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<document url="installation.html">
<properties>
<author>Craig R. McClanahan</author>
<author>Mike Schachter</author>
<author>Ted Husted</author>
<author>Martin Cooper</author>
<author>Chris Assenza</author>
<author>dIon Gillard</author>
<author>Eric Wu</author>
<author>John Rousseau</author>
<author>John Ueltzhoeffer</author>
<author>Mark Budai</author>
<author>Paul Runyan</author>
<author>Robert Hayden</author>
<author>Stanley Santiago</author>
<author>Wong Kok Kai</author>
<author>Rob Leland</author>
<author>John Berry</author>
<title>The Struts Framework Project - Installation (1.1)</title>
</properties>
<body>
<chapter name="6.2 Installation" href="installation">
<section name="Prerequisite Software" href="Prerequisites">
<p>The Struts binary distribution needs three other software packages installed to
operate. You may already have these installed on your system. To build Struts from
source you may need to acquire and install several others. The complete list is as
follows:</p>
<ul>
<li><strong>Java Development Kit</strong> - You <strong>must</strong> download and install
a Java2 (version 1.2 or later) Java Development Kit implementation for
your operating system platform.
A good starting point for locating Java Development Kit distributions is
<a href="http://java.sun.com/j2se">http://java.sun.com/j2se</a>.
To build Struts, Java 1.4.2 (the latest production JDK) is suggested. </li>
<li><strong>Servlet Container</strong> - You <strong>must</strong> download and install a
servlet container that is compatible with the Servlet API Specification,
version 2.2 or later, and the JavaServer Pages (JSP) Specification,
version 1.1 or later. One popular choice is to download Apache's
<a href="http://jakarta.apache.org/tomcat/">Tomcat</a>, but any compliant
container should work well with Struts.</li>
<li><strong>XML Parser</strong> - Struts <strong>requires</strong> the presence of an XML
parser that is compatible with the Java API for XML Parsing (JAXP)
specification, 1.1 or later. This is bundled with J2SE 1.4 and later.
For earlier versions of Java, the easiest way to obtain JAXP is
probably by downloading the Web Services Developers Kit
(1.1 or later!). See the <a href="http://java.sun.com/xml/jaxp/faq.html#jaxp-ri-latest">
Sun JAXP FAQ</a> for more information.)
In Struts-based web applications, you may replace the reference
implementation classes with any other JAXP compliant parser, such as
<a href="http://xml.apache.org/xerces-j">Xerces</a>. See detailed
instructions related to the parser in the instructions for
<a href="#Building">building</a> and <a href="#Installing">installing</a>
Struts, below.</li>
<li><strong>Ant Build System</strong> - If you are building Struts from the
source distribution, you must download and install version 1.5.4 (or later)
of the <a href="http://jakarta.apache.org/ant">Ant</a> build system.
<ul>
<li>Make sure that the "ant" and "ant.bat" scripts are executable, by
adding the $ANT_HOME/bin directory to your PATH environment
variable.</li>
<li>
Copy and review either the "build.properties.sample" or
"build.properties.sample.lib" file as "build.properties".
The latter is recommended if you are not active in Jakarta
Commons development.
</li>
<li>
<a href="http://maven.apache.org/">Maven</a> property files are also
provided, but the Maven build is still experimental. New developers
may find Maven easier to use, since it acquires the appropriate JARs
automatically.
</li>
</ul>
</li>
<li><strong>Servlet API Classes</strong> - In order to compile Struts itself,
or applications that use Struts, you will need a <code>servlet.jar</code>
file containing the Servlet and JSP API classes. Most servlet containers
include this JAR file. Otherwise, you can get the Servlet API classes
distribution from
<a href="http://jakarta.apache.org/builds/jakarta-servletapi">here</a>.
</li>
<li><strong>JDBC 2.0 Optional Package Classes</strong> - Struts supports
an optional implementation of <code>javax.sql.DataSource</code>, so it
requires the API classes to be compiled. They can be downloaded from
<a href="http://java.sun.com/products/jdbc/download.html">http://java.sun.com/products/jdbc/download.html</a>.</li>
<li>
<strong>Other Packages</strong> - Struts utilizes several
packages from other open source projects, especially the <a href="http://jakarta.apache.org/commons/">Jakarta
Commons Project</a>.
