:&quot;San Diego&quot;, &quot;state&quot;:&quot;CA&quot;},
+             &quot;related&quot;:[&quot;Hivestrix&quot;, &quot;Preglix&quot;, &quot;Apache VXQuery&quot;]
+           }
+);
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+<li>
+
+<p>The expected result is:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">false
+</pre></div></div>
+</li>
+</ul></div></div>
+        </div>
+      </div>
+    </div>
+    <hr/>
+    <footer>
+      <div class="container-fluid">
+        <div class="row-fluid">
+<div class="row-fluid">Apache AsterixDB, AsterixDB, Apache, the Apache
+        feather logo, and the Apache AsterixDB project logo are either
+        registered trademarks or trademarks of The Apache Software
+        Foundation in the United States and other countries.
+        All other marks mentioned may be trademarks or registered
+        trademarks of their respective owners.
+      </div>
+        </div>
+      </div>
+    </footer>
+  </body>
+</html>
diff --git a/content/docs/0.9.4.1/aql/externaldata.html b/content/docs/0.9.4.1/aql/externaldata.html
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..45faa7a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/content/docs/0.9.4.1/aql/externaldata.html
@@ -0,0 +1,577 @@
+<!DOCTYPE html>
+<!--
+ | Generated by Apache Maven Doxia Site Renderer 1.8.1 from src/site/markdown/aql/externaldata.md at 2019-03-07
+ | Rendered using Apache Maven Fluido Skin 1.7
+-->
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+  <head>
+    <meta charset="UTF-8" />
+    <meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0" />
+    <meta name="Date-Revision-yyyymmdd" content="20190307" />
+    <meta http-equiv="Content-Language" content="en" />
+    <title>AsterixDB &#x2013; Accessing External Data in AsterixDB</title>
+    <link rel="stylesheet" href="../css/apache-maven-fluido-1.7.min.css" />
+    <link rel="stylesheet" href="../css/site.css" />
+    <link rel="stylesheet" href="../css/print.css" media="print" />
+    <script type="text/javascript" src="../js/apache-maven-fluido-1.7.min.js"></script>
+
+  </head>
+  <body class="topBarDisabled">
+    <div class="container-fluid">
+      <div id="banner">
+        <div class="pull-left"><a href=".././" id="bannerLeft"><img src="../images/asterixlogo.png"  alt="AsterixDB"/></a></div>
+        <div class="pull-right"></div>
+        <div class="clear"><hr/></div>
+      </div>
+
+      <div id="breadcrumbs">
+        <ul class="breadcrumb">
+        <li id="publishDate">Last Published: 2019-03-07</li>
+      <li id="projectVersion" class="pull-right">Version: 0.9.4.1</li>
+      <li class="pull-right"><a href="../index.html" title="Documentation Home">Documentation Home</a></li>
+        </ul>
+      </div>
+      <div class="row-fluid">
+        <div id="leftColumn" class="span2">
+          <div class="well sidebar-nav">
+    <ul class="nav nav-list">
+      <li class="nav-header">Get Started - Installation</li>
+    <li><a href="../ncservice.html" title="Option 1: using NCService"><span class="none"></span>Option 1: using NCService</a></li>
+    <li><a href="../ansible.html" title="Option 2: using Ansible"><span class="none"></span>Option 2: using Ansible</a></li>
+    <li><a href="../aws.html" title="Option 3: using Amazon Web Services"><span class="none"></span>Option 3: using Amazon Web Services</a></li>
+      <li class="nav-header">AsterixDB Primer</li>
+    <li><a href="../sqlpp/primer-sqlpp.html" title="Option 1: using SQL++"><span class="none"></span>Option 1: using SQL++</a></li>
+    <li><a href="../aql/primer.html" title="Option 2: using AQL"><span class="none"></span>Option 2: using AQL</a></li>
+      <li class="nav-header">Data Model</li>
+    <li><a href="../datamodel.html" title="The Asterix Data Model"><span class="none"></span>The Asterix Data Model</a></li>
+      <li class="nav-header">Queries - SQL++</li>
+    <li><a href="../sqlpp/manual.html" title="The SQL++ Query Language"><span class="none"></span>The SQL++ Query Language</a></li>
+    <li><a href="../sqlpp/builtins.html" title="Builtin Functions"><span class="none"></span>Builtin Functions</a></li>
+      <li class="nav-header">Queries - AQL</li>
+    <li><a href="../aql/manual.html" title="The Asterix Query Language (AQL)"><span class="none"></span>The Asterix Query Language (AQL)</a></li>
+    <li><a href="../aql/builtins.html" title="Builtin Functions"><span class="none"></span>Builtin Functions</a></li>
+      <li class="nav-header">API/SDK</li>
+    <li><a href="../api.html" title="HTTP API"><span class="none"></span>HTTP API</a></li>
+    <li><a href="../csv.html" title="CSV Output"><span class="none"></span>CSV Output</a></li>
+      <li class="nav-header">Advanced Features</li>
+    <li><a href="../aql/fulltext.html" title="Support of Full-text Queries"><span class="none"></span>Support of Full-text Queries</a></li>
+    <li class="active"><a href="#"><span class="none"></span>Accessing External Data</a></li>
+    <li><a href="../feeds/tutorial.html" title="Support for Data Ingestion"><span class="none"></span>Support for Data Ingestion</a></li>
+    <li><a href="../udf.html" title="User Defined Functions"><span class="none"></span>User Defined Functions</a></li>
+    <li><a href="../aql/filters.html" title="Filter-Based LSM Index Acceleration"><span class="none"></span>Filter-Based LSM Index Acceleration</a></li>
+    <li><a href="../aql/similarity.html" title="Support of Similarity Queries"><span class="none"></span>Support of Similarity Queries</a></li>
+</ul>
+          <hr />
+          <div id="poweredBy">
+            <div class="clear"></div>
+            <div class="clear"></div>
+            <div class="clear"></div>
+            <div class="clear"></div>
+<a href=".././" title="AsterixDB" class="builtBy"><img class="builtBy"  alt="AsterixDB" src="../images/asterixlogo.png"    /></a>
+            </div>
+          </div>
+        </div>
+        <div id="bodyColumn"  class="span10" >
+<!--
+ ! Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one
+ ! or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
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+ ! to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
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+ ! KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
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+ ! under the License.
+ !-->
+<h1>Accessing External Data in AsterixDB</h1>
+<div class="section">
+<h2><a name="Table_of_Contents"></a><a name="toc" id="toc">Table of Contents</a></h2>
+<ul>
+
+<li><a href="#Introduction">Introduction</a></li>
+<li><a href="#IntroductionAdapterForAnExternalDataset">Adapter for an External Dataset</a></li>
+<li><a href="#BuiltinAdapters">Builtin Adapters</a></li>
+<li><a href="#IntroductionCreatingAnExternalDataset">Creating an External Dataset</a></li>
+<li><a href="#WritingQueriesAgainstAnExternalDataset">Writing Queries against an External Dataset</a></li>
+<li><a href="#BuildingIndexesOverExternalDatasets">Building Indexes over External Datasets</a></li>
+<li><a href="#ExternalDataSnapshot">External Data Snapshots</a></li>
+<li><a href="#FAQ">Frequently Asked Questions</a></li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h2><a name="Introduction_.5BBack_to_TOC.5D"></a><a name="Introduction" id="Introduction">Introduction</a> <font size="4"><a href="#toc">[Back to TOC]</a></font></h2>
+<p>Data that needs to be processed by AsterixDB could be residing outside AsterixDB storage. Examples include data files on a distributed file system such as HDFS or on the local file system of a machine that is part of an AsterixDB cluster. For AsterixDB to process such data, an end-user may create a regular dataset in AsterixDB (a.k.a. an internal dataset) and load the dataset with the data. AsterixDB also supports &#x2018;&#x2018;external datasets&#x2019;&#x2019; so that it is not necessary to &#x201c;load&#x201d; all data prior to using it. This also avoids creating multiple copies of data and the need to keep the copies in sync.</p>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="Adapter_for_an_External_Dataset_.5BBack_to_TOC.5D"></a><a name="IntroductionAdapterForAnExternalDataset" id="IntroductionAdapterForAnExternalDataset">Adapter for an External Dataset</a> <font size="4"><a href="#toc">[Back to TOC]</a></font></h3>
+<p>External data is accessed using wrappers (adapters in AsterixDB) that abstract away the mechanism of connecting with an external service, receiving its data and transforming the data into ADM objects that are understood by AsterixDB. AsterixDB comes with built-in adapters for common storage systems such as HDFS or the local file system.</p></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="Builtin_Adapters_.5BBack_to_TOC.5D"></a><a name="BuiltinAdapters" id="BuiltinAdapters">Builtin Adapters</a> <font size="4"><a href="#toc">[Back to TOC]</a></font></h3>
+<p>AsterixDB offers a set of builtin adapters that can be used to query external data or for loading data into an internal dataset using a load statement or a data feed. Each adapter requires specifying the <tt>format</tt> of the data in order to be able to parse objects correctly. Using adapters with feeds, the parameter <tt>output-type</tt> must also be specified.</p>
+<p>Following is a listing of existing built-in adapters and their configuration parameters:</p>
+<ol style="list-style-type: decimal">
+
+<li><b><i>localfs</i></b>: used for reading data stored in a local filesystem in one or more of the node controllers
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>path</tt>: A fully qualified path of the form <tt>host://absolute_path</tt>. Comma separated list if there are multiple directories or files</li>
+<li><tt>expression</tt>: A <a class="externalLink" href="https://docs.oracle.com/javase/8/docs/api/java/util/regex/Pattern.html">regular expression</a> to match and filter against file names</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><b><i>hdfs</i></b>: used for reading data stored in an HDFS instance
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>path</tt>: A fully qualified path of the form <tt>host://absolute_path</tt>. Comma separated list if there are multiple directories or files</li>
+<li><tt>expression</tt>: A <a class="externalLink" href="https://docs.oracle.com/javase/8/docs/api/java/util/regex/Pattern.html">regular expression</a> to match and filter against file names</li>
+<li><tt>input-format</tt>: A fully qualified name or an alias for a class of HDFS input format</li>
+<li><tt>hdfs</tt>: The HDFS name node URL</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><b><i>socket</i></b>: used for listening to connections that sends data streams through one or more sockets
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>sockets</tt>: comma separated list of sockets to listen to</li>
+<li><tt>address-type</tt>: either IP if the list uses IP addresses, or NC if the list uses NC names</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><b><i>socket_client</i></b>: used for connecting to one or more sockets and reading data streams
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>sockets</tt>: comma separated list of sockets to connect to</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><b><i>twitter_push</i></b>: used for establishing a connection and subscribing to a twitter feed
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>consumer.key</tt>: access parameter provided by twitter OAuth</li>
+<li><tt>consumer.secret</tt>: access parameter provided by twitter OAuth</li>
+<li><tt>access.token</tt>: access parameter provided by twitter OAuth</li>
+<li><tt>access.token.secret</tt>: access parameter provided by twitter OAuth</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><b><i>twitter_pull</i></b>: used for polling a twitter feed for tweets based on a configurable frequency
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>consumer.key</tt>: access parameter provided by twitter OAuth</li>
+<li><tt>consumer.secret</tt>: access parameter provided by twitter OAuth</li>
+<li><tt>access.token</tt>: access parameter provided by twitter OAuth</li>
+<li><tt>access.token.secret</tt>: access parameter provided by twitter OAuth</li>
+<li><tt>query</tt>: twitter query string</li>
+<li><tt>interval</tt>: poll interval in seconds</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+<li><b><i>rss</i></b>: used for reading RSS feed
+<ul>
+
+<li><tt>url</tt>: a comma separated list of RSS urls</li>
+</ul>
+</li>
+</ol></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="Creating_an_External_Dataset_.5BBack_to_TOC.5D"></a><a name="IntroductionCreatingAnExternalDataset" id="IntroductionCreatingAnExternalDataset">Creating an External Dataset</a> <font size="4"><a href="#toc">[Back to TOC]</a></font></h3>
+<p>As an example we consider the Lineitem dataset from the <a class="externalLink" href="http://www.openlinksw.com/dataspace/doc/dav/wiki/Main/VOSTPCHLinkedData/tpch.sql">TPCH schema</a>. We assume that you have successfully created an AsterixDB instance following the instructions at <a href="../install.html">Installing AsterixDB Using Managix</a>. <i>For constructing an example, we assume a single machine setup..</i></p>
+<p>Similar to a regular dataset, an external dataset has an associated datatype. We shall first create the datatype associated with each object in Lineitem data. Paste the following in the query textbox on the webpage at <a class="externalLink" href="http://127.0.0.1:19001">http://127.0.0.1:19001</a> and hit &#x2018;Execute&#x2019;.</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">    create dataverse ExternalFileDemo;
+    use dataverse ExternalFileDemo;
+
+    create type LineitemType as closed {
+      l_orderkey:int32,
+      l_partkey: int32,
+      l_suppkey: int32,
+      l_linenumber: int32,
+      l_quantity: double,
+      l_extendedprice: double,
+      l_discount: double,
+      l_tax: double,
+      l_returnflag: string,
+      l_linestatus: string,
+      l_shipdate: string,
+      l_commitdate: string,
+      l_receiptdate: string,
+      l_shipinstruct: string,
+      l_shipmode: string,
+      l_comment: string}
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p>Here, we describe two scenarios.</p>
+<div class="section">
+<h4><a name="a1.29_Data_file_resides_on_the_local_file_system_of_a_host"></a>1) Data file resides on the local file system of a host</h4>
+<p>Prerequisite: The host is a  part of the ASTERIX cluster.</p>
+<p>Earlier, we assumed a single machine ASTERIX setup. To satisfy the prerequisite, log-in to the machine running ASTERIX.</p>
+<ul>
+
+<li>Download the <a href="../data/lineitem.tbl">data file</a> to an appropriate location. We denote this location by SOURCE_PATH.</li>
+</ul>
+<p>ASTERIX provides a built-in adapter for data residing on the local file system. The adapter is referred by its alias- &#x2018;localfs&#x2019;. We create an external dataset named Lineitem and use the &#x2018;localfs&#x2019; adapter.</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">    create external dataset Lineitem(LineitemType)
+    using localfs
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p>Above, the definition is not complete as we need to provide a set of parameters that are specific to the source file.</p>
+
+<table border="0" class="table table-striped">
+
+<tr class="a">
+  
+<td> Parameter </td>
+  
+<td> Description </td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr class="b">
+  
+<td> path </td>
+  
+<td> A fully qualified path of the form <tt>host://&lt;absolute path&gt;</tt>.
+  Use a comma separated list if there are multiple files.
+  E.g. <tt>host1://&lt;absolute path&gt;</tt>, <tt>host2://&lt;absolute path&gt;</tt> and so forth. </td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr class="a">
+  
+<td> format </td>
+  
+<td> The format for the content. Use 'adm' for data in ADM (ASTERIX Data Model) or <a class="externalLink" href="http://www.json.org/">JSON</a> format. Use 'delimited-text' if fields are separated by a delimiting character (eg., CSV). </td></tr>
+
+<tr class="b">
+  
+<td>delimiter</td>
+  
+<td>The delimiting character in the source file if format is 'delimited text'</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+
+<p>As we are using a single single machine ASTERIX instance, we use 127.0.0.1 as host in the path parameter. We <i>complete the create dataset statement</i> as follows.</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">    use dataverse ExternalFileDemo;
+
+    create external dataset Lineitem(LineitemType)
+    using localfs
+    ((&quot;path&quot;=&quot;127.0.0.1://SOURCE_PATH&quot;),
+    (&quot;format&quot;=&quot;delimited-text&quot;),
+    (&quot;delimiter&quot;=&quot;|&quot;));
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p>Please substitute SOURCE_PATH with the absolute path to the source file on the local file system.</p></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h4><a name="Common_source_of_error"></a>Common source of error</h4>
+<p>An incorrect value for the path parameter will give the following exception message when the dataset is used in a query.</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">    org.apache.hyracks.algebricks.common.exceptions.AlgebricksException: org.apache.hyracks.api.exceptions.HyracksDataException: org.apache.hyracks.api.exceptions.HyracksDataException: Job failed.
