Apache Turbine Build is a collection of main Turbine endpoints Core Archetypes shared components Parent, site, .. - provided as modules to allow transparent building.

Clone this repo:


  1. 068c97f Complete readme with more detailed release and build info by Georg Kallidis · 7 months ago master
  2. c25f6f7 fix typos in README*, reference readmes, rename site readme by Georg Kallidis · 1 year, 4 months ago
  3. 42aef66 Update .gitmodules using relative path, use snapshot parent, by Georg Kallidis · 1 year, 4 months ago
  4. ee94d7b use update fit command in deploy stage by Georg Kallidis · 1 year, 8 months ago
  5. 8a6b0e7 delete offending git chekcout, already donewith git branh command by Georg Kallidis · 1 year, 8 months ago

Apache T U R B I N E

Turbine Build is a collection of the main components provided as modules to build and deploy.


Apache Turbine components are:

  • Core: The Turbine Web Framework
  • Parent: The Parent POM for all Turbine/Fulcrum components
  • Site: The Turbine Wrapper Site
  • Archetypes: The Turbien Archetype Generator Source

You can find more here: Apache Turbine.


You must have Maven 3.x

Building the Turbine from GIT is very easy. Turbine has been Maven-enabled. Please refer to the Maven Getting Started document for instructions on building. This document is available here:



Turbine Build does use (Git Submodules)[https://git-scm.com/book/en/v2/Git-Tools-Submodules].

Find more detailed information (here)[README_TECHNICAL_GITMODULES.md].

You could use git to checkout current trunk:

 git clone --recurse-submodules https://github.com/apache/turbine-build.git 

If you did a normal clone you have to init the submodules from the root folder with

git submodule update --init --recursive

This will register and clone all submodules in one step.

Hint: To limit history e.g. to 10 commits add --depth 10.

To update all submodules:

 git pull --recurse-submodules 

or equivalently:

git submodule update --init --remote 

git submodule sync

or: git submodule foreach git pull

To init or merge and fast-forward a single module:

git submodule update --init --remote <module>

or later

git submodule update --remote --merge <module>

or change into submodule

cd <submodule>
git checkout master
git pull

After having done this, check with

git status

and add the changed submodules (untracked contents, new commits" :

git add <submodule>
git commit "updated submodule <>"


Turbine Core documenttion is found here.


Turbine requires Java 11 since v5.2 and Java 8 (since v4).


Please feel free to contribute. We are always happy to encourage new committers to the project.

The Apache Software foundation requires that any contributor has signed the ICLA (Individual Contributor License Agreement).

Find an overview, more information and how-tos here.

Publishing Workflow


Deploy jars

mvn deploy -Papache-release

More Information:

  1. Local Testing

Verify gpg.homedir, gpg.useagent, gpg.passphrase. Check, if -Dgpg.useagent=false is needed, see below comment to pinentry. You may need to add additional profiles, e.g. -Papache-release,java8 or add -Dgpg.passphrase=

mvn clean site install -Papache-release 

If dependency check is skipped by default, do mvn org.owasp:dependency-check-maven:check -Ddependency.check.skip=false Since Turbine Parent 8 security check is enabled by default.

mvn release:prepare -DdryRun=true -Papache-release -Dtag=<project.artifact>-<version>-candidate

Here the tag is already set.

And finally:

mvn release:clean    
  1. Remote Testing

As we using GIT as SCM, be sure that you execute the steps in the master|trunk|main branch as GIT commands are applied to the current branch.

Find more Information in Turbine Release Manual.

If you have not set ssh-key or gpg authentication, the tasks may require that you explicitely authenticate with -Dusername= -Dpassword=.

Important: Success will be on the master build, the others are skipped.

mvn release:prepare -Papache-release -Dtag=<project.artifact>-<version>-candidate
  1. Release Preparing

If you get a 401 error on the upload to repository.apache.org, make sure that your mvn security settings are in place ~/.m2/settings.xml and ~/.m2/settings-security.xml

For more information on setting up security see the encryption guide:

This performs an upload to https://repository.apache.org/#stagingRepositories

Hint: Add -Dgpg.useagent=false helps, if running from a windows machine to avoid hanging while gpg plugin signing process .. this may happen, if you do not define the pinentry-program in gpg-agent.conf correctly ..

mvn release:perform

You could find more information here: Book Reference Staging

  1. Close the staging

Login and close in Nexus Repo:

More information available: CLOSE STAGE.

Fetch the URL for the tagged Repo from target/checkout with

git pull --prune --tags
git tag -l 
git checkout <tag>

You will be in detached mode.

  1. Prepare Voting Information and Voting


  1. Either Promote / Publish or Drop and Restage

6a Promote / Release

  • Release staged repository in nexus

  • Rename (replace) the GIT tag -candidate to . Find more Information in Turbine Release Manual.

  • Proceed with next step.

6b Revert

  • Drop “reverse merge” the release prepare. If backup files (from release:prepare) are still there:

    mvn release:rollback

which will delete the tag in git repo tag and revert to the pre-release state.

Otherwise reset the commit in master in your checked out trunk/master/main branch

git reflog
// find commit previous to release
git reset –hard <shacommit>
git push -f origin master

and update master repo and delete the tag manually.

git push origin :refs/tags/<project.artifact>-<version>-candidate
  • Drop staged repository in nexus and start again with step 1.

  • Don't forget to refer to the failed vote Message-ID in the commit messages (git, nexus).

After changing, what was missing, refer to the reason in the commit message.

git commit "Reset RC to state previous RC due to <Message-ID>"
  1. Distribution

Checkout the tagged released release and run:

mvn clean install package -Papache-release 

Generate checksums with UNIX tool shasum (2022 at least sha512), Windows certutil or other tools and copy artifacts and sha-files to the distribution folder dist source/binaries folder.

If not all jars are included (assembly plugin SHOULD run after jar generation), run a second time without clean. If no sha512 files are in the target folder, check local repo.

  • SVN Add , artifacts (jar/zip/tar.gz,asc,sha512 files) to target repo.
  • SVN Remove old releases binaries and sources

After repos/dist is updated an automatic email will be generated, if no update of the release database is done:

  1. Stage the latest documentation

Git Checkout source. Generate and Publish Site

Find an overview about the technical structure of the sites (here)[README_SITE_STRUCTURE.md].

Short description of the process using asf-site branch using GIT commands

Hint: If checking out the branch asf-site you find an .asf.yaml file, where the exact configuration is found, what happens after site generation.

Find more information here.

  • Generate the site in master branch and optionally save it somewhere

    mvn site

  • Save target/site or target/staging into another folder (target may be ignored, but to be sure)

  • checkout branch asf-site. Verify proper settings in .asf.yaml providing at least this line:

    whoami: asf-site

  • Copy content of saved copy or target/site (single module) to the root of the branch

  • Commit and push (this triggers the site update, if not contact INFRA)

Maven Publishing

The second steps are not yet tested with GIT repos (2021). Use instead the workflow above (using GIT commands).

Omit site:stage, which reqires site element definition in distributionManagement

mvn site scm-publish:publish-scm -Dscmpublish.dryRun=true
mvn clean site scm-publish:publish-scm -Dusername=<username> -Dpassword=<pw>


To deploy the site execute

mvn site-deploy

IMPORTANT: You may have to clean up the checkoutDirectory of maven-scm-publish-plugin plugin after doing a dry run! This directory is configured in turbine-parent by default outside target folder:

turbine.site.cache: ${user.home}/turbine-sites

Check pom.xml configuration of properties.


Apache Turbine Components are distributed under the Apache License, version 2.0.