These are the packages which must be available if you wish to
build Struts from source:
<ul>
<li><a href="http://www.antlr.org/">ANTLR</a> (Version 2.7.2)</li>
<li><a href="http://jakarta.apache.org/commons/beanutils/">Jakarta Commons Beanutils</a> (Version 1.7.0)</li>
<li><a href="http://jakarta.apache.org/commons/digester/">Jakarta Commons Digester</a> (Version 1.6)</li>
<li><a href="http://jakarta.apache.org/commons/fileupload/">Jakarta Commons FileUpload</a> (Version 1.0)</li>
<li><a href="http://jakarta.apache.org/commons/logging/">Jakarta Commons Logging</a> (Version 1.0.4)</li>
<li><a href="http://jakarta.apache.org/commons/validator/">Jakarta Commons Validator</a> (Version 1.1.4) </li>
<li><a href="http://jakarta.apache.org/oro/">Jakarta ORO</a> (Version 2.0.7)</li>
</ul>
ANTLR is a <a href="http://antlr.org/license.html">public domain library</a>;
all other libraries are distributed under the
<a href="http://www.apache.org/licenses/">Apache Software License</a>.
For your convenience, the requisite JARs are provided as a single
download under the <code>lib</code> sub-directory with each release
distribution.
Please note that the minimum requirements may change between releases,
and some JARs may need to be updated to use the latest Nightly Build.
</li>
<li><strong>Xalan XSLT Processor</strong> - If you are building Struts from
the source distribution, you will need a version of Xalan to perform
XSLT transformations. If you are using the JAXP/1.1 XML parser, you
should use the version of <code>xalan.jar</code> shipped with it.
Otherwise, download and install version 1.2 of Xalan from
<a href="http://xml.apache.org/xalan">here</a>.
</li>
<li><strong>Unit tests</strong> - To verify your build against the JUnit and
Cactus unit tests, three other packages must be available:
<ul>
<li><a href="http://jakarta.apache.org/cactus">Jakarta Cactus</a> (Version 1.4.1)</li>
<li><a href="http://jakarta.apache.org/commons/lang/">Jakarta Commons Lang</a> (Version 2.0)</li>
<li><a href="http://www.junit.org">JUnit</a> (Version 3.8.1)</li>
</ul>
</li>
</ul>
</section>
<section name="Install A Struts Binary Distribution" href="Installing">
<p>First, download a binary distribution of Struts by following the
instructions <a href="../acquiring.html">here</a>. Then, make sure
you have downloaded and installed the
<a href="#Prerequisites">prerequisite</a> software packages described
above.</p>
<p>Unpack the Struts binary distribution into a convenient directory.
(If you <a href="#Building">build Struts from the source distribution</a>,
the result of the build will already be an unpacked binary distribution
for you). The distribution consists of the following contents:</p>
<ul>
<li><strong>lib/*.jar</strong> - The struts.jar contains the Java classes
distributed by the Struts project. The other JAR files contain packages
from other projects that are imported by Struts. When you launch
a Struts-based application, these JARs need to be available to your
application, usually by copying them to the application's
<code>WEB-INF/lib</code> directory. <br />
<em>WARNING</em> - If you are going to be hosting multiple Struts
based applications on the same servlet container, you will be tempted
to place the <code>struts.jar</code> file into the shared repository
supported by your container. Be advised that this may cause
ClassNotFoundException problems unless <em>all</em> of
your application classes are stored in the shared repository.</li>
<li><strong>lib/*.tld</strong> - These are the "tag library
descriptor" files that describe the custom tags in the various Struts
tag libraries. The tld file for any Struts taglibs that you use should
be copied into the <code>WEB-INF</code> directory of your web
application. (Applications under Servlet 2.3 containers can omit this
step if the <a href="configuration.html#dd_config_taglib_23">standard uri</a>
is referenced.)</li>
<li><strong>webapps/struts-blank.war</strong> - This is a simple "web
application archive" file containing a basic starting point for
building your own Struts-based applications.</li>
<li><strong>webapps/struts-documentation.war</strong> - This is a
"web application archive" file containing all of the Struts
documentation found on the
<a href="http://struts.apache.org/">Struts web site</a>
(including these pages). You can install this web application
on any servlet container compatible with Servlet API 2.2 or later.</li>
<li><strong>webapps/struts-examples.war</strong> - This "modular"
applications combines several usefule demonstrations:
<ul><li>Exercise-Taglib - This application module contains test pages for
the various custom tags distributed with Struts. It is primarily of use to
developers who are enhancing the Struts custom tag libraries, but may also
be useful as simple examples of the usage of various Struts tags.</li>
<li><strong>Upload</strong> - This application module
is a quick example of uploading files using the Struts framework.
</li>
<li><strong>Validator</strong> - This application module
is an example of using the validator framework, using both the
server-side and optional client-side validation.
</li></ul></li>
<li><strong>webapps/struts-mailreader.war</strong> - This is an example
web application that uses a large percentage of Struts features.