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p>Verify the correctness of the path parameter provided to the localfs adapter. Note that the path parameter must be an absolute path to the data file. For e.g. if you saved your file in your home directory (assume it to be /home/joe), then the path value should be</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">    127.0.0.1:///home/joe/lineitem.tbl.
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p>In your web-browser, navigate to 127.0.0.1:19001 and paste the above to the query text box. Finally hit &#x2018;Execute&#x2019;.</p>
+<p>Next we move over to the the section <a href="#Writing_Queries_against_an_External_Dataset">Writing Queries against an External Dataset</a> and try a sample query against the external dataset.</p></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h4><a name="a2.29_Data_file_resides_on_an_HDFS_instance"></a>2) Data file resides on an HDFS instance</h4>
+<p>rerequisite: It is required that the Namenode and HDFS Datanodes are reachable from the hosts that form the AsterixDB cluster. AsterixDB provides a built-in adapter for data residing on HDFS. The HDFS adapter can be referred (in AQL) by its alias - &#x2018;hdfs&#x2019;. We can create an external dataset named Lineitem and associate the HDFS adapter with it as follows;</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">    create external dataset Lineitem(LineitemType)
+    using hdfs((&#x201c;hdfs&#x201d;:&#x201d;hdfs://localhost:54310&#x201d;),(&#x201c;path&#x201d;:&#x201d;/asterix/Lineitem.tbl&#x201d;),...,(&#x201c;input- format&#x201d;:&#x201d;rc-format&#x201d;));
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p>The expected parameters are described below:</p>
+
+<table border="0" class="table table-striped">
+
+<tr class="a">
+  
+<td> Parameter </td>
+  
+<td> Description </td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr class="b">
+  
+<td> hdfs </td>
+  
+<td> The HDFS URL </td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr class="a">
+  
+<td> path </td>
+  
+<td> The absolute path to the source HDFS file or directory. Use a comma separated list if there are multiple files or directories. </td></tr>
+
+<tr class="b">
+  
+<td> input-format </td>
+  
+<td> The associated input format. Use 'text-input-format' for text files , 'sequence-input-format' for hadoop sequence files, 'rc-input-format' for Hadoop Object Columnar files, or a fully qualified name of an implementation of org.apache.hadoop.mapred.InputFormat. </td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr class="a">
+  
+<td> format </td>
+  
+<td> The format of the input content. Use 'adm' for text data in ADM (ASTERIX Data Model) or <a class="externalLink" href="http://www.json.org/">JSON</a> format, 'delimited-text' for text delimited data that has fields separated by a delimiting character, 'binary' for other data.</td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr class="b">
+  
+<td> delimiter </td>
+  
+<td> The delimiting character in the source file if format is 'delimited text' </td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr class="a">
+  
+<td> parser </td>
+  
+<td> The parser used to parse HDFS objects if the format is 'binary'. Use 'hive- parser' for data deserialized by a Hive Serde (AsterixDB can understand deserialized Hive objects) or a fully qualified class name of user- implemented parser that implements the interface org.apache.asterix.external.input.InputParser. </td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr class="b">
+  
+<td> hive-serde </td>
+  
+<td> The Hive serde is used to deserialize HDFS objects if format is binary and the parser is hive-parser. Use a fully qualified name of a class implementation of org.apache.hadoop.hive.serde2.SerDe. </td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr class="a">
+  
+<td> local-socket-path </td>
+  
+<td> The UNIX domain socket path if local short-circuit reads are enabled in the HDFS instance</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+
+<p><i>Difference between &#x2018;input-format&#x2019; and &#x2018;format&#x2019;</i></p>
+<p><i>input-format</i>: Files stored under HDFS have an associated storage format. For example, TextInputFormat represents plain text files. SequenceFileInputFormat indicates binary compressed files. RCFileInputFormat corresponds to objects stored in a object columnar fashion. The parameter &#x2018;input-format&#x2019; is used to distinguish between these and other HDFS input formats.</p>
+<p><i>format</i>: The parameter &#x2018;format&#x2019; refers to the type of the data contained in the file. For example, data contained in a file could be in json or ADM format, could be in delimited-text with fields separated by a delimiting character or could be in binary format.</p>
+<p>As an example. consider the <a href="../data/lineitem.tbl">data file</a>.  The file is a text file with each line representing a object. The fields in each object are separated by the &#x2018;|&#x2019; character.</p>
+<p>We assume the HDFS URL to be <a class="externalLink" href="hdfs://localhost:54310">hdfs://localhost:54310</a>. We further assume that the example data file is copied to HDFS at a path denoted by &#x201c;/asterix/Lineitem.tbl&#x201d;.</p>
+<p>The complete set of parameters for our example file are as follows. ((&#x201c;hdfs&#x201d;=&#x201c;<a class="externalLink" href="hdfs://localhost:54310”,(“path”=“/asterix/Lineitem.tbl”),(“input-format”=“text-">hdfs://localhost:54310&#x201d;,(&#x201c;path&#x201d;=&#x201c;/asterix/Lineitem.tbl&#x201d;),(&#x201c;input-format&#x201d;=&#x201c;text-</a> input-format&#x201d;),(&#x201c;format&#x201d;=&#x201c;delimited-text&#x201d;),(&#x201c;delimiter&#x201d;=&#x201c;|&#x201d;))</p></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h4><a name="Using_the_Hive_Parser"></a>Using the Hive Parser</h4>
+<p>if a user wants to create an external dataset that uses hive-parser to parse HDFS objects, it is important that the datatype associated with the dataset matches the actual data in the Hive table for the correct initialization of the Hive SerDe. Here is the conversion from the supported Hive data types to AsterixDB data types:</p>
+
+<table border="0" class="table table-striped">
+
+<tr class="a">
+  
+<td> Hive </td>
+  
+<td> AsterixDB </td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr class="b">
+  
+<td>BOOLEAN</td>
+  
+<td>Boolean</td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr class="a">
+  
+<td>BYTE(TINY INT)</td>
+  
+<td>Int8</td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr class="b">
+  
+<td>DOUBLE</td>
+  
+<td>Double</td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr class="a">
+  
+<td>FLOAT</td>
+  
+<td>Float</td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr class="b">
+  
+<td>INT</td>
+  
+<td>Int32</td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr class="a">
+  
+<td>LONG(BIG INT)</td>
+  
+<td>Int64</td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr class="b">
+  
+<td>SHORT(SMALL INT)</td>
+  
+<td>Int16</td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr class="a">
+  
+<td>STRING</td>
+  
+<td>String</td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr class="b">
+  
+<td>TIMESTAMP</td>
+  
+<td>Datetime</td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr class="a">
+  
+<td>DATE</td>
+  
+<td>Date</td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr class="b">
+  
+<td>STRUCT</td>
+  
+<td>Nested Object</td>
+</tr>
+
+<tr class="a">
+  
+<td>LIST</td>
+  
+<td>OrderedList or UnorderedList</td>
+</tr>
+</table>
+</div>
+<div class="section">
+<h4><a name="Examples_of_dataset_definitions_for_external_datasets"></a>Examples of dataset definitions for external datasets</h4>
+<p><i>Example 1</i>: We can modify the create external dataset statement as follows:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">    create external dataset Lineitem('LineitemType)
+    using hdfs((&quot;hdfs&quot;=&quot;hdfs://localhost:54310&quot;),(&quot;path&quot;=&quot;/asterix/Lineitem.tbl&quot;),(&quot;input-format&quot;=&quot;text- input-format&quot;),(&quot;format&quot;=&quot;delimited-text&quot;),(&quot;delimiter&quot;=&quot;|&quot;));
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p><i>Example 2</i>: Here, we create an external dataset of lineitem objects stored in sequence files that has content in ADM format:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">    create external dataset Lineitem('LineitemType)
+    using hdfs((&quot;hdfs&quot;=&quot;hdfs://localhost:54310&quot;),(&quot;path&quot;=&quot;/asterix/SequenceLineitem.tbl&quot;),(&quot;input- format&quot;=&quot;sequence-input-format&quot;),(&quot;format&quot;=&quot;adm&quot;));
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p><i>Example 3</i>: Here, we create an external dataset of lineitem objects stored in object-columnar files that has content in binary format parsed using hive-parser with hive ColumnarSerde:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">    create external dataset Lineitem('LineitemType)
+    using hdfs((&quot;hdfs&quot;=&quot;hdfs://localhost:54310&quot;),(&quot;path&quot;=&quot;/asterix/RCLineitem.tbl&quot;),(&quot;input-format&quot;=&quot;rc-input-format&quot;),(&quot;format&quot;=&quot;binary&quot;),(&quot;parser&quot;=&quot;hive-parser&quot;),(&quot;hive- serde&quot;=&quot;org.apache.hadoop.hive.serde2.columnar.ColumnarSerde&quot;));
+</pre></div></div>
+</div></div></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h2><a name="Writing_Queries_against_an_External_Dataset_.5BBack_to_TOC.5D"></a><a name="WritingQueriesAgainstAnExternalDataset" id="WritingQueriesAgainstAnExternalDataset">Writing Queries against an External Dataset</a> <font size="4"><a href="#toc">[Back to TOC]</a></font></h2>
+<p>You may write AQL queries against an external dataset in exactly the same way that queries are written against internal datasets. The following is an example of an AQL query that applies a filter and returns an ordered result.</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">    use dataverse ExternalFileDemo;
+
+    for $c in dataset('Lineitem')
+    where $c.l_orderkey &lt;= 3
+    order by $c.l_orderkey, $c.l_linenumber
+    return $c
+</pre></div></div>
+</div>
+<div class="section">
+<h2><a name="Building_Indexes_over_External_Datasets_.5BBack_to_TOC.5D"></a><a name="BuildingIndexesOverExternalDatasets" id="BuildingIndexesOverExternalDatasets">Building Indexes over External Datasets</a> <font size="4"><a href="#toc">[Back to TOC]</a></font></h2>
+<p>AsterixDB supports building B-Tree and R-Tree indexes over static data stored in the Hadoop Distributed File System. To create an index, first create an external dataset over the data as follows</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">    create external dataset Lineitem(LineitemType)
+    using hdfs((&quot;hdfs&quot;=&quot;hdfs://localhost:54310&quot;),(&quot;path&quot;=&quot;/asterix/Lineitem.tbl&quot;),(&quot;input-format&quot;=&quot;text-input- format&quot;),(&quot;format&quot;=&quot;delimited-text&quot;),(&quot;delimiter&quot;=&quot;|&quot;));
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p>You can then create a B-Tree index on this dataset instance as if the dataset was internally stored as follows:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">    create index PartkeyIdx on Lineitem(l_partkey);
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p>You could also create an R-Tree index as follows:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">    &#xfffc;create index IndexName on DatasetName(attribute-name) type rtree;
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p>After building the indexes, the AsterixDB query compiler can use them to access the dataset and answer queries in a more cost effective manner. AsterixDB can read all HDFS input formats, but indexes over external datasets can currently be built only for HDFS datasets with &#x2018;text-input-format&#x2019;, &#x2018;sequence-input-format&#x2019; or &#x2018;rc-input-format&#x2019;.</p></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h2><a name="External_Data_Snapshots_.5BBack_to_TOC.5D"></a><a name="ExternalDataSnapshots" id="ExternalDataSnapshots">External Data Snapshots</a> <font size="4"><a href="#toc">[Back to TOC]</a></font></h2>
+<p>An external data snapshot represents the status of a dataset&#x2019;s files in HDFS at a point in time. Upon creating the first index over an external dataset, AsterixDB captures and stores a snapshot of the dataset in HDFS. Only objects present at the snapshot capture time are indexed, and any additional indexes created afterwards will only contain data that was present at the snapshot capture time thus preserving consistency across all indexes of a dataset. To update all indexes of an external dataset and advance the snapshot time to be the present time, a user can use the refresh external dataset command as follows:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">    refresh external dataset DatasetName;
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p>After a refresh operation commits, all of the dataset&#x2019;s indexes will reflect the status of the data as of the new snapshot capture time.</p></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h2><a name="Frequently_Asked_Questions_.5BBack_to_TOC.5D"></a><a name="FAQ" id="FAQ">Frequently Asked Questions</a> <font size="4"><a href="#toc">[Back to TOC]</a></font></h2>
+<p>Q. I added data to my dataset in HDFS, Will the dataset indexes in AsterixDB be updated automatically?</p>
+<p>A. No, you must use the refresh external dataset statement to make the indexes aware of any changes in the dataset files in HDFS.</p>
+<p>Q. Why doesn&#x2019;t AsterixDB update external indexes automatically?</p>
+<p>A. Since external data is managed by other users/systems with mechanisms that are system dependent, AsterixDB has no way of knowing exactly when data is added or deleted in HDFS, so the responsibility of refreshing indexes are left to the user. A user can use internal datasets for which AsterixDB manages the data and its indexes.</p>
+<p>Q. I created an index over an external dataset and then added some data to my HDFS dataset. Will a query that uses the index return different results from a query that doesn&#x2019;t use the index?</p>
+<p>A. No, queries&#x2019; results are access path independent and the stored snapshot is used to determines which data are going to be included when processing queries.</p>
+<p>Q. I created an index over an external dataset and then deleted some of my dataset&#x2019;s files in HDFS, Will indexed data access still return the objects in deleted files?</p>
+<p>A. No. When AsterixDB accesses external data, with or without the use of indexes, it only access files present in the file system at runtime.</p>
+<p>Q. I submitted a refresh command on a an external dataset and a failure occurred, What has happened to my indexes?</p>
+<p>A. External Indexes Refreshes are treated as a single transaction. In case of a failure, a rollback occurs and indexes are restored to their previous state. An error message with the cause of failure is returned to the user.</p>
+<p>Q. I was trying to refresh an external dataset while some queries were accessing the data using index access method. Will the queries be affected by the refresh operation?</p>
+<p>A. Queries have access to external dataset indexes state at the time where the queries are submitted. A query that was submitted before a refresh commits will only access data under the snapshot taken before the refresh; queries that are submitted after the refresh commits will access data under the snapshot taken after the refresh.</p>
+<p>Q. What happens when I try to create an additional index while a refresh operation is in progress or vice versa?</p>
+<p>A. The create index operation will wait until the refresh commits or aborts and then the index will be built according to the external data snapshot at the end of the refresh operation. Creating indexes and refreshing datasets are mutually exclusive operations and will not be run in parallel. Multiple indexes can be created in parallel, but not multiple refresh operations.</p></div>
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+        registered trademarks or trademarks of The Apache Software
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+    <li><a href="../aql/fulltext.html" title="Support of Full-text Queries"><span class="none"></span>Support of Full-text Queries</a></li>
+    <li><a href="../aql/externaldata.html" title="Accessing External Data"><span class="none"></span>Accessing External Data</a></li>
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+    <li><a href="../udf.html" title="User Defined Functions"><span class="none"></span>User Defined Functions</a></li>
+    <li class="active"><a href="#"><span class="none"></span>Filter-Based LSM Index Acceleration</a></li>
