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Tuscany - Learning More - Binding Comet - Chat Webapp
This sample demonstrates how Tuscany can expose services via Comet techniques
as well as how to interact with them using Tuscany's javascript toolkit. It
also demonstrates how to push multiple responses for a single request using
SCA callbacks via comet techniques.
This project contains a service (ChatService) that handles chat operations like
register and postMessage. Once a client is registered it will receive messages
that are sent to the chat room.
By adding <tuscany:binding.comet/> to a service definition, the Tuscany runtime
will handle the communication between the browser client and the service
implementation using Comet techniques. This enables bidirectional communication
over HTTP, therefore enabling server push. For more information, check
The comet binding is using the Atmosphere Framework under the hood to acomodate
as many deployment envorinments as possible. Basically, it checks if the
application server supports Servlet 3.0 falling back to a number of native
comet solutions provided by vendors (Jetty, Tomcat, WebLogic, GlassFish and
others). If none is available, Atmosphere will fallback to blocking IO.
In order to enable callbacks to push multiple responses, you need to declare the
CometCallback in the service definition as follows:
< interface=""
callbackInterface="" />
<tuscany:binding.comet />
<tuscany:binding.comet />
The callback object has methods that facilitate sending messages back to the
calling client. It can be injected in the service implementation using the @Callback
annotation. However, the service implementation for this sample has the COMPOSITE
scope so the callback reference has to be obtained from the ComponentContext.
One requirement that service methods have to meet to enable multiple response
support is that they have to be annotated with @OneWay to enable non-blocking
support. Without it, methods are treated synchronously sending a single response
which is the object returned by the method call.
Invoking comet services can be done using Tuscany's javascript API which simulates
SCA in the browser. It uses the Atmosphere jQuery plugin under the hood. In order
to use it, the following script has to be included in the client page:
<script type="text/javascript"
The javascript toolkit permits choosing between two comet techniques: HTTP streaming
and long polling. More detailed information about them can be found on the previously
mentioned wikipedia page.
First, a connect operation has to be issued in order to initiate communication
with the server side using the technique of your choice. This is done using the
connection method as follows:
SCA.TuscanyComet.connect('streaming'); // for HTTP streaming
SCA.TuscanyComet.connect('long-polling'); // for long polling
SCA.TuscanyComet.connect(); // starts with HTTP streaming and falls back to long polling if necessary
The Tuscany Comet toolkit will inject proxies for all services defined in the composite
that are using binding.comet. All invocation and connection management is handled
under the hood so in order to invoke a comet service, the following should be called:
SCA.CometComponentContext.<service name>.<operation name>(<parameters>, callback);
The callback parameter is the function that will handle responses received for a
certain service operation. It has a single argument which is the response:
function callback(response) {
// handle response
Note that the data exchange is automatically handled by the binding, so parameters
will be mapped to the data types defined in the method definition. Also, the response
will have the same data type as the server side object used to wrap the response.
Objects are passed over the wire in JSON format.
Another detail worth mentioning is that the binding will use a single HTTP
connection to handle communication between a browser client and all services
defined using binding.comet in the same composite. Requests and responses will get
multiplexed via the same channel and get routed to the appropriate service
implementation, respectively javascript function. This is done in order to avoid
the 2 HTTP connection limit imposed by browsers. For more info, check
In order to run the sample, you can execute "mvn clean install t7:run" which will
start a Tomcat 7 instance automatically or use "mvn package" and deploy the resulting
war to the application server of your choice.
Next, point your browser at
You can now chat using multiple tabs or browsers. You can see the persistent HTTP
streaming connection or long polling subsequent connections using the developer tools
provided by your browser.
The comet binding is an experimental binding so community feedback is much
appreciated. Feel free to send comments or suggestions on the Apache Tuscany
dev mailing list (