You can install this web application on any servlet container
compatible with the Servlet 2.2 (or later) and JSP 1.1 (or later)
specifications. If an XML parser is not made available to web
applications by your container, you will need to add one to the
WEB-INF/lib directory of this web application.</li>
<li><strong>webapps/tiles-documentation.war</strong> - This web
application documents how to use tiles, and was developed using tiles.</li>
</ul>
<p>To use Struts in your own application, you will need to follow
these steps:</p>
<ul>
<li>Copy the <code>lib/*.jar</code> files from the Struts
distribution into the <code>WEB-INF/lib</code> directory of your
web application.</li>
<li>Copy the <code>lib/*.tld</code> files for any Struts taglibs you use
from the Struts distribution into the <code>WEB-INF</code> directory
of your web application.</li>
<li>Modify the <code>WEB-INF/web.xml</code> file for your web application
to include a <code>&lt;servlet&gt;</code> element to define the
controller servlet, and a <code>&lt;servlet-mapping&gt;</code> element
to establish which request URIs are mapped to this servlet. Use the
<code>WEB-INF/web.xml</code> file from the Struts example application
for a detailed example of the required syntax.</li>
<li>Modify the <code>WEB-INF/web.xml</code> file of your web application
to include the following tag library declarations (Servlet 2.3 can omit
this step if the <a href="configuration.html#dd_config_taglib_23">standard uri</a>
is referenced):</li>
</ul>
<pre>&lt;taglib&gt;
&lt;taglib-uri&gt;/WEB-INF/struts-bean.tld&lt;/taglib-uri&gt;
&lt;taglib-location&gt;/WEB-INF/struts-bean.tld&lt;/taglib-location&gt;
&lt;/taglib&gt;
&lt;taglib&gt;
&lt;taglib-uri&gt;/WEB-INF/struts-html.tld&lt;/taglib-uri&gt;
&lt;taglib-location&gt;/WEB-INF/struts-html.tld&lt;/taglib-location&gt;
&lt;/taglib&gt;
&lt;taglib&gt;
&lt;taglib-uri&gt;/WEB-INF/struts-logic.tld&lt;/taglib-uri&gt;
&lt;taglib-location&gt;/WEB-INF/struts-logic.tld&lt;/taglib-location&gt;
&lt;/taglib&gt;
</pre>
<ul>
<li>Create a file <code>WEB-INF/struts-config.xml</code> that defines the
action mappings and other characteristics of your specific application.
You can use the <code>struts-config.xml</code> file from the Struts
example application for a detailed example of the required syntax.</li>
<li>At the top of each JSP page that will use the Struts custom tags,
add line(s) declaring the Struts custom tag libraries used on
this particular page, like this:</li>
</ul>
<pre>&lt;%@ taglib uri="/tags/struts-bean" prefix="bean" %&gt;
&lt;%@ taglib uri="/tags/struts-html" prefix="html" %&gt;
&lt;%@ taglib uri="/tags/struts-logic" prefix="logic" %&gt;
</pre>
<ul>
<li>When compiling the Java classes that comprise your application, be sure
to include the JAR files (copied earlier) on the
CLASSPATH that is submitted to the compiler.</li>
</ul>
</section> <section name="Installing Struts With Your Servlet Container" href="Containers">
<p>For most containers, you need only to: </p>
<ul>
<li>Copy the WAR files in your Struts <code>/webapp</code> directory to your
containers <code>webapps</code> directory. </li>
<li>In some cases, you may need to restart your container if it is running.</li>
</ul>
<h4>Running Struts Applications Under A Security Manager</h4>
<p>Many application servers execute web applications under the control of a
Java security manager, with restricted permissions on what classes in the web
application can do. If you utilize form beans with mapped properties, you may
encounter security exceptions unless you add the following permission to the
set of permissions granted to your Struts application's codebase:</p>
<pre>
permission java.lang.RuntimePermission "accessDeclaredMembers";
</pre>
<p>Consult the documentation on your application server for more information
about how to configure additional security manager permissions.</p>
<h4>Installing Struts on Various Containers</h4>
<ul>
<li>Bluestone Universal Business Server 7.2 - <a href="installation-ubs72.html">Additional
steps required.</a></li>
<li>Borland Application Server 4.5 -No additional
steps required.</li>
<li>iPlanet Application Server - Service Pack 2 is recommended. Note that the database
object in the Struts-Example application is not compatible with this container.</li>
<li>iPlanet Web Server - <a href="installation-ip.html">Additional steps required.</a></li>
<li>iPortal Application Server - <a href="installation-ipas.html">Additional steps required.</a></li>
<li>Jetty - <a href="installation-jetty.html">Additional steps required.</a></li>
<li>JRun - <a href="installation-jr30.html">Additional steps required.</a></li>
<li>Novell ExteNd Application Server 4.0+ -
<a href="installation-novell.html">Additional steps required.</a></li>
<li>Orion Application Server - <a href="installation-oas.html">Additional steps
required.</a></li>
<li>Resin 1.2+ "standalone" - No additional steps required.</li>