+    <li><a href="../aql/similarity.html" title="Support of Similarity Queries"><span class="none"></span>Support of Similarity Queries</a></li>
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+<h1>Filter-Based LSM Index Acceleration</h1>
+<div class="section">
+<h2><a name="Table_of_Contents"></a><a name="toc" id="toc">Table of Contents</a></h2>
+<ul>
+
+<li><a href="#Motivation">Motivation</a></li>
+<li><a href="#FiltersInAsterixDB">Filters in AsterixDB</a></li>
+<li><a href="#FiltersAndMergePolicies">Filters and Merge Policies</a></li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h2><a name="Motivation_.5BBack_to_TOC.5D"></a><a name="Motivation" id="Motivation">Motivation</a> <font size="4"><a href="#toc">[Back to TOC]</a></font></h2>
+<p>Traditional relational databases usually employ conventional index structures such as B+ trees due to their low read latency.  However, such traditional index structures use in-place writes to perform updates, resulting in costly random writes to disk. Today&#x2019;s emerging applications often involve insert-intensive workloads for which the cost of random writes prohibits efficient ingestion of data. Consequently, popular NoSQL systems such as Cassandra, HBase, LevelDB, BigTable, etc. have adopted Log-Structured Merge (LSM) Trees as their storage structure. LSM-trees avoids the cost of random writes by batching updates into a component of the index that resides in main memory &#x2013; an <i>in-memory component</i>. When the space occupancy of the in-memory component exceeds a specified threshold, its entries are <i>flushed</i> to disk forming a new component &#x2013; a <i>disk component</i>. As disk components accumulate on disk, they are periodically merged together subject to a <i>merge policy</i> that decides when and what to merge. The benefit of the LSM-trees comes at the cost of possibly sacrificing read efficiency, but, it has been shown in previous studies that these inefficiencies can be mostly mitigated.</p>
+<p>AsterixDB has also embraced LSM-trees, not just by using them as primary indexes, but also by using the same LSM-ification technique for all of its secondary index structures. In particular, AsterixDB adopted a generic framework for converting a class of indexes (that includes conventional B+ trees, R trees, and inverted indexes) into LSM-based secondary indexes, allowing higher data ingestion rates. In fact, for certain index structures, our results have shown that using an LSM-based version of an index can be made to significantly outperform its conventional counterpart for <i>both</i> ingestion and query speed (an example of such an index being the R-tree for spatial data).</p>
+<p>Since an LSM-based index naturally partitions data into multiple disk components, it is possible, when answering certain queries, to exploit partitioning to only access some components and safely filter out the remaining components, thus reducing query times. For instance, referring to our <a href="primer.html#ADM:_Modeling_Semistructed_Data_in_AsterixDB">TinySocial</a> example, suppose a user always retrieves tweets from the <tt>TweetMessages</tt> dataset based on the <tt>send-time</tt> field (e.g., tweets posted in the last 24 hours). Since there is not a secondary index on the <tt>send-time</tt> field, the only available option for AsterixDB would be to scan the whole <tt>TweetMessages</tt> dataset and then apply the predicate as a post-processing step. However, if disk components of the primary index were tagged with the minimum and maximum timestamp values of the objects they contain, we could utilize the tagged information to directly access the primary index and prune components that do not match the query predicate. Thus, we could save substantial cost by avoiding scanning the whole dataset and only access the relevant components. We simply call such tagging information that are associated with components, filters. (Note that even if there were a secondary index on <tt>send-time</tt> field, using filters could save substantial cost by avoiding accessing the secondary index, followed by probing the primary index for every fetched entry.) Moreover, the same filtering technique can also be used with any secondary LSM index (e.g., an LSM R-tree), in case the query contains multiple predicates (e.g., spatial and temporal predicates), to obtain similar pruning power.</p></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h2><a name="Filters_in_AsterixDB_.5BBack_to_TOC.5D"></a><a name="FiltersInAsterixDB" id="FiltersInAsterixDB">Filters in AsterixDB</a> <font size="4"><a href="#toc">[Back to TOC]</a></font></h2>
+<p>We have added support for LSM-based filters to all of AsterixDB&#x2019;s index types. To enable the use of filters, the user must specify the filter&#x2019;s key when creating a dataset, as shown below:</p>
+<div class="section">
+<div class="section">
+<h4><a name="Creating_a_Dataset_with_a_Filter"></a>Creating a Dataset with a Filter</h4>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">    create dataset Tweets(TweetType) primary key tweetid with filter on send-time;
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p>Filters can be created on any totally ordered datatype (i.e., any field that can be indexed using a B+ -tree), such as integers, doubles, floats, UUIDs, datetimes, etc.</p>
+<p>When a dataset with a filter is created, the name of the filter&#x2019;s key field is persisted in the <tt>Metadata.Dataset</tt> dataset (which is the metadata dataset that stores the details of each dataset in an AsterixDB instance) so that DML operations against the dataset can recognize the existence of filters and can update them or utilize them accordingly. Creating a dataset with a filter in AsterixDB implies that the primary and all secondary indexes of that dataset will maintain filters on their disk components. Once a filtered dataset is created, the user can use the dataset normally (just like any other dataset). AsterixDB will automatically maintain the filters and will leverage them to efficiently answer queries whenever possible (i.e., when a query has predicates on the filter&#x2019;s key).</p></div></div></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h2><a name="Filters_and_Merge_Policies_.5BBack_to_TOC.5D"></a><a name="FiltersAndMergePolicies" id="FiltersAndMergePolicies">Filters and Merge Policies</a> <font size="4"><a href="#toc">[Back to TOC]</a></font></h2>
+<p>The AsterixDB default merge policy, the prefix merge policy, relies on component sizes and the number of components to decide which components to merge. This merge policy has proven to provide excellent performance for both ingestion and queries. However, when evaluating our filtering solution with the prefix policy, we observed a behavior that can reduce filter effectiveness. In particular, we noticed that under the prefix merge policy, the disk components of a secondary index tend to be constantly merged into a single component. This is because the prefix policy relies on a single size parameter for all of the indexes of a dataset. This parameter is typically chosen based on the sizes of the disk components of the primary index, which tend to be much larger than the sizes of the secondary indexes&#x2019; disk components. This difference caused the prefix merge policy to behave similarly to the constant merge policy (i.e., relatively poorly) when applied to secondary indexes in the sense that the secondary indexes are constantly merged into a single disk component. Consequently, the effectiveness of filters on secondary indexes was greatly reduced under the prefix-merge policy, but they were still effective when probing the primary index.  Based on this behavior, we developed a new merge policy, an improved version of the prefix policy, called the correlated-prefix policy. The basic idea of this policy is that it delegates the decision of merging the disk components of all the indexes in a dataset to the primary index. When the policy decides that the primary index needs to be merged (using the same decision criteria as for the prefix policy), then it will issue successive merge requests to the I/O scheduler on behalf of all other indexes associated with the same dataset. The end result is that secondary indexes will always have the same number of disk components as their primary index under the correlated-prefix merge policy. This has improved query performance, since disk components of secondary indexes now have a much better chance of being pruned.</p></div>
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+    <li class="active"><a href="#"><span class="none"></span>Support of Full-text Queries</a></li>
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+<h1>AsterixDB  Support of Full-text search queries</h1>
+<div class="section">
+<h2><a name="Table_of_Contents"></a><a name="toc" id="toc">Table of Contents</a></h2>
+<ul>
+
+<li><a href="#Motivation">Motivation</a></li>
+<li><a href="#Syntax">Syntax</a></li>
+<li><a href="#FulltextIndex">Creating and utilizing a Full-text index</a></li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h2><a name="Motivation_.5BBack_to_TOC.5D"></a><a name="Motivation" id="Motivation">Motivation</a> <font size="4"><a href="#toc">[Back to TOC]</a></font></h2>
+<p>Full-Text Search (FTS) queries are widely used in applications where users need to find records that satisfy an FTS predicate, i.e., where simple string-based matching is not sufficient. These queries are important when finding documents that contain a certain keyword is crucial. FTS queries are different from substring matching queries in that FTS queries find their query predicates as exact keywords in the given string, rather than treating a query predicate as a sequence of characters. For example, an FTS query that finds &#x201c;rain&#x201d; correctly returns a document when it contains &#x201c;rain&#x201d; as a word. However, a substring-matching query returns a document whenever it contains &#x201c;rain&#x201d; as a substring, for instance, a document with &#x201c;brain&#x201d; or &#x201c;training&#x201d; would be returned as well.</p></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h2><a name="Syntax_.5BBack_to_TOC.5D"></a><a name="Syntax" id="Syntax">Syntax</a> <font size="4"><a href="#toc">[Back to TOC]</a></font></h2>
+<p>The syntax of AsterixDB FTS follows a portion of the XQuery FullText Search syntax. Two basic forms are as follows:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">    ftcontains(Expression1, Expression2, {FullTextOption})
+    ftcontains(Expression1, Expression2)
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p>For example, we can execute the following query to find Chirp messages where the <tt>messageText</tt> field includes &#x201c;voice&#x201d; as a word. Please note that an FTS search is case-insensitive. Thus, &#x201c;Voice&#x201d; or &#x201c;voice&#x201d; will be evaluated as the same word.</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">    use TinySocial;
+
+    select element {&quot;chirpId&quot;: msg.chirpId}
+    from ChirpMessages msg
+    where ftcontains(msg.messageText, &quot;voice&quot;, {&quot;mode&quot;:&quot;any&quot;});
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p>The DDL and DML of TinySocial can be found in <a href="../sqlpp/primer-sqlpp.html#ADM:_Modeling_Semistructed_Data_in_AsterixDB">ADM: Modeling Semistructed Data in AsterixDB</a>.</p>
+<p>The <tt>Expression1</tt> is an expression that should be evaluable as a string at runtime as in the above example where <tt>msg.messageText</tt> is a string field. The <tt>Expression2</tt> can be a string, an (un)ordered list of string value(s), or an expression. In the last case, the given expression should be evaluable into one of the first two types, i.e., into a string value or an (un)ordered list of string value(s).</p>
+<p>The following examples are all valid expressions.</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">   ... where ftcontains(msg.messageText, &quot;sound&quot;)
+   ... where ftcontains(msg.messageText, &quot;sound&quot;, {&quot;mode&quot;:&quot;any&quot;})
+   ... where ftcontains(msg.messageText, [&quot;sound&quot;, &quot;system&quot;], {&quot;mode&quot;:&quot;any&quot;})
+   ... where ftcontains(msg.messageText, {{&quot;speed&quot;, &quot;stand&quot;, &quot;customization&quot;}}, {&quot;mode&quot;:&quot;all&quot;})
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p>The last <tt>FullTextOption</tt> parameter clarifies the given FTS request. If you omit the <tt>FullTextOption</tt> parameter, then the default value will be set for each possible option. Currently, we only have one option named <tt>mode</tt>. And as we extend the FTS feature, more options will be added. Please note that the format of <tt>FullTextOption</tt> is a record, thus you need to put the option(s) in a record <tt>{}</tt>. The <tt>mode</tt> option indicates whether the given FTS query is a conjunctive (AND) or disjunctive (OR) search request. This option can be either <tt>&#x201c;all&#x201d;</tt> (AND) or <tt>&#x201c;any&#x201d;</tt> (OR). The default value for <tt>mode</tt> is <tt>&#x201c;all&#x201d;</tt>. If one specifies <tt>&#x201c;any&#x201d;</tt>, a disjunctive search will be conducted. For example, the following query will find documents whose <tt>messageText</tt> field contains &#x201c;sound&#x201d; or &#x201c;system&#x201d;, so a document will be returned if it contains either &#x201c;sound&#x201d;, &#x201c;system&#x201d;, or both of the keywords.</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">   ... where ftcontains(msg.messageText, [&quot;sound&quot;, &quot;system&quot;], {&quot;mode&quot;:&quot;any&quot;})
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p>The other option parameter,<tt>&#x201c;all&#x201d;</tt>, specifies a conjunctive search. The following examples will find the documents whose <tt>messageText</tt> field contains both &#x201c;sound&#x201d; and &#x201c;system&#x201d;. If a document contains only &#x201c;sound&#x201d; or &#x201c;system&#x201d; but not both, it will not be returned.</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">   ... where ftcontains(msg.messageText, [&quot;sound&quot;, &quot;system&quot;], {&quot;mode&quot;:&quot;all&quot;})
+   ... where ftcontains(msg.messageText, [&quot;sound&quot;, &quot;system&quot;])
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p>Currently AsterixDB doesn&#x2019;t (yet) support phrase searches, so the following query will not work.</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">   ... where ftcontains(msg.messageText, &quot;sound system&quot;, {&quot;mode&quot;:&quot;any&quot;})
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p>As a workaround solution, the following query can be used to achieve a roughly similar goal. The difference is that the following queries will find documents where <tt>msg.messageText</tt> contains both &#x201c;sound&#x201d; and &#x201c;system&#x201d;, but the order and adjacency of &#x201c;sound&#x201d; and &#x201c;system&#x201d; are not checked, unlike in a phrase search. As a result, the query below would also return documents with &#x201c;sound system can be installed.&#x201d;, &#x201c;system sound is perfect.&#x201d;, or &#x201c;sound is not clear. You may need to install a new system.&#x201d;</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">   ... where ftcontains(msg.messageText, [&quot;sound&quot;, &quot;system&quot;], {&quot;mode&quot;:&quot;all&quot;})
+   ... where ftcontains(msg.messageText, [&quot;sound&quot;, &quot;system&quot;])
+</pre></div></div>
+</div>
+<div class="section">
+<h2><a name="Creating_and_utilizing_a_Full-text_index_.5BBack_to_TOC.5D"></a><a name="FulltextIndex" id="FulltextIndex">Creating and utilizing a Full-text index</a> <font size="4"><a href="#toc">[Back to TOC]</a></font></h2>
+<p>When there is a full-text index on the field that is being searched, rather than scanning all records, AsterixDB can utilize that index to expedite the execution of a FTS query. To create a full-text index, you need to specify the index type as <tt>fulltext</tt> in your DDL statement. For instance, the following DDL statement create a full-text index on the <tt>GleambookMessages.message</tt> attribute. Note that a full-text index cannot be built on a dataset with the variable-length primary key (e.g., string).</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">use TinySocial;
+
+create index messageFTSIdx on GleambookMessages(message) type fulltext;
+</pre></div></div></div>
+        </div>
+      </div>
+    </div>
+    <hr/>
+    <footer>
+      <div class="container-fluid">
+        <div class="row-fluid">
+<div class="row-fluid">Apache AsterixDB, AsterixDB, Apache, the Apache
+        feather logo, and the Apache AsterixDB project logo are either
+        registered trademarks or trademarks of The Apache Software
+        Foundation in the United States and other countries.
+        All other marks mentioned may be trademarks or registered
+        trademarks of their respective owners.
+      </div>
+        </div>
+      </div>
+    </footer>
+  </body>
+</html>
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@@ -0,0 +1,873 @@
+<!DOCTYPE html>
+<!--
+ | Generated by Apache Maven Doxia Site Renderer 1.8.1 from src/site/markdown/aql/js-sdk.md at 2019-03-07
+ | Rendered using Apache Maven Fluido Skin 1.7
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+  <head>
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+        <div class="pull-left"><a href=".././" id="bannerLeft"><img src="../images/asterixlogo.png"  alt="AsterixDB"/></a></div>
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+        <div class="clear"><hr/></div>
+      </div>
+
+      <div id="breadcrumbs">
+        <ul class="breadcrumb">
+        <li id="publishDate">Last Published: 2019-03-07</li>
+      <li id="projectVersion" class="pull-right">Version: 0.9.4.1</li>
+      <li class="pull-right"><a href="../index.html" title="Documentation Home">Documentation Home</a></li>
+        </ul>
+      </div>
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+        <div id="leftColumn" class="span2">
+          <div class="well sidebar-nav">
+    <ul class="nav nav-list">
+      <li class="nav-header">Get Started - Installation</li>
+    <li><a href="../ncservice.html" title="Option 1: using NCService"><span class="none"></span>Option 1: using NCService</a></li>
+    <li><a href="../ansible.html" title="Option 2: using Ansible"><span class="none"></span>Option 2: using Ansible</a></li>
+    <li><a href="../aws.html" title="Option 3: using Amazon Web Services"><span class="none"></span>Option 3: using Amazon Web Services</a></li>
+      <li class="nav-header">AsterixDB Primer</li>
+    <li><a href="../sqlpp/primer-sqlpp.html" title="Option 1: using SQL++"><span class="none"></span>Option 1: using SQL++</a></li>
+    <li><a href="../aql/primer.html" title="Option 2: using AQL"><span class="none"></span>Option 2: using AQL</a></li>
+      <li class="nav-header">Data Model</li>
+    <li><a href="../datamodel.html" title="The Asterix Data Model"><span class="none"></span>The Asterix Data Model</a></li>
+      <li class="nav-header">Queries - SQL++</li>
+    <li><a href="../sqlpp/manual.html" title="The SQL++ Query Language"><span class="none"></span>The SQL++ Query Language</a></li>
+    <li><a href="../sqlpp/builtins.html" title="Builtin Functions"><span class="none"></span>Builtin Functions</a></li>
+      <li class="nav-header">Queries - AQL</li>
+    <li><a href="../aql/manual.html" title="The Asterix Query Language (AQL)"><span class="none"></span>The Asterix Query Language (AQL)</a></li>
+    <li><a href="../aql/builtins.html" title="Builtin Functions"><span class="none"></span>Builtin Functions</a></li>
+      <li class="nav-header">API/SDK</li>
+    <li><a href="../api.html" title="HTTP API"><span class="none"></span>HTTP API</a></li>
+    <li><a href="../csv.html" title="CSV Output"><span class="none"></span>CSV Output</a></li>
+      <li class="nav-header">Advanced Features</li>
+    <li><a href="../aql/fulltext.html" title="Support of Full-text Queries"><span class="none"></span>Support of Full-text Queries</a></li>
+    <li><a href="../aql/externaldata.html" title="Accessing External Data"><span class="none"></span>Accessing External Data</a></li>
+    <li><a href="../feeds/tutorial.html" title="Support for Data Ingestion"><span class="none"></span>Support for Data Ingestion</a></li>
+    <li><a href="../udf.html" title="User Defined Functions"><span class="none"></span>User Defined Functions</a></li>
+    <li><a href="../aql/filters.html" title="Filter-Based LSM Index Acceleration"><span class="none"></span>Filter-Based LSM Index Acceleration</a></li>
+    <li><a href="../aql/similarity.html" title="Support of Similarity Queries"><span class="none"></span>Support of Similarity Queries</a></li>
+</ul>
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+ ! KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
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+ ! under the License.
+ !-->
+<h1>AsterixDB Javascript SDK</h1>
+<div class="section">
+<h2><a name="Obtaining_and_Including"></a>Obtaining and Including</h2>
+<p><a class="externalLink" href="http://asterixdb.ics.uci.edu/download/bindings/asterix-sdk-stable.js">Download</a> the javascript SDK and include it like any other javascript library by adding the following line in the appropriate HTML file:</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">&lt;script src=&quot;path/to/asterix-sdk-stable.js&quot;&gt;&lt;/script&gt;
+</pre></div></div>
+</div>
+<div class="section">
+<h2><a name="Interactive_Demos"></a>Interactive Demos</h2>
+<p>There are two interactive demos that are available for download. Both of the demos illustrate how the javascript API would be used in an application:</p>
+<ul>
+
+<li><a class="externalLink" href="http://asterixdb.ics.uci.edu/download/demos/tweetbook-demo.zip">Tweetbook Demo</a>: a contrived geo-spatial application dealing with artificial Tweets allowing spatial, temporal, and keyword-based filtering.</li>
+<li><a class="externalLink" href="http://asterixdb.ics.uci.edu/download/demos/admaql101-demo.zip">ADM/AQL 101 Demo</a>: an interactive version of all of the examples that are provided in the following section.</li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h2><a name="The_javascript_SDK:_by_example"></a>The javascript SDK: by example</h2>
+<p>In this section, we explore how to form AQL queries using the javascript SDK. The queries from <a href="primer.html">AsterixDB 101: An ADM and AQL Primer</a> are used as examples here. For each AQL statement, the equivalent javascript expression is shown below it, followed by the results of executing the query.</p>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="Query_0-A_-_Exact-Match_Lookup"></a>Query 0-A - Exact-Match Lookup</h3>
+<div class="section">
+<div class="section">
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="AQL"></a>AQL</h6>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">use dataverse TinySocial;
+
+for $user in dataset FacebookUsers
+where $user.id = 8
+return $user;
+</pre></div></div>
+</div>
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="JS"></a>JS</h6>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">var expression0a = new FLWOGRExpression()
+	.ForClause(&quot;$user&quot;, new AExpression(&quot;dataset FacebookUsers&quot;))
+    .WhereClause(new AExpression(&quot;$user.id = 8&quot;))
+    .ReturnClause(&quot;$user&quot;);
+</pre></div></div>
+</div>
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="Results"></a>Results</h6>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;id&quot;: { int32: 8 } , &quot;alias&quot;: &quot;Nila&quot;, &quot;name&quot;: &quot;NilaMilliron&quot;, &quot;user-since&quot;: { datetime: 1199182200000}, &quot;friend-ids&quot;: { unorderedlist: [{ int32: 3 } ]}, &quot;employment&quot;: { orderedlist: [{ &quot;organization-name&quot;: &quot;Plexlane&quot;, &quot;start-date&quot;: { date: 1267315200000}, &quot;end-date&quot;: null } ]} }
+</pre></div></div>
+</div></div></div></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="Query_0-B_-_Range_Scan"></a>Query 0-B - Range Scan</h3>
+<div class="section">
+<div class="section">
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="AQL"></a>AQL</h6>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">use dataverse TinySocial;
+
+for $user in dataset FacebookUsers
+where $user.id &gt;= 2 and $user.id &lt;= 4
+return $user;
+</pre></div></div>
+</div>
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="JS"></a>JS</h6>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">var expression0b = new FLWOGRExpression()
+	.ForClause(&quot;$user&quot;, new AExpression(&quot;dataset FacebookUsers&quot;))
+	.WhereClause().and(new AExpression(&quot;$user.id &gt;= 2&quot;), new AExpression(&quot;$user.id &lt;= 4&quot;))
+	.ReturnClause(&quot;$user&quot;);
+</pre></div></div>
+</div>
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="Results"></a>Results</h6>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;id&quot;: { int32: 2 } , &quot;alias&quot;: &quot;Isbel&quot;, &quot;name&quot;: &quot;IsbelDull&quot;, &quot;user-since&quot;: { datetime: 1295691000000}, &quot;friend-ids&quot;: { unorderedlist: [{ int32: 1 } , { int32: 4 } ]}, &quot;employment&quot;: { orderedlist: [{ &quot;organization-name&quot;: &quot;Hexviafind&quot;, &quot;start-date&quot;: { date: 1272326400000}, &quot;end-date&quot;: null } ]} }
+{ &quot;id&quot;: { int32: 3 } , &quot;alias&quot;: &quot;Emory&quot;, &quot;name&quot;: &quot;EmoryUnk&quot;, &quot;user-since&quot;: { datetime: 1341915000000}, &quot;friend-ids&quot;: { unorderedlist: [{ int32: 1 } , { int32: 5 } , { int32: 8 } , { int32: 9 } ]}, &quot;employment&quot;: { orderedlist: [{ &quot;organization-name&quot;: &quot;geomedia&quot;, &quot;start-date&quot;: { date: 1276732800000}, &quot;end-date&quot;: { date: 1264464000000} } ]} }
+{ &quot;id&quot;: { int32: 4 } , &quot;alias&quot;: &quot;Nicholas&quot;, &quot;name&quot;: &quot;NicholasStroh&quot;, &quot;user-since&quot;: { datetime: 1293444600000}, &quot;friend-ids&quot;: { unorderedlist: [{ int32: 2 } ]}, &quot;employment&quot;: { orderedlist: [{ &quot;organization-name&quot;: &quot;Zamcorporation&quot;, &quot;start-date&quot;: { date: 1275955200000}, &quot;end-date&quot;: null } ]} }
+</pre></div></div>
+</div></div></div></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="Query_1_-_Other_Query_Filters"></a>Query 1 - Other Query Filters</h3>
+<div class="section">
+<div class="section">
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="AQL"></a>AQL</h6>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">use dataverse TinySocial;
+
+for $user in dataset FacebookUsers
+where $user.user-since &gt;= datetime('2010-07-22T00:00:00')
+and $user.user-since &lt;= datetime('2012-07-29T23:59:59')
+return $user;
+</pre></div></div>
+</div>
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="JS"></a>JS</h6>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">var expression1 = new FLWOGRExpression()
+	.ForClause(&quot;$user&quot;, new AExpression(&quot;dataset FacebookUsers&quot;))
+    .WhereClause().and(
+		new AExpression(&quot;$user.user-since &gt;= datetime('2010-07-22T00:00:00')&quot;),
+		new AExpression(&quot;$user.user-since &lt;= datetime('2012-07-29T23:59:59')&quot;)
+    ).ReturnClause(&quot;$user&quot;);
+</pre></div></div>
+</div>
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="Results"></a>Results</h6>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;id&quot;: { int32: 2 } , &quot;alias&quot;: &quot;Isbel&quot;, &quot;name&quot;: &quot;IsbelDull&quot;, &quot;user-since&quot;: { datetime: 1295691000000}, &quot;friend-ids&quot;: { unorderedlist: [{ int32: 1 } , { int32: 4 } ]}, &quot;employment&quot;: { orderedlist: [{ &quot;organization-name&quot;: &quot;Hexviafind&quot;, &quot;start-date&quot;: { date: 1272326400000}, &quot;end-date&quot;: null } ]} }
+{ &quot;id&quot;: { int32: 10 } , &quot;alias&quot;: &quot;Bram&quot;, &quot;name&quot;: &quot;BramHatch&quot;, &quot;user-since&quot;: { datetime: 1287223800000}, &quot;friend-ids&quot;: { unorderedlist: [{ int32: 1 } , { int32: 5 } , { int32: 9 } ]}, &quot;employment&quot;: { orderedlist: [{ &quot;organization-name&quot;: &quot;physcane&quot;, &quot;start-date&quot;: { date: 1181001600000}, &quot;end-date&quot;: { date: 1320451200000} } ]} }
+{ &quot;id&quot;: { int32: 3 } , &quot;alias&quot;: &quot;Emory&quot;, &quot;name&quot;: &quot;EmoryUnk&quot;, &quot;user-since&quot;: { datetime: 1341915000000}, &quot;friend-ids&quot;: { unorderedlist: [{ int32: 1 } , { int32: 5 } , { int32: 8 } , { int32: 9 } ]}, &quot;employment&quot;: { orderedlist: [{ &quot;organization-name&quot;: &quot;geomedia&quot;, &quot;start-date&quot;: { date: 1276732800000}, &quot;end-date&quot;: { date: 1264464000000} } ]} }
+{ &quot;id&quot;: { int32: 4 } , &quot;alias&quot;: &quot;Nicholas&quot;, &quot;name&quot;: &quot;NicholasStroh&quot;, &quot;user-since&quot;: { datetime: 1293444600000}, &quot;friend-ids&quot;: { unorderedlist: [{ int32: 2 } ]}, &quot;employment&quot;: { orderedlist: [{ &quot;organization-name&quot;: &quot;Zamcorporation&quot;, &quot;start-date&quot;: { date: 1275955200000}, &quot;end-date&quot;: null } ]} }
+</pre></div></div>
+</div></div></div></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="Query_2-A_-_Equijoin"></a>Query 2-A - Equijoin</h3>
+<div class="section">
+<div class="section">
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="AQL"></a>AQL</h6>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">use dataverse TinySocial;
+
+for $user in dataset FacebookUsers
+for $message in dataset FacebookMessages
+where $message.author-id = $user.id
+return {
+    &quot;uname&quot;: $user.name,
+    &quot;message&quot;: $message.message
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</div>
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="JS"></a>JS</h6>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">var expression2a = new FLWOGRExpression()
+	.ForClause (&quot;$user&quot;, new AExpression(&quot;dataset FacebookUsers&quot;))
+	.ForClause (&quot;$message&quot;, new AExpression(&quot;dataset FacebookMessages&quot;))
+	.WhereClause(new AExpression(&quot;$message.author-id = $user.id&quot;))
+	.ReturnClause({
+		&quot;uname&quot; : &quot;$user.name&quot;,
+		&quot;message&quot; : &quot;$message.message&quot;
+	});
+</pre></div></div>
+</div>
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="Results"></a>Results</h6>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;uname&quot;: &quot;MargaritaStoddard&quot;, &quot;message&quot;: &quot; dislike x-phone its touch-screen is horrible&quot; }
+{ &quot;uname&quot;: &quot;MargaritaStoddard&quot;, &quot;message&quot;: &quot; like ccast the 3G is awesome:)&quot; }
+{ &quot;uname&quot;: &quot;MargaritaStoddard&quot;, &quot;message&quot;: &quot; can't stand product-w the touch-screen is terrible&quot; }
+{ &quot;uname&quot;: &quot;MargaritaStoddard&quot;, &quot;message&quot;: &quot; can't stand acast the network is horrible:(&quot; }
+{ &quot;uname&quot;: &quot;MargaritaStoddard&quot;, &quot;message&quot;: &quot; can't stand acast its plan is terrible&quot; }
+{ &quot;uname&quot;: &quot;IsbelDull&quot;, &quot;message&quot;: &quot; like product-y the plan is amazing&quot; }
+{ &quot;uname&quot;: &quot;IsbelDull&quot;, &quot;message&quot;: &quot; like product-z its platform is mind-blowing&quot; }
+{ &quot;uname&quot;: &quot;WoodrowNehling&quot;, &quot;message&quot;: &quot; love acast its 3G is good:)&quot; }
+{ &quot;uname&quot;: &quot;BramHatch&quot;, &quot;message&quot;: &quot; dislike x-phone the voice-command is bad:(&quot; }
+{ &quot;uname&quot;: &quot;BramHatch&quot;, &quot;message&quot;: &quot; can't stand product-z its voicemail-service is OMG:(&quot; }