<li>RexIP - No additional steps required.</li>
<li>SilverStream 3.7.1 and later - <a href="installation-sas.html">Additional steps required.</a></li>
<li>Tomcat 3.1 and prior - Not recommended. Use Tomcat 3.2.1 or later.</li>
<li>Tomcat 3.2.1 with Apache - <a href="installation-tc.html">Additional steps
required.</a></li>
<li>Tomcat 3.2.1+ "standalone" - No additional steps required.</li>
<li>Tomcat 4.0 - No additional steps required.</li>
<li>Trifork Enterprise Application Server 3.3.x - No additional steps required.</li>
<li>Weblogic 5.1 sp8 - <a href="installation-wls5.html">Additional steps required.</a></li>
<li>WebLogic 6.0+ - No additional steps required.</li>
<li>WebSphere - <a href="installation-was352.html">Additional steps required.</a></li>
<li>WebSphere - <a href="installation-was352-x.html">Steps for the Example Application.</a></li></ul>
</section>
<section name="Building Struts From Source" href="Building">
<p>First, download a source distribution of Struts by following the
instructions <a href="../acquiring.html">here</a>. Then, make sure
you have downloaded and installed <strong>all</strong> of the
<a href="#Prerequisites">prerequisite</a> software packages described
above.</p>
<p>To build Struts, you will need to customize the build process to the
details of your development environment as follows:</p>
<ul>
<li>The Struts source distribution uses a file named
<code>build.properties</code> (in the top-level directory of the
distribution) to identify the location of external components
that Struts depends on.</li>
<li>There is no <code>build.properties</code> file included with the
source distribution. However, there is an example file named
<code>build.properties.example</code> that you can copy to
<code>build.properties</code> and then customize.</li>
<li>The properties you must configure in <code>build.properties</code> are:
<ul>
<li><strong>catalina.home</strong> - Pathname to the directory of your
binary distribution of Tomcat 4.0 (required only if you wish to
use the <code>deploy.catalina</code> target).</li>
<li><strong>commons-beanutils.jar</strong> - Pathname of the BeanUtils
package JAR file from the Jakarta Commons project.</li>
<li><strong>commons-collections.jar</strong> - Pathname of the
Collections package JAR file from the Jakarta Commons project.</li>
<li><strong>commons-digester.jar</strong> - Pathname of the
Digester package JAR file from the Jakarta Commons project.</li>
<li><strong>commons-fileupload.jar</strong> - Pathname of the
Fileupload package JAR file from the Jakarta Commons project.</li>
<li><strong>commons-lang.jar</strong> - Pathname of the
Lang package JAR file from the Jakarta Commons project.</li>
<li><strong>commons-logging.jar</strong> - Pathname of the
Logging package JAR file from the Jakarta Commons project.</li>
<li><strong>commons-validator.jar</strong> - Pathname of the
Validator package JAR file from the Jakarta Commons project.</li>
<li><strong>servletapi.home</strong> - Pathname to the directory of
your binary distribution of the Servlet API classes.</li>
<li><strong>tomcat.home</strong> - Pathname to the directory of your
binary distribution of Tomcat 3.2 (required only if you wish to
use the <code>deploy.tomcat</code> target).</li>
<li><strong>xerces.home</strong> - Pathname to the directory of your
binary distribution of the Xerces parser, version 1.2 or 1.3
(required only if you wish to use the <code>deploy.catalina</code>
target).</li>
</ul></li>
<li>If you are a Struts developer with write access to the CVS repository,
be sure that you do <strong>NOT</strong> check in a copy of the
<code>build.properties</code> file, since it will be different for
each individual developer.</li>
</ul>
<p>To build a "distribution" version of Struts, first change your current
directory to the directory in which you have unpacked the Struts
source distribution, and (if necessary) create or customize the
<code>build.properties</code> file as described above. Then, type:</p>
<pre>
ant dist
</pre>
<p>This command will create a binary distribution of Struts, in a
directory named <code>dist</code> (relative to where you
are compiling from). This directory contains an exact replica of the
files included in a binary distribution of Struts, as described
in the <a href="#Installing">preceding section</a>.</p>
<p>IMPORTANT NOTE: The <code>struts.jar</code>, as well as the JAR files
from the Jakarta Commons project, must be in your classpath when
compiling Struts. The <code>build.xml</code> provided does this
automatically. If you use your development machine to test Struts
application locally, be sure that the <code>struts.jar</code> is
<strong>NOT</strong> on your classpath when your container is running.
</p>
</section>
<section>
<p class="right">
Next: <a href="../faqs/index.html">FAQs and HowTos</a>
</p>
</section>
</chapter>
</body>
</document>