+{ &quot;uname&quot;: &quot;EmoryUnk&quot;, &quot;message&quot;: &quot; love product-b its shortcut-menu is awesome:)&quot; }
+{ &quot;uname&quot;: &quot;EmoryUnk&quot;, &quot;message&quot;: &quot; love ccast its wireless is good&quot; }
+{ &quot;uname&quot;: &quot;WillisWynne&quot;, &quot;message&quot;: &quot; love product-b the customization is mind-blowing&quot; }
+{ &quot;uname&quot;: &quot;SuzannaTillson&quot;, &quot;message&quot;: &quot; like x-phone the voicemail-service is awesome&quot; }
+{ &quot;uname&quot;: &quot;VonKemble&quot;, &quot;message&quot;: &quot; dislike product-b the speed is horrible&quot; }
+</pre></div></div>
+</div></div></div></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="Query_2-B_-_Index_join"></a>Query 2-B - Index join</h3>
+<div class="section">
+<div class="section">
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="AQL"></a>AQL</h6>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">use dataverse TinySocial;
+
+for $user in dataset FacebookUsers
+for $message in dataset FacebookMessages
+where $message.author-id /*+ indexnl */  = $user.id
+return {
+    &quot;uname&quot;: $user.name,
+    &quot;message&quot;: $message.message
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</div>
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="JS"></a>JS</h6>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">var expression2b = new FLWOGRExpression()
+	.ForClause (&quot;$user&quot;, new AExpression(&quot;dataset FacebookUsers&quot;))
+	.ForClause (&quot;$message&quot;, new AExpression(&quot;dataset FacebookMessages&quot;))
+	.WhereClause(new AExpression(&quot;$message.author-id /*+ indexnl */  = $user.id&quot;))
+	.ReturnClause({
+		&quot;uname&quot; : &quot;$user.name&quot;,
+		&quot;message&quot; : &quot;$message.message&quot;
+	});
+</pre></div></div>
+</div>
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="Results"></a>Results</h6>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;uname&quot;: &quot;MargaritaStoddard&quot;, &quot;message&quot;: &quot; dislike x-phone its touch-screen is horrible&quot; }
+{ &quot;uname&quot;: &quot;MargaritaStoddard&quot;, &quot;message&quot;: &quot; like ccast the 3G is awesome:)&quot; }
+{ &quot;uname&quot;: &quot;MargaritaStoddard&quot;, &quot;message&quot;: &quot; can't stand product-w the touch-screen is terrible&quot; }
+{ &quot;uname&quot;: &quot;MargaritaStoddard&quot;, &quot;message&quot;: &quot; can't stand acast the network is horrible:(&quot; }
+{ &quot;uname&quot;: &quot;MargaritaStoddard&quot;, &quot;message&quot;: &quot; can't stand acast its plan is terrible&quot; }
+{ &quot;uname&quot;: &quot;IsbelDull&quot;, &quot;message&quot;: &quot; like product-y the plan is amazing&quot; }
+{ &quot;uname&quot;: &quot;IsbelDull&quot;, &quot;message&quot;: &quot; like product-z its platform is mind-blowing&quot; }
+{ &quot;uname&quot;: &quot;WoodrowNehling&quot;, &quot;message&quot;: &quot; love acast its 3G is good:)&quot; }
+{ &quot;uname&quot;: &quot;BramHatch&quot;, &quot;message&quot;: &quot; dislike x-phone the voice-command is bad:(&quot; }
+{ &quot;uname&quot;: &quot;BramHatch&quot;, &quot;message&quot;: &quot; can't stand product-z its voicemail-service is OMG:(&quot; }
+{ &quot;uname&quot;: &quot;EmoryUnk&quot;, &quot;message&quot;: &quot; love product-b its shortcut-menu is awesome:)&quot; }
+{ &quot;uname&quot;: &quot;EmoryUnk&quot;, &quot;message&quot;: &quot; love ccast its wireless is good&quot; }
+{ &quot;uname&quot;: &quot;WillisWynne&quot;, &quot;message&quot;: &quot; love product-b the customization is mind-blowing&quot; }
+{ &quot;uname&quot;: &quot;SuzannaTillson&quot;, &quot;message&quot;: &quot; like x-phone the voicemail-service is awesome&quot; }
+{ &quot;uname&quot;: &quot;VonKemble&quot;, &quot;message&quot;: &quot; dislike product-b the speed is horrible&quot; }
+</pre></div></div>
+</div></div></div></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="Query_3_-_Nested_Outer_Join"></a>Query 3 - Nested Outer Join</h3>
+<div class="section">
+<div class="section">
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="AQL"></a>AQL</h6>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">use dataverse TinySocial;
+
+for $user in dataset FacebookUsers
+return {
+    &quot;uname&quot;: $user.name,
+    &quot;messages&quot;: for $message in dataset FacebookMessages
+                where $message.author-id = $user.id
+                return $message.message
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</div>
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="JS"></a>JS</h6>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">var expression3messages = new FLWOGRExpression()
+    .ForClause(&quot;$message&quot;, new AExpression(&quot;dataset FacebookMessages&quot;))
+    .WhereClause(new AExpression(&quot;$message.author-id = $user.id&quot;))
+    .ReturnClause(&quot;$message.message&quot;);
+
+var expression3 = new FLWOGRExpression()
+    .ForClause (&quot;$user&quot;, new AExpression(&quot;dataset FacebookUsers&quot;))
+    .ReturnClause({
+        &quot;uname&quot;: &quot;$user.name&quot;,
+        &quot;messages&quot; : expression3messages
+    });
+</pre></div></div>
+</div>
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="Results"></a>Results</h6>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;uname&quot;: &quot;MargaritaStoddard&quot;, &quot;messages&quot;: { orderedlist: [&quot; dislike x-phone its touch-screen is horrible&quot;, &quot; like ccast the 3G is awesome:)&quot;, &quot; can't stand product-w the touch-screen is terrible&quot;, &quot; can't stand acast the network is horrible:(&quot;, &quot; can't stand acast its plan is terrible&quot; ]} }
+{ &quot;uname&quot;: &quot;IsbelDull&quot;, &quot;messages&quot;: { orderedlist: [&quot; like product-y the plan is amazing&quot;, &quot; like product-z its platform is mind-blowing&quot; ]} }
+{ &quot;uname&quot;: &quot;NilaMilliron&quot;, &quot;messages&quot;: { orderedlist: [ ]} }
+{ &quot;uname&quot;: &quot;WoodrowNehling&quot;, &quot;messages&quot;: { orderedlist: [&quot; love acast its 3G is good:)&quot; ]} }
+{ &quot;uname&quot;: &quot;BramHatch&quot;, &quot;messages&quot;: { orderedlist: [&quot; dislike x-phone the voice-command is bad:(&quot;, &quot; can't stand product-z its voicemail-service is OMG:(&quot; ]} }
+{ &quot;uname&quot;: &quot;EmoryUnk&quot;, &quot;messages&quot;: { orderedlist: [&quot; love product-b its shortcut-menu is awesome:)&quot;, &quot; love ccast its wireless is good&quot; ]} }
+{ &quot;uname&quot;: &quot;WillisWynne&quot;, &quot;messages&quot;: { orderedlist: [&quot; love product-b the customization is mind-blowing&quot; ]} }
+{ &quot;uname&quot;: &quot;SuzannaTillson&quot;, &quot;messages&quot;: { orderedlist: [&quot; like x-phone the voicemail-service is awesome&quot; ]} }
+{ &quot;uname&quot;: &quot;NicholasStroh&quot;, &quot;messages&quot;: { orderedlist: [ ]} }
+{ &quot;uname&quot;: &quot;VonKemble&quot;, &quot;messages&quot;: { orderedlist: [&quot; dislike product-b the speed is horrible&quot; ]} }
+</pre></div></div>
+</div></div></div></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="Query_4_-_Theta_Join"></a>Query 4 - Theta Join</h3>
+<div class="section">
+<div class="section">
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="AQL"></a>AQL</h6>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">use dataverse TinySocial;
+
+for $t in dataset TweetMessages
+return {
+    &quot;message&quot;: $t.message-text,
+    &quot;nearby-messages&quot;: for $t2 in dataset TweetMessages
+                       where spatial-distance($t.sender-location, $t2.sender-location) &lt;= 1
+                       return { &quot;msgtxt&quot;:$t2.message-text}
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</div>
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="JS"></a>JS</h6>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">var expression4messages = new FLWOGRExpression()
+    .ForClause( &quot;$t2&quot;, new AExpression(&quot;dataset TweetMessages&quot;))
+    .WhereClause( new AExpression(&quot;spatial-distance($t.sender-location, $t2.sender-location) &lt;= 1&quot;))
+    .ReturnClause({ &quot;msgtxt&quot; : &quot;$t2.message-text&quot; });
+
+var expression4 = new FLWOGRExpression()
+    .ForClause( &quot;$t&quot;, new AExpression(&quot;dataset TweetMessages&quot;))
+    .ReturnClause({
+        &quot;message&quot; : &quot;$t.message-text&quot;,
+        &quot;nearby-messages&quot; : expression4messages
+    });
+</pre></div></div>
+</div>
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="Results"></a>Results</h6>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;message&quot;: &quot; hate ccast its voice-clarity is OMG:(&quot;, &quot;nearby-messages&quot;: { orderedlist: [{ &quot;msgtxt&quot;: &quot; hate ccast its voice-clarity is OMG:(&quot; }, { &quot;msgtxt&quot;: &quot; like product-w the speed is good:)&quot; } ]} }
+{ &quot;message&quot;: &quot; like x-phone the voice-clarity is good:)&quot;, &quot;nearby-messages&quot;: { orderedlist: [{ &quot;msgtxt&quot;: &quot; like x-phone the voice-clarity is good:)&quot; } ]} }
+{ &quot;message&quot;: &quot; like product-y the platform is good&quot;, &quot;nearby-messages&quot;: { orderedlist: [{ &quot;msgtxt&quot;: &quot; like product-y the platform is good&quot; } ]} }
+{ &quot;message&quot;: &quot; love product-z its customization is good:)&quot;, &quot;nearby-messages&quot;: { orderedlist: [{ &quot;msgtxt&quot;: &quot; love product-z its customization is good:)&quot; } ]} }
+{ &quot;message&quot;: &quot; like product-y the voice-command is amazing:)&quot;, &quot;nearby-messages&quot;: { orderedlist: [{ &quot;msgtxt&quot;: &quot; like product-y the voice-command is amazing:)&quot; } ]} }
+{ &quot;message&quot;: &quot; like product-w the speed is good:)&quot;, &quot;nearby-messages&quot;: { orderedlist: [{ &quot;msgtxt&quot;: &quot; hate ccast its voice-clarity is OMG:(&quot; }, { &quot;msgtxt&quot;: &quot; like product-w the speed is good:)&quot; } ]} }
+{ &quot;message&quot;: &quot; love ccast its voicemail-service is awesome&quot;, &quot;nearby-messages&quot;: { orderedlist: [{ &quot;msgtxt&quot;: &quot; love ccast its voicemail-service is awesome&quot; } ]} }
+{ &quot;message&quot;: &quot; can't stand product-w its speed is terrible:(&quot;, &quot;nearby-messages&quot;: { orderedlist: [{ &quot;msgtxt&quot;: &quot; can't stand product-w its speed is terrible:(&quot; } ]} }
+{ &quot;message&quot;: &quot; like product-z the shortcut-menu is awesome:)&quot;, &quot;nearby-messages&quot;: { orderedlist: [{ &quot;msgtxt&quot;: &quot; like product-z the shortcut-menu is awesome:)&quot; } ]} }
+{ &quot;message&quot;: &quot; can't stand x-phone its platform is terrible&quot;, &quot;nearby-messages&quot;: { orderedlist: [{ &quot;msgtxt&quot;: &quot; can't stand x-phone its platform is terrible&quot; } ]} }
+{ &quot;message&quot;: &quot; like ccast its shortcut-menu is awesome:)&quot;, &quot;nearby-messages&quot;: { orderedlist: [{ &quot;msgtxt&quot;: &quot; like ccast its shortcut-menu is awesome:)&quot; } ]} }
+{ &quot;message&quot;: &quot; like product-b the voice-command is mind-blowing:)&quot;, &quot;nearby-messages&quot;: { orderedlist: [{ &quot;msgtxt&quot;: &quot; like product-b the voice-command is mind-blowing:)&quot; } ]} }
+</pre></div></div>
+</div></div></div></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="Query_5_-_Fuzzy_Join"></a>Query 5 - Fuzzy Join</h3>
+<div class="section">
+<div class="section">
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="AQL"></a>AQL</h6>
+<p>use dataverse TinySocial;</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">set simfunction &quot;edit-distance&quot;;
+set simthreshold &quot;3&quot;;
+
+for $fbu in dataset FacebookUsers
+return {
+    &quot;id&quot;: $fbu.id,
+    &quot;name&quot;: $fbu.name,
+    &quot;similar-users&quot;: for $t in dataset TweetMessages
+                     let $tu := $t.user
+                     where $tu.name ~= $fbu.name
+                    return {
+                        &quot;twitter-screenname&quot;: $tu.screen-name,
+                        &quot;twitter-name&quot;: $tu.name
+                    }
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</div>
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="JS"></a>JS</h6>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">var similarUsersExpression = new FLWOGRExpression()
+    .ForClause(&quot;$t&quot;, new AExpression(&quot;dataset TweetMessages&quot;))
+    .LetClause (&quot;$tu&quot;, new AExpression(&quot;$t.user&quot;))
+    .WhereClause(new AExpression(&quot;$tu.name ~= $fbu.name&quot;))
+    .ReturnClause({
+        &quot;twitter-screenname&quot;: &quot;$tu.screen-name&quot;,
+        &quot;twitter-name&quot;: &quot;$tu.name&quot;
+    });
+
+var expression5 = new FLWOGRExpression()
+    .ForClause (&quot;$fbu&quot;, new AExpression(&quot;dataset FacebookUsers&quot;))
+    .ReturnClause(
+        {
+            &quot;id&quot; : &quot;$fbu.id&quot;,
+            &quot;name&quot; : &quot;$fbu.name&quot;,
+            &quot;similar-users&quot; : similarUsersExpression
+        }
+    );
+</pre></div></div>
+</div>
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="Results"></a>Results</h6>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;id&quot;: { int32: 1 } , &quot;name&quot;: &quot;MargaritaStoddard&quot;, &quot;similar-users&quot;: { orderedlist: [ ]} }
+{ &quot;id&quot;: { int32: 2 } , &quot;name&quot;: &quot;IsbelDull&quot;, &quot;similar-users&quot;: { orderedlist: [ ]} }
+{ &quot;id&quot;: { int32: 8 } , &quot;name&quot;: &quot;NilaMilliron&quot;, &quot;similar-users&quot;: { orderedlist: [{ &quot;twitter-screenname&quot;: &quot;NilaMilliron_tw&quot;, &quot;twitter-name&quot;: &quot;Nila Milliron&quot; } ]} }
+{ &quot;id&quot;: { int32: 9 } , &quot;name&quot;: &quot;WoodrowNehling&quot;, &quot;similar-users&quot;: { orderedlist: [ ]} }
+{ &quot;id&quot;: { int32: 10 } , &quot;name&quot;: &quot;BramHatch&quot;, &quot;similar-users&quot;: { orderedlist: [ ]} }
+{ &quot;id&quot;: { int32: 3 } , &quot;name&quot;: &quot;EmoryUnk&quot;, &quot;similar-users&quot;: { orderedlist: [ ]} }
+{ &quot;id&quot;: { int32: 6 } , &quot;name&quot;: &quot;WillisWynne&quot;, &quot;similar-users&quot;: { orderedlist: [ ]} }
+{ &quot;id&quot;: { int32: 7 } , &quot;name&quot;: &quot;SuzannaTillson&quot;, &quot;similar-users&quot;: { orderedlist: [ ]} }
+{ &quot;id&quot;: { int32: 4 } , &quot;name&quot;: &quot;NicholasStroh&quot;, &quot;similar-users&quot;: { orderedlist: [ ]} }
+{ &quot;id&quot;: { int32: 5 } , &quot;name&quot;: &quot;VonKemble&quot;, &quot;similar-users&quot;: { orderedlist: [ ]} }
+</pre></div></div>
+</div></div></div></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="Query_6_-_Existential_Quantification"></a>Query 6 - Existential Quantification</h3>
+<div class="section">
+<div class="section">
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="AQL"></a>AQL</h6>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">use dataverse TinySocial;
+
+for $fbu in dataset FacebookUsers
+where (some $e in $fbu.employment satisfies is-null($e.end-date))
+return $fbu;
+</pre></div></div>
+</div>
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="JS"></a>JS</h6>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">var expression6 = new FLWOGRExpression()
+    .ForClause (&quot;$fbu&quot;, new AQLClause().set(&quot;dataset FacebookUsers&quot;))
+    .WhereClause(
+        new QuantifiedExpression (
+            &quot;some&quot; ,
+            {&quot;$e&quot; : new AExpression(&quot;$fbu.employment&quot;) },
+            new FunctionExpression(&quot;is-null&quot;, new AExpression(&quot;$e.end-date&quot;))
+        )
+    )
+    .ReturnClause(&quot;$fbu&quot;);
+</pre></div></div>
+</div>
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="Results"></a>Results</h6>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;id&quot;: { int32: 1 } , &quot;alias&quot;: &quot;Margarita&quot;, &quot;name&quot;: &quot;MargaritaStoddard&quot;, &quot;user-since&quot;: { datetime: 1345457400000}, &quot;friend-ids&quot;: { unorderedlist: [{ int32: 2 } , { int32: 3 } , { int32: 6 } , { int32: 10 } ]}, &quot;employment&quot;: { orderedlist: [{ &quot;organization-name&quot;: &quot;Codetechno&quot;, &quot;start-date&quot;: { date: 1154822400000}, &quot;end-date&quot;: null } ]} }
+{ &quot;id&quot;: { int32: 2 } , &quot;alias&quot;: &quot;Isbel&quot;, &quot;name&quot;: &quot;IsbelDull&quot;, &quot;user-since&quot;: { datetime: 1295691000000}, &quot;friend-ids&quot;: { unorderedlist: [{ int32: 1 } , { int32: 4 } ]}, &quot;employment&quot;: { orderedlist: [{ &quot;organization-name&quot;: &quot;Hexviafind&quot;, &quot;start-date&quot;: { date: 1272326400000}, &quot;end-date&quot;: null } ]} }
+{ &quot;id&quot;: { int32: 8 } , &quot;alias&quot;: &quot;Nila&quot;, &quot;name&quot;: &quot;NilaMilliron&quot;, &quot;user-since&quot;: { datetime: 1199182200000}, &quot;friend-ids&quot;: { unorderedlist: [{ int32: 3 } ]}, &quot;employment&quot;: { orderedlist: [{ &quot;organization-name&quot;: &quot;Plexlane&quot;, &quot;start-date&quot;: { date: 1267315200000}, &quot;end-date&quot;: null } ]} }
+{ &quot;id&quot;: { int32: 6 } , &quot;alias&quot;: &quot;Willis&quot;, &quot;name&quot;: &quot;WillisWynne&quot;, &quot;user-since&quot;: { datetime: 1105956600000}, &quot;friend-ids&quot;: { unorderedlist: [{ int32: 1 } , { int32: 3 } , { int32: 7 } ]}, &quot;employment&quot;: { orderedlist: [{ &quot;organization-name&quot;: &quot;jaydax&quot;, &quot;start-date&quot;: { date: 1242345600000}, &quot;end-date&quot;: null } ]} }
+{ &quot;id&quot;: { int32: 7 } , &quot;alias&quot;: &quot;Suzanna&quot;, &quot;name&quot;: &quot;SuzannaTillson&quot;, &quot;user-since&quot;: { datetime: 1344334200000}, &quot;friend-ids&quot;: { unorderedlist: [{ int32: 6 } ]}, &quot;employment&quot;: { orderedlist: [{ &quot;organization-name&quot;: &quot;Labzatron&quot;, &quot;start-date&quot;: { date: 1303171200000}, &quot;end-date&quot;: null } ]} }
+{ &quot;id&quot;: { int32: 4 } , &quot;alias&quot;: &quot;Nicholas&quot;, &quot;name&quot;: &quot;NicholasStroh&quot;, &quot;user-since&quot;: { datetime: 1293444600000}, &quot;friend-ids&quot;: { unorderedlist: [{ int32: 2 } ]}, &quot;employment&quot;: { orderedlist: [{ &quot;organization-name&quot;: &quot;Zamcorporation&quot;, &quot;start-date&quot;: { date: 1275955200000}, &quot;end-date&quot;: null } ]} }
+{ &quot;id&quot;: { int32: 5 } , &quot;alias&quot;: &quot;Von&quot;, &quot;name&quot;: &quot;VonKemble&quot;, &quot;user-since&quot;: { datetime: 1262686200000}, &quot;friend-ids&quot;: { unorderedlist: [{ int32: 3 } , { int32: 6 } , { int32: 10 } ]}, &quot;employment&quot;: { orderedlist: [{ &quot;organization-name&quot;: &quot;Kongreen&quot;, &quot;start-date&quot;: { date: 1290816000000}, &quot;end-date&quot;: null } ]} }
+</pre></div></div>
+</div></div></div></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="Query_7_-_Universal_Quantification"></a>Query 7 - Universal Quantification</h3>
+<div class="section">
+<div class="section">
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="AQL"></a>AQL</h6>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">use dataverse TinySocial;
+
+for $fbu in dataset FacebookUsers
+where (every $e in $fbu.employment satisfies not(is-null($e.end-date)))
+return $fbu;
+</pre></div></div>
+</div>
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="JS"></a>JS</h6>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">var expression7 = new FLWOGRExpression()
+    .ForClause(&quot;$fbu&quot;, new AExpression(&quot;dataset FacebookUsers&quot;))
+    .WhereClause(
+        new QuantifiedExpression (
+            &quot;every&quot; ,
+            {&quot;$e&quot; : new AExpression(&quot;$fbu.employment&quot;) },
+            new FunctionExpression(&quot;not&quot;, new FunctionExpression(&quot;is-null&quot;, new AExpression(&quot;$e.end-date&quot;)))
+        )
+    )
+    .ReturnClause(&quot;$fbu&quot;);
+</pre></div></div>
+</div>
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="Results"></a>Results</h6>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;id&quot;: { int32: 9 } , &quot;alias&quot;: &quot;Woodrow&quot;, &quot;name&quot;: &quot;WoodrowNehling&quot;, &quot;user-since&quot;: { datetime: 1127211000000}, &quot;friend-ids&quot;: { unorderedlist: [{ int32: 3 } , { int32: 10 } ]}, &quot;employment&quot;: { orderedlist: [{ &quot;organization-name&quot;: &quot;Zuncan&quot;, &quot;start-date&quot;: { date: 1050969600000}, &quot;end-date&quot;: { date: 1260662400000} } ]} }
+{ &quot;id&quot;: { int32: 10 } , &quot;alias&quot;: &quot;Bram&quot;, &quot;name&quot;: &quot;BramHatch&quot;, &quot;user-since&quot;: { datetime: 1287223800000}, &quot;friend-ids&quot;: { unorderedlist: [{ int32: 1 } , { int32: 5 } , { int32: 9 } ]}, &quot;employment&quot;: { orderedlist: [{ &quot;organization-name&quot;: &quot;physcane&quot;, &quot;start-date&quot;: { date: 1181001600000}, &quot;end-date&quot;: { date: 1320451200000} } ]} }
+{ &quot;id&quot;: { int32: 3 } , &quot;alias&quot;: &quot;Emory&quot;, &quot;name&quot;: &quot;EmoryUnk&quot;, &quot;user-since&quot;: { datetime: 1341915000000}, &quot;friend-ids&quot;: { unorderedlist: [{ int32: 1 } , { int32: 5 } , { int32: 8 } , { int32: 9 } ]}, &quot;employment&quot;: { orderedlist: [{ &quot;organization-name&quot;: &quot;geomedia&quot;, &quot;start-date&quot;: { date: 1276732800000}, &quot;end-date&quot;: { date: 1264464000000} } ]} }
+</pre></div></div>
+</div></div></div></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="Query_8_-_Simple_Aggregation"></a>Query 8 - Simple Aggregation</h3>
+<div class="section">
+<div class="section">
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="AQL"></a>AQL</h6>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">use dataverse TinySocial;
+
+count(for $fbu in dataset FacebookUsers return $fbu);
+</pre></div></div>
+</div>
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="JS"></a>JS</h6>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">var expression8 = new FunctionExpression(
+    &quot;count&quot;,
+    new FLWOGRExpression()
+        .ForClause(&quot;$fbu&quot;, new AExpression(&quot;dataset FacebookUsers&quot;))
+        .ReturnClause(&quot;$fbu&quot;)
+);
+</pre></div></div>
+</div>
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="Results"></a>Results</h6>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ int64: 10 }
+</pre></div></div>
+</div></div></div></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="Query_9-A_-_Grouping_and_Aggregation"></a>Query 9-A - Grouping and Aggregation</h3>
+<div class="section">
+<div class="section">
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="AQL"></a>AQL</h6>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">use dataverse TinySocial;
+
+for $t in dataset TweetMessages
+group by $uid := $t.user.screen-name with $t
+return {
+    &quot;user&quot;: $uid,
+    &quot;count&quot;: count($t)
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</div>
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="JS"></a>JS</h6>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">var expression9a = new FLWOGRExpression()
+    .ForClause(&quot;$t&quot;, new AExpression(&quot;dataset TweetMessages&quot;))
+    .GroupClause(&quot;$uid&quot;, new AExpression(&quot;$t.user.screen-name&quot;), &quot;with&quot;, &quot;$t&quot;)
+    .ReturnClause(
+        {
+            &quot;user&quot; : &quot;$uid&quot;,
+            &quot;count&quot; : new FunctionExpression(&quot;count&quot;, new AExpression(&quot;$t&quot;))
+        }
+    );
+</pre></div></div>
+</div>
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="Results"></a>Results</h6>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;user&quot;: &quot;ColineGeyer@63&quot;, &quot;count&quot;: { int64: 3 } }
+{ &quot;user&quot;: &quot;OliJackson_512&quot;, &quot;count&quot;: { int64: 1 } }
+{ &quot;user&quot;: &quot;NilaMilliron_tw&quot;, &quot;count&quot;: { int64: 1 } }
+{ &quot;user&quot;: &quot;ChangEwing_573&quot;, &quot;count&quot;: { int64: 1 } }
+{ &quot;user&quot;: &quot;NathanGiesen@211&quot;, &quot;count&quot;: { int64: 6 } }
+</pre></div></div>
+</div></div></div></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="Query_9-B_-_.28Hash-Based.29_Grouping_and_Aggregation"></a>Query 9-B - (Hash-Based) Grouping and Aggregation</h3>
+<div class="section">
+<div class="section">
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="AQL"></a>AQL</h6>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">use dataverse TinySocial;
+
+for $t in dataset TweetMessages
+/*+ hash*/
+group by $uid := $t.user.screen-name with $t
+return {
+    &quot;user&quot;: $uid,
+    &quot;count&quot;: count($t)
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</div>
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="JS"></a>JS</h6>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">var expression9b = new FLWOGRExpression()
+    .ForClause(&quot;$t&quot;, new AExpression(&quot;dataset TweetMessages&quot;))
+    .AQLClause(&quot;/*+ hash*/&quot;)
+    .GroupClause(&quot;$uid&quot;, new AExpression(&quot;$t.user.screen-name&quot;), &quot;with&quot;, &quot;$t&quot;)
+    .ReturnClause(
+        {
+            &quot;user&quot; : &quot;$uid&quot;,
+            &quot;count&quot; : new FunctionExpression(&quot;count&quot;, new AExpression(&quot;$t&quot;))
+        }
+    );
+</pre></div></div>
+</div>
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="Results"></a>Results</h6>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;user&quot;: &quot;ColineGeyer@63&quot;, &quot;count&quot;: { int64: 3 } }
+{ &quot;user&quot;: &quot;OliJackson_512&quot;, &quot;count&quot;: { int64: 1 } }
+{ &quot;user&quot;: &quot;NilaMilliron_tw&quot;, &quot;count&quot;: { int64: 1 } }
+{ &quot;user&quot;: &quot;ChangEwing_573&quot;, &quot;count&quot;: { int64: 1 } }
+{ &quot;user&quot;: &quot;NathanGiesen@211&quot;, &quot;count&quot;: { int64: 6 } }
+</pre></div></div>
+</div></div></div></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="Query_10_-_Grouping_and_Limits"></a>Query 10 - Grouping and Limits</h3>
+<div class="section">
+<div class="section">
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="AQL"></a>AQL</h6>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">use dataverse TinySocial;
+
+for $t in dataset TweetMessages
+group by $uid := $t.user.screen-name with $t
+let $c := count($t)
+order by $c desc
+limit 3
+return {
+    &quot;user&quot;: $uid,
+    &quot;count&quot;: $c
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</div>
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="JS"></a>JS</h6>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">var expression10 = new FLWOGRExpression()
+    .ForClause(&quot;$t&quot;, new AExpression(&quot;dataset TweetMessages&quot;))
+    .GroupClause(&quot;$uid&quot;, new AExpression(&quot;$t.user.screen-name&quot;), &quot;with&quot;, &quot;$t&quot;)
+    .LetClause(&quot;$c&quot;, new FunctionExpression(&quot;count&quot;, new AExpression(&quot;$t&quot;)))
+    .OrderbyClause( new AExpression(&quot;$c&quot;), &quot;desc&quot; )
+    .LimitClause(new AExpression(&quot;3&quot;))
+    .ReturnClause(
+        {
+            &quot;user&quot; : &quot;$uid&quot;,
+            &quot;count&quot; : &quot;$c&quot;
+        }
+    );
+</pre></div></div>
+</div>
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="Results"></a>Results</h6>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;user&quot;: &quot;NathanGiesen@211&quot;, &quot;count&quot;: { int64: 6 } }
+{ &quot;user&quot;: &quot;ColineGeyer@63&quot;, &quot;count&quot;: { int64: 3 } }
+{ &quot;user&quot;: &quot;NilaMilliron_tw&quot;, &quot;count&quot;: { int64: 1 } }
+</pre></div></div>
+</div></div></div></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="Query_11_-_Left_Outer_Fuzzy_Join"></a>Query 11 - Left Outer Fuzzy Join</h3>
+<div class="section">
+<div class="section">
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="AQL"></a>AQL</h6>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">use dataverse TinySocial;
+
+set simfunction &quot;jaccard&quot;;
+set simthreshold &quot;0.3&quot;;
+
+for $t in dataset TweetMessages
+return {
+    &quot;tweet&quot;: $t,
+    &quot;similar-tweets&quot;: for $t2 in dataset TweetMessages
+    where  $t2.referred-topics ~= $t.referred-topics
+    and $t2.tweetid != $t.tweetid
+    return $t2.referred-topics
+};
+</pre></div></div>
+</div>
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="JS"></a>JS</h6>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">var expression11 = new FLWOGRExpression()
+    .ForClause( &quot;$t&quot;, new AExpression(&quot;dataset TweetMessages&quot;))
+    .ReturnClause({
+        &quot;tweet&quot;         : new AExpression(&quot;$t&quot;),
+        &quot;similar-tweets&quot;: new FLWOGRExpression()
+                            .ForClause( &quot;$t2&quot;, new AExpression(&quot;dataset TweetMessages&quot;))
+                            .WhereClause().and(
+                                new AExpression(&quot;$t2.referred-topics ~= $t.referred-topics&quot;),
+                                new AExpression(&quot;$t2.tweetid != $t.tweetid&quot;)
+                             )
+                            .ReturnClause(&quot;$t2.referred-topics&quot;)
+    });
+</pre></div></div>
+</div>
+<div class="section">
+<h6><a name="Results"></a>Results</h6>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">{ &quot;tweet&quot;: { &quot;tweetid&quot;: &quot;10&quot;, &quot;user&quot;: { &quot;screen-name&quot;: &quot;ColineGeyer@63&quot;, &quot;lang&quot;: &quot;en&quot;, &quot;friends_count&quot;: { int32: 121 } , &quot;statuses_count&quot;: { int32: 362 } , &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Coline Geyer&quot;, &quot;followers_count&quot;: { int32: 17159 } }, &quot;sender-location&quot;: { point: [29.15, 76.53]}, &quot;send-time&quot;: { datetime: 1201342200000}, &quot;referred-topics&quot;: { unorderedlist: [&quot;ccast&quot;, &quot;voice-clarity&quot; ]}, &quot;message-text&quot;: &quot; hate ccast its voice-clarity is OMG:(&quot; }, &quot;similar-tweets&quot;: { orderedlist: [{ unorderedlist: [&quot;x-phone&quot;, &quot;voice-clarity&quot; ]}, { unorderedlist: [&quot;ccast&quot;, &quot;shortcut-menu&quot; ]}, { unorderedlist: [&quot;ccast&quot;, &quot;voicemail-service&quot; ]} ]} }
+{ &quot;tweet&quot;: { &quot;tweetid&quot;: &quot;6&quot;, &quot;user&quot;: { &quot;screen-name&quot;: &quot;ColineGeyer@63&quot;, &quot;lang&quot;: &quot;en&quot;, &quot;friends_count&quot;: { int32: 121 } , &quot;statuses_count&quot;: { int32: 362 } , &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Coline Geyer&quot;, &quot;followers_count&quot;: { int32: 17159 } }, &quot;sender-location&quot;: { point: [47.51, 83.99]}, &quot;send-time&quot;: { datetime: 1273227000000}, &quot;referred-topics&quot;: { unorderedlist: [&quot;x-phone&quot;, &quot;voice-clarity&quot; ]}, &quot;message-text&quot;: &quot; like x-phone the voice-clarity is good:)&quot; }, &quot;similar-tweets&quot;: { orderedlist: [{ unorderedlist: [&quot;ccast&quot;, &quot;voice-clarity&quot; ]}, { unorderedlist: [&quot;x-phone&quot;, &quot;platform&quot; ]} ]} }
+{ &quot;tweet&quot;: { &quot;tweetid&quot;: &quot;7&quot;, &quot;user&quot;: { &quot;screen-name&quot;: &quot;ChangEwing_573&quot;, &quot;lang&quot;: &quot;en&quot;, &quot;friends_count&quot;: { int32: 182 } , &quot;statuses_count&quot;: { int32: 394 } , &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Chang Ewing&quot;, &quot;followers_count&quot;: { int32: 32136 } }, &quot;sender-location&quot;: { point: [36.21, 72.6]}, &quot;send-time&quot;: { datetime: 1314267000000}, &quot;referred-topics&quot;: { unorderedlist: [&quot;product-y&quot;, &quot;platform&quot; ]}, &quot;message-text&quot;: &quot; like product-y the platform is good&quot; }, &quot;similar-tweets&quot;: { orderedlist: [{ unorderedlist: [&quot;x-phone&quot;, &quot;platform&quot; ]}, { unorderedlist: [&quot;product-y&quot;, &quot;voice-command&quot; ]} ]} }
+{ &quot;tweet&quot;: { &quot;tweetid&quot;: &quot;1&quot;, &quot;user&quot;: { &quot;screen-name&quot;: &quot;NathanGiesen@211&quot;, &quot;lang&quot;: &quot;en&quot;, &quot;friends_count&quot;: { int32: 39339 } , &quot;statuses_count&quot;: { int32: 473 } , &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Nathan Giesen&quot;, &quot;followers_count&quot;: { int32: 49416 } }, &quot;sender-location&quot;: { point: [47.44, 80.65]}, &quot;send-time&quot;: { datetime: 1209204600000}, &quot;referred-topics&quot;: { unorderedlist: [&quot;product-z&quot;, &quot;customization&quot; ]}, &quot;message-text&quot;: &quot; love product-z its customization is good:)&quot; }, &quot;similar-tweets&quot;: { orderedlist: [{ unorderedlist: [&quot;product-z&quot;, &quot;shortcut-menu&quot; ]} ]} }
+{ &quot;tweet&quot;: { &quot;tweetid&quot;: &quot;12&quot;, &quot;user&quot;: { &quot;screen-name&quot;: &quot;OliJackson_512&quot;, &quot;lang&quot;: &quot;en&quot;, &quot;friends_count&quot;: { int32: 445 } , &quot;statuses_count&quot;: { int32: 164 } , &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Oli Jackson&quot;, &quot;followers_count&quot;: { int32: 22649 } }, &quot;sender-location&quot;: { point: [24.82, 94.63]}, &quot;send-time&quot;: { datetime: 1266055800000}, &quot;referred-topics&quot;: { unorderedlist: [&quot;product-y&quot;, &quot;voice-command&quot; ]}, &quot;message-text&quot;: &quot; like product-y the voice-command is amazing:)&quot; }, &quot;similar-tweets&quot;: { orderedlist: [{ unorderedlist: [&quot;product-y&quot;, &quot;platform&quot; ]}, { unorderedlist: [&quot;product-b&quot;, &quot;voice-command&quot; ]} ]} }
+{ &quot;tweet&quot;: { &quot;tweetid&quot;: &quot;3&quot;, &quot;user&quot;: { &quot;screen-name&quot;: &quot;NathanGiesen@211&quot;, &quot;lang&quot;: &quot;en&quot;, &quot;friends_count&quot;: { int32: 39339 } , &quot;statuses_count&quot;: { int32: 473 } , &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Nathan Giesen&quot;, &quot;followers_count&quot;: { int32: 49416 } }, &quot;sender-location&quot;: { point: [29.72, 75.8]}, &quot;send-time&quot;: { datetime: 1162635000000}, &quot;referred-topics&quot;: { unorderedlist: [&quot;product-w&quot;, &quot;speed&quot; ]}, &quot;message-text&quot;: &quot; like product-w the speed is good:)&quot; }, &quot;similar-tweets&quot;: { orderedlist: [{ unorderedlist: [&quot;product-w&quot;, &quot;speed&quot; ]} ]} }
+{ &quot;tweet&quot;: { &quot;tweetid&quot;: &quot;9&quot;, &quot;user&quot;: { &quot;screen-name&quot;: &quot;NathanGiesen@211&quot;, &quot;lang&quot;: &quot;en&quot;, &quot;friends_count&quot;: { int32: 39339 } , &quot;statuses_count&quot;: { int32: 473 } , &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Nathan Giesen&quot;, &quot;followers_count&quot;: { int32: 49416 } }, &quot;sender-location&quot;: { point: [36.86, 74.62]}, &quot;send-time&quot;: { datetime: 1342865400000}, &quot;referred-topics&quot;: { unorderedlist: [&quot;ccast&quot;, &quot;voicemail-service&quot; ]}, &quot;message-text&quot;: &quot; love ccast its voicemail-service is awesome&quot; }, &quot;similar-tweets&quot;: { orderedlist: [{ unorderedlist: [&quot;ccast&quot;, &quot;voice-clarity&quot; ]}, { unorderedlist: [&quot;ccast&quot;, &quot;shortcut-menu&quot; ]} ]} }
+{ &quot;tweet&quot;: { &quot;tweetid&quot;: &quot;5&quot;, &quot;user&quot;: { &quot;screen-name&quot;: &quot;NathanGiesen@211&quot;, &quot;lang&quot;: &quot;en&quot;, &quot;friends_count&quot;: { int32: 39339 } , &quot;statuses_count&quot;: { int32: 473 } , &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Nathan Giesen&quot;, &quot;followers_count&quot;: { int32: 49416 } }, &quot;sender-location&quot;: { point: [40.09, 92.69]}, &quot;send-time&quot;: { datetime: 1154686200000}, &quot;referred-topics&quot;: { unorderedlist: [&quot;product-w&quot;, &quot;speed&quot; ]}, &quot;message-text&quot;: &quot; can't stand product-w its speed is terrible:(&quot; }, &quot;similar-tweets&quot;: { orderedlist: [{ unorderedlist: [&quot;product-w&quot;, &quot;speed&quot; ]} ]} }
+{ &quot;tweet&quot;: { &quot;tweetid&quot;: &quot;8&quot;, &quot;user&quot;: { &quot;screen-name&quot;: &quot;NathanGiesen@211&quot;, &quot;lang&quot;: &quot;en&quot;, &quot;friends_count&quot;: { int32: 39339 } , &quot;statuses_count&quot;: { int32: 473 } , &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Nathan Giesen&quot;, &quot;followers_count&quot;: { int32: 49416 } }, &quot;sender-location&quot;: { point: [46.05, 93.34]}, &quot;send-time&quot;: { datetime: 1129284600000}, &quot;referred-topics&quot;: { unorderedlist: [&quot;product-z&quot;, &quot;shortcut-menu&quot; ]}, &quot;message-text&quot;: &quot; like product-z the shortcut-menu is awesome:)&quot; }, &quot;similar-tweets&quot;: { orderedlist: [{ unorderedlist: [&quot;ccast&quot;, &quot;shortcut-menu&quot; ]}, { unorderedlist: [&quot;product-z&quot;, &quot;customization&quot; ]} ]} }
+{ &quot;tweet&quot;: { &quot;tweetid&quot;: &quot;11&quot;, &quot;user&quot;: { &quot;screen-name&quot;: &quot;NilaMilliron_tw&quot;, &quot;lang&quot;: &quot;en&quot;, &quot;friends_count&quot;: { int32: 445 } , &quot;statuses_count&quot;: { int32: 164 } , &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Nila Milliron&quot;, &quot;followers_count&quot;: { int32: 22649 } }, &quot;sender-location&quot;: { point: [37.59, 68.42]}, &quot;send-time&quot;: { datetime: 1205057400000}, &quot;referred-topics&quot;: { unorderedlist: [&quot;x-phone&quot;, &quot;platform&quot; ]}, &quot;message-text&quot;: &quot; can't stand x-phone its platform is terrible&quot; }, &quot;similar-tweets&quot;: { orderedlist: [{ unorderedlist: [&quot;x-phone&quot;, &quot;voice-clarity&quot; ]}, { unorderedlist: [&quot;product-y&quot;, &quot;platform&quot; ]} ]} }
+{ &quot;tweet&quot;: { &quot;tweetid&quot;: &quot;2&quot;, &quot;user&quot;: { &quot;screen-name&quot;: &quot;ColineGeyer@63&quot;, &quot;lang&quot;: &quot;en&quot;, &quot;friends_count&quot;: { int32: 121 } , &quot;statuses_count&quot;: { int32: 362 } , &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Coline Geyer&quot;, &quot;followers_count&quot;: { int32: 17159 } }, &quot;sender-location&quot;: { point: [32.84, 67.14]}, &quot;send-time&quot;: { datetime: 1273745400000}, &quot;referred-topics&quot;: { unorderedlist: [&quot;ccast&quot;, &quot;shortcut-menu&quot; ]}, &quot;message-text&quot;: &quot; like ccast its shortcut-menu is awesome:)&quot; }, &quot;similar-tweets&quot;: { orderedlist: [{ unorderedlist: [&quot;product-z&quot;, &quot;shortcut-menu&quot; ]}, { unorderedlist: [&quot;ccast&quot;, &quot;voice-clarity&quot; ]}, { unorderedlist: [&quot;ccast&quot;, &quot;voicemail-service&quot; ]} ]} }
+{ &quot;tweet&quot;: { &quot;tweetid&quot;: &quot;4&quot;, &quot;user&quot;: { &quot;screen-name&quot;: &quot;NathanGiesen@211&quot;, &quot;lang&quot;: &quot;en&quot;, &quot;friends_count&quot;: { int32: 39339 } , &quot;statuses_count&quot;: { int32: 473 } , &quot;name&quot;: &quot;Nathan Giesen&quot;, &quot;followers_count&quot;: { int32: 49416 } }, &quot;sender-location&quot;: { point: [39.28, 70.48]}, &quot;send-time&quot;: { datetime: 1324894200000}, &quot;referred-topics&quot;: { unorderedlist: [&quot;product-b&quot;, &quot;voice-command&quot; ]}, &quot;message-text&quot;: &quot; like product-b the voice-command is mind-blowing:)&quot; }, &quot;similar-tweets&quot;: { orderedlist: [{ unorderedlist: [&quot;product-y&quot;, &quot;voice-command&quot; ]} ]} }
+</pre></div></div></div></div></div></div></div>
+        </div>
+      </div>
+    </div>
+    <hr/>
+    <footer>
+      <div class="container-fluid">
+        <div class="row-fluid">
+<div class="row-fluid">Apache AsterixDB, AsterixDB, Apache, the Apache
+        feather logo, and the Apache AsterixDB project logo are either
+        registered trademarks or trademarks of The Apache Software
+        Foundation in the United States and other countries.
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+        trademarks of their respective owners.
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+<h1>The Asterix Query Language, Version 1.0</h1>
+<div class="section">
+<h2><a name="Table_of_Contents"></a><a name="toc" id="toc">Table of Contents</a></h2>
+<ul>
+
+<li><a href="#Introduction">1. Introduction</a></li>
+<li><a href="#Expressions">2. Expressions</a></li>
+<li><a href="#Statements">3. Statements</a></li>
+</ul></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h2><a name="a1._Introduction_.5BBack_to_TOC.5D"></a><a name="Introduction" id="Introduction">1. Introduction</a><font size="4"> <a href="#toc">[Back to TOC]</a></font></h2>
+<p>This document is intended as a reference guide to the full syntax and semantics of the Asterix Query Language (AQL), the language for talking to AsterixDB. This guide covers both the data manipulation language (DML) aspects of AQL, including its support for queries and data modification, as well as its data definition language (DDL) aspects. New AsterixDB users are encouraged to read and work through the (friendlier) guide &#x201c;AsterixDB 101: An ADM and AQL Primer&#x201d; before attempting to make use of this document. In addition, readers are advised to read and understand the Asterix Data Model (ADM) reference guide since a basic understanding of ADM concepts is a prerequisite to understanding AQL. In what follows, we detail the features of the AQL language in a grammar-guided manner: We list and briefly explain each of the productions in the AQL grammar, offering examples for clarity in cases where doing so seems needed or helpful.</p></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h2><a name="a2._Expressions_.5BBack_to_TOC.5D"></a><a name="Expressions" id="Expressions">2. Expressions</a> <font size="4"><a href="#toc">[Back to TOC]</a></font></h2>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">Query ::= Expression
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p>An AQL query can be any legal AQL expression.</p>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">Expression ::= ( OperatorExpr | IfThenElse | FLWOR | QuantifiedExpression )
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p>AQL is a fully composable expression language. Each AQL expression returns zero or more Asterix Data Model (ADM) instances. There are four major kinds of expressions in AQL. At the topmost level, an AQL expression can be an OperatorExpr (similar to a mathematical expression), an IfThenElse (to choose between two alternative values), a FLWOR expression (the heart of AQL, pronounced &#x201c;flower expression&#x201d;), or a QuantifiedExpression (which yields a boolean value). Each will be detailed as we explore the full AQL grammar.</p>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="Primary_Expressions"></a>Primary Expressions</h3>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">PrimaryExpr ::= Literal
+              | VariableRef
+              | ParenthesizedExpression
+              | FunctionCallExpr
+              | DatasetAccessExpression
+              | ListConstructor
+              | ObjectConstructor
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p>The most basic building block for any AQL expression is the PrimaryExpr. This can be a simple literal (constant) value, a reference to a query variable that is in scope, a parenthesized expression, a function call, an expression accessing the ADM contents of a dataset, a newly constructed list of ADM instances, or a newly constructed ADM object.</p>
+<div class="section">
+<h4><a name="Literals"></a>Literals</h4>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">Literal        ::= StringLiteral
+                 | IntegerLiteral
+                 | FloatLiteral
+                 | DoubleLiteral
+                 | &quot;null&quot;
+                 | &quot;true&quot;
+                 | &quot;false&quot;
+StringLiteral  ::= (&quot;\&quot;&quot; (&lt;ESCAPE_QUOT&gt; | ~[&quot;\&quot;&quot;])* &quot;\&quot;&quot;)
+                 | (&quot;\'&quot; (&lt;ESCAPE_APOS&gt; | ~[&quot;\'&quot;])* &quot;\'&quot;)
+&lt;ESCAPE_QUOT&gt;  ::= &quot;\\\&quot;&quot;
+&lt;ESCAPE_APOS&gt;  ::= &quot;\\\'&quot;
+IntegerLiteral ::= &lt;DIGITS&gt;
+&lt;DIGITS&gt;       ::= [&quot;0&quot; - &quot;9&quot;]+
+FloatLiteral   ::= &lt;DIGITS&gt; ( &quot;f&quot; | &quot;F&quot; )
+                 | &lt;DIGITS&gt; ( &quot;.&quot; &lt;DIGITS&gt; ( &quot;f&quot; | &quot;F&quot; ) )?
+                 | &quot;.&quot; &lt;DIGITS&gt; ( &quot;f&quot; | &quot;F&quot; )
+DoubleLiteral  ::= &lt;DIGITS&gt;
+                 | &lt;DIGITS&gt; ( &quot;.&quot; &lt;DIGITS&gt; )?
+                 | &quot;.&quot; &lt;DIGITS&gt;
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p>Literals (constants) in AQL can be strings, integers, floating point values, double values, boolean constants, or the constant value null. The null value in AQL has &#x201c;unknown&#x201d; or &#x201c;missing&#x201d; value semantics, similar to (though not identical to) nulls in the relational query language SQL.</p>
+<p>The following are some simple examples of AQL literals. Since AQL is an expression language, each example is also a complete, legal AQL query (!).</p>
+<div class="section">
+<h5><a name="Examples"></a>Examples</h5>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">&quot;a string&quot;
+42
+</pre></div></div>
+</div></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h4><a name="Variable_References"></a>Variable References</h4>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">VariableRef ::= &lt;VARIABLE&gt;
+&lt;VARIABLE&gt;  ::= &quot;$&quot; &lt;LETTER&gt; (&lt;LETTER&gt; | &lt;DIGIT&gt; | &quot;_&quot;)*
+&lt;LETTER&gt;    ::= [&quot;A&quot; - &quot;Z&quot;, &quot;a&quot; - &quot;z&quot;]
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p>A variable in AQL can be bound to any legal ADM value. A variable reference refers to the value to which an in-scope variable is bound. (E.g., a variable binding may originate from one of the for or let clauses of a FLWOR expression or from an input parameter in the context of an AQL function body.)</p>
+<div class="section">
+<h5><a name="Examples"></a>Examples</h5>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">$tweet
+$id
+</pre></div></div>
+</div></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h4><a name="Parenthesized_Expressions"></a>Parenthesized Expressions</h4>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">ParenthesizedExpression ::= &quot;(&quot; Expression &quot;)&quot;
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p>As in most languages, an expression may be parenthesized.</p>
+<p>Since AQL is an expression language, the following example expression is actually also a complete, legal AQL query whose result is the value 2. (As such, you can have Big Fun explaining to your boss how AsterixDB and AQL can turn your 1000-node shared-nothing Big Data cluster into a $5M calculator in its spare time.)</p>
+<div class="section">
+<h5><a name="Example"></a>Example</h5>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">( 1 + 1 )
+</pre></div></div>
+</div></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h4><a name="Function_Calls"></a>Function Calls</h4>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">FunctionCallExpr ::= FunctionOrTypeName &quot;(&quot; ( Expression ( &quot;,&quot; Expression )* )? &quot;)&quot;
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p>Functions are included in AQL, like most languages, as a way to package useful functionality or to componentize complicated or reusable AQL computations. A function call is a legal AQL query expression that represents the ADM value resulting from the evaluation of its body expression with the given parameter bindings; the parameter value bindings can themselves be any AQL expressions.</p>
+<p>The following example is a (built-in) function call expression whose value is 8.</p>
+<div class="section">
+<h5><a name="Example"></a>Example</h5>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">string-length(&quot;a string&quot;)
+</pre></div></div>
+</div></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h4><a name="Dataset_Access"></a>Dataset Access</h4>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">DatasetAccessExpression ::= &quot;dataset&quot; ( ( Identifier ( &quot;.&quot; Identifier )? )
+                          | ( &quot;(&quot; Expression &quot;)&quot; ) )
+Identifier              ::= &lt;IDENTIFIER&gt; | StringLiteral
+&lt;IDENTIFIER&gt;            ::= &lt;LETTER&gt; (&lt;LETTER&gt; | &lt;DIGIT&gt; | &lt;SPECIALCHARS&gt;)*
+&lt;SPECIALCHARS&gt;          ::= [&quot;$&quot;, &quot;_&quot;, &quot;-&quot;]
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p>Querying Big Data is the main point of AsterixDB and AQL. Data in AsterixDB reside in datasets (collections of ADM objects), each of which in turn resides in some namespace known as a dataverse (data universe). Data access in a query expression is accomplished via a DatasetAccessExpression. Dataset access expressions are most commonly used in FLWOR expressions, where variables are bound to their contents.</p>
+<p>Note that the Identifier that identifies a dataset (or any other Identifier in AQL) can also be a StringLiteral. This is especially useful to avoid conficts with AQL keywords (e.g. &#x201c;dataset&#x201d;, &#x201c;null&#x201d;, or &#x201c;type&#x201d;).</p>
+<p>The following are three examples of legal dataset access expressions. The first one accesses a dataset called Customers in the dataverse called SalesDV. The second one accesses the Customers dataverse in whatever the current dataverse is. The third one does the same thing as the second but uses a slightly older AQL syntax.</p>
+<div class="section">
+<h5><a name="Examples"></a>Examples</h5>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">dataset SalesDV.Customers
+dataset Customers
+dataset(&quot;Customers&quot;)
+</pre></div></div>
+</div></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h4><a name="Constructors"></a>Constructors</h4>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">ListConstructor          ::= ( OrderedListConstructor | UnorderedListConstructor )
+OrderedListConstructor   ::= &quot;[&quot; ( Expression ( &quot;,&quot; Expression )* )? &quot;]&quot;
+UnorderedListConstructor ::= &quot;{{&quot; ( Expression ( &quot;,&quot; Expression )* )? &quot;}}&quot;
+ObjectConstructor        ::= &quot;{&quot; ( FieldBinding ( &quot;,&quot; FieldBinding )* )? &quot;}&quot;
+FieldBinding             ::= Expression &quot;:&quot; Expression
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p>A major feature of AQL is its ability to construct new ADM data instances. This is accomplished using its constructors for each of the major ADM complex object structures, namely lists (ordered or unordered) and objects. Ordered lists are like JSON arrays, while unordered lists have bag (multiset) semantics. Objects are built from attributes that are field-name/field-value pairs, again like JSON. (See the AsterixDB Data Model document for more details on each.)</p>
+<p>The following examples illustrate how to construct a new ordered list with 3 items, a new unordered list with 4 items, and a new object with 2 fields, respectively. List elements can be homogeneous (as in the first example), which is the common case, or they may be heterogeneous (as in the second example). The data values and field name values used to construct lists and objects in constructors are all simply AQL expressions. Thus the list elements, field names, and field values used in constructors can be simple literals (as in these three examples) or they can come from query variable references or even arbitrarily complex AQL expressions.</p>
+<div class="section">
+<h5><a name="Examples"></a>Examples</h5>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">[ &quot;a&quot;, &quot;b&quot;, &quot;c&quot; ]
+
+{{ 42, &quot;forty-two&quot;, &quot;AsterixDB!&quot;, 3.14f }}
+
+{
+  &quot;project name&quot;: &quot;AsterixDB&quot;
+  &quot;project members&quot;: {{ &quot;vinayakb&quot;, &quot;dtabass&quot;, &quot;chenli&quot; }}
+}
+</pre></div></div>
+</div>
+<div class="section">
+<h5><a name="Note"></a>Note</h5>
+<p>When constructing nested objects there needs to be a space between the closing braces to avoid confusion with the <tt>}}</tt> token that ends an unordered list constructor: <tt>{ &quot;a&quot; : { &quot;b&quot; : &quot;c&quot; }}</tt> will fail to parse while <tt>{ &quot;a&quot; : { &quot;b&quot; : &quot;c&quot; } }</tt> will work.</p></div></div></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="Path_Expressions"></a>Path Expressions</h3>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">ValueExpr ::= PrimaryExpr ( Field | Index )*
+Field     ::= &quot;.&quot; Identifier
+Index     ::= &quot;[&quot; ( Expression | &quot;?&quot; ) &quot;]&quot;
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p>Components of complex types in ADM are accessed via path expressions. Path access can be applied to the result of an AQL expression that yields an instance of such a type, e.g., a object or list instance. For objects, path access is based on field names. For ordered lists, path access is based on (zero-based) array-style indexing. AQL also supports an &#x201c;I&#x2019;m feeling lucky&#x201d; style index accessor, [?], for selecting an arbitrary element from an ordered list. Attempts to access non-existent fields or list elements produce a null (i.e., missing information) result as opposed to signaling a runtime error.</p>
+<p>The following examples illustrate field access for a object, index-based element access for an ordered list, and also a composition thereof.</p>
+<div class="section">
+<div class="section">
+<h5><a name="Examples"></a>Examples</h5>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">({&quot;list&quot;: [ &quot;a&quot;, &quot;b&quot;, &quot;c&quot;]}).list
+
+([&quot;a&quot;, &quot;b&quot;, &quot;c&quot;])[2]
+
+({ &quot;list&quot;: [ &quot;a&quot;, &quot;b&quot;, &quot;c&quot;]}).list[2]
+</pre></div></div>
+</div></div></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="Logical_Expressions"></a>Logical Expressions</h3>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">OperatorExpr ::= AndExpr ( &quot;or&quot; AndExpr )*
+AndExpr      ::= RelExpr ( &quot;and&quot; RelExpr )*
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p>As in most languages, boolean expressions can be built up from smaller expressions by combining them with the logical connectives and/or. Legal boolean values in AQL are true, false, and null. (Nulls in AQL are treated much like SQL treats its unknown truth value in boolean expressions.)</p>
+<p>The following is an example of a conjuctive range predicate in AQL. It will yield true if $a is bound to 4, null if $a is bound to null, and false otherwise.</p>
+<div class="section">
+<div class="section">
+<h5><a name="Example"></a>Example</h5>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">$a &gt; 3 and $a &lt; 5
+</pre></div></div>
+</div></div></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="Comparison_Expressions"></a>Comparison Expressions</h3>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">RelExpr ::= AddExpr ( ( &quot;&lt;&quot; | &quot;&gt;&quot; | &quot;&lt;=&quot; | &quot;&gt;=&quot; | &quot;=&quot; | &quot;!=&quot; | &quot;~=&quot; ) AddExpr )?
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p>AQL has the usual list of suspects, plus one, for comparing pairs of atomic values. The &#x201c;plus one&#x201d; is the last operator listed above, which is the &#x201c;roughly equal&#x201d; operator provided for similarity queries. (See the separate document on <a href="similarity.html">AsterixDB Similarity Queries</a> for more details on similarity matching.)</p>
+<p>An example comparison expression (which yields the boolean value true) is shown below.</p>
+<div class="section">
+<div class="section">
+<h5><a name="Example"></a>Example</h5>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">5 &gt; 3
+</pre></div></div>
+</div></div></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="Arithmetic_Expressions"></a>Arithmetic Expressions</h3>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">AddExpr  ::= MultExpr ( ( &quot;+&quot; | &quot;-&quot; ) MultExpr )*
+MultExpr ::= UnaryExpr ( ( &quot;*&quot; | &quot;/&quot; | &quot;div&quot; | &quot;%&quot; | &quot;mod&quot; | &quot;^&quot; ) UnaryExpr )*
+UnaryExpr ::= ( ( &quot;+&quot; | &quot;-&quot; ) )? ValueExpr
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p>AQL also supports the usual cast of characters for arithmetic expressions. The example below evaluates to 25.</p>
+<div class="section">
+<div class="section">
+<h5><a name="Example"></a>Example</h5>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">3 ^ 2 + 4 ^ 2
+</pre></div></div>
+</div></div></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h3><a name="FLWOR_Expression"></a>FLWOR Expression</h3>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">FLWOR         ::= ( ForClause | LetClause ) ( Clause )* (&quot;return&quot;|&quot;select&quot;) Expression
+Clause         ::= ForClause | LetClause | WhereClause | OrderbyClause
+                 | GroupClause | LimitClause | DistinctClause
+ForClause      ::= (&quot;for&quot;|&quot;from&quot;) Variable ( &quot;at&quot; Variable )? &quot;in&quot; ( Expression )
+LetClause      ::= (&quot;let&quot;|&quot;with&quot;) Variable &quot;:=&quot; Expression
+WhereClause    ::= &quot;where&quot; Expression
+OrderbyClause  ::= &quot;order&quot; &quot;by&quot; Expression ( ( &quot;asc&quot; ) | ( &quot;desc&quot; ) )?
+                   ( &quot;,&quot; Expression ( ( &quot;asc&quot; ) | ( &quot;desc&quot; ) )? )*
+GroupClause    ::= &quot;group&quot; &quot;by&quot; ( Variable &quot;:=&quot; )? Expression ( &quot;,&quot; ( Variable &quot;:=&quot; )? Expression )*
+                   (&quot;with&quot;|&quot;keeping&quot;) VariableRef ( &quot;,&quot; VariableRef )*
+LimitClause    ::= &quot;limit&quot; Expression ( &quot;offset&quot; Expression )?
+DistinctClause ::= &quot;distinct&quot; &quot;by&quot; Expression ( &quot;,&quot; Expression )*
+Variable       ::= &lt;VARIABLE&gt;
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p>The heart of AQL is the FLWOR (for-let-where-orderby-return) expression. The roots of this expression were borrowed from the expression of the same name in XQuery. A FLWOR expression starts with one or more clauses that establish variable bindings. A <tt>for</tt> clause binds a variable incrementally to each element of its associated expression; it includes an optional positional variable for counting/numbering the bindings. By default no ordering is implied or assumed by a <tt>for</tt> clause. A <tt>let</tt> clause binds a variable to the collection of elements computed by its associated expression.</p>
+<p>Following the initial <tt>for</tt> or <tt>let</tt> clause(s), a FLWOR expression may contain an arbitrary sequence of other clauses. The <tt>where</tt> clause in a FLWOR expression filters the preceding bindings via a boolean expression, much like a <tt>where</tt> clause does in a SQL query. The <tt>order by</tt> clause in a FLWOR expression induces an ordering on the data. The <tt>group by</tt> clause, discussed further below, forms groups based on its group by expressions, optionally naming the expressions&#x2019; values (which together form the grouping key for the expression). The <tt>with</tt> subclause of a <tt>group by</tt> clause specifies the variable(s) whose values should be grouped based on the grouping key(s); following the grouping clause, only the grouping key(s) and the variables named in the with subclause remain in scope, and the named grouping variables now contain lists formed from their input values. The <tt>limit</tt> clause caps the number of values returned, optionally starting its result count from a specified offset. (Web applications can use this feature for doing pagination.) The <tt>distinct</tt> clause is similar to the <tt>group-by</tt> clause, but it forms no groups; it serves only to eliminate duplicate values. As indicated by the grammar, the clauses in an AQL query can appear in any order. To interpret a query, one can think of data as flowing down through the query from the first clause to the <tt>return</tt> clause.</p>
+<p>The following example shows a FLWOR expression that selects and returns one user from the dataset FacebookUsers.</p>
+<div class="section">
+<div class="section">
+<h5><a name="Example"></a>Example</h5>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">for $user in dataset FacebookUsers
+where $user.id = 8
+return $user
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p>The next example shows a FLWOR expression that joins two datasets, FacebookUsers and FacebookMessages, returning user/message pairs. The results contain one object per pair, with result objects containing the user&#x2019;s name and an entire message.</p></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h5><a name="Example"></a>Example</h5>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">for $user in dataset FacebookUsers
+for $message in dataset FacebookMessages
+where $message.author-id = $user.id
+return
+  {
+    &quot;uname&quot;: $user.name,
+    &quot;message&quot;: $message.message
+  };
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p>In the next example, a <tt>let</tt> clause is used to bind a variable to all of a user&#x2019;s FacebookMessages. The query returns one object per user, with result objects containing the user&#x2019;s name and the set of all messages by that user.</p></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h5><a name="Example"></a>Example</h5>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">for $user in dataset FacebookUsers
+let $messages :=
+  for $message in dataset FacebookMessages
+  where $message.author-id = $user.id
+  return $message.message
+return
+  {
+    &quot;uname&quot;: $user.name,
+    &quot;messages&quot;: $messages
+  };
+</pre></div></div>
+
+<p>The following example returns all TwitterUsers ordered by their followers count (most followers first) and language. When ordering <tt>null</tt> is treated as being smaller than any other value if <tt>null</tt>s are encountered in the ordering key(s).</p></div>
+<div class="section">
+<h5><a name="Example"></a>Example</h5>
+
+<div>
+<div>
+<pre class="source">  for $user in d