Apache OpenWhisk utility for deploying and managing OpenWhisk projects and packages

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Whisk Deploy wskdeploy

License Build Status

wskdeploy is a utility to help you describe and deploy any part of the OpenWhisk programming model using a YAML manifest file. Use it to deploy all of your OpenWhisk project's Packages, Actions, Triggers, and Rules, together, using a single command!

Running wskdeploy standalone

You can use this utility separately from the OpenWhisk CLI as it uses the same OpenWhisk “Go” Client as the Openwhisk CLI does to create its HTTP REST calls for deploying and undeploying your Openwhisk packages and entities.

Running wskdeploy as part of the wsk CLI

Alternatively, you can use the wskdeploy functionality within the OpenWhisk CLI as it is now embedded as the deploy command. That is, you can invoke it as wsk deploy using all the same parameters documented for the standalone utility.

Using wskdeploy to manage OpenWhisk entities as projects

In addition to simple deployment, wskdeploy also has the powerful export command to manage sets of OpenWhisk entities that work together as a named project. The command:

wskdeploy export --projectname <managed_project_name>`

allows you to “export” a specified project into a local file system and manage it as a single entity.

In the above example, a <managed_project_name>.yml Manifest file would be created automatically which can be used with wskdeploy to redeploy the managed project on a different OpenWhisk instance. If the managed project contains dependencies on other managed projects, then these projects will be exported automatically into their respective manifests.

Getting started

Here are some quick links to help you get started:

Downloading released binaries

Executable binaries of wskdeploy are available for download on the project's GitHub releases page:

We currently provide binaries for the following Operating Systems (OS) and architecture combinations:

Operating SystemArchitectures
Linux386, AMD64, ARM, ARM64, PPC64 (Power), S/390 and IBM Z
Mac OS (Darwin)3861, AMD64
Windows386, AMD64
  1. Mac OS, 32-bit (386) released versions are not available for builds using Go lang version 1.15 and greater.

We also provide instructions on how to build your own binaries from source code. See Building the project.

Running wskdeploy

Start by verifying the utility can display the command line help:

$ ./wskdeploy --help

then try deploying an OpenWhisk Manifest and Deployment file:

$ ./wskdeploy -m tests/usecases/triggerrule/manifest.yml -d tests/usecases/triggerrule/deployment.yml

Building the project

GoLang setup

The wskdeploy utility is a GoLang program so you will first need to Download and install GoLang onto your local machine.

Note Go version 1.15 or higher is recommended

Make sure your $GOPATH is defined correctly in your environment. For detailed setup of your GoLang development environment, please read How to Write Go Code.

Download the source code from GitHub

As the code is managed using GitHub, it is easiest to retrieve the code using the git clone command.

if you just want to build the code and do not intend to be a Contributor, you can clone the latest code from the Apache repository:

git clone git@github.com:apache/openwhisk-wskdeploy

or you can specify a release (tag) if you do not want the latest code by using the --branch <tag> flag. For example, you can clone the source code for the tagged 1.1.0 release

git clone --branch 1.1.0 git@github.com:apache/openwhisk-wskdeploy

You can also pull the code from a fork of the repository. If you intend to become a Contributor to the project, read the section Contributing to the project below on how to setup a fork.

Build using go build

Use the Go utility to build the wskdeploy binary.

Change into the cloned project directory and use go build with the target output name for the binary:

$ go build -o wskdeploy

If successful, an executable named wskdeploy will be created in the project directory compatible with your current operating system and architecture.

Building for other Operating Systems (GOOS) and Architectures (GOARCH)

If you would like to build the binary for a specific operating system and processor architecture, you may add the arguments GOOS and GOARCH into the Go build command (as inline environment variables).

For example, run the following command to build the binary for 64-bit Linux:

$ GOOS=linux GOARCH=amd64 go build -o wskdeploy

Supported value combinations include:

linux386 (32-bit), amd64 (64-bit), s390x (S/390, Z), ppc64le (Power), arm (32-bit), arm64 (64-bit)
darwin (Mac OS)amd64
windows386 (32-bit), amd64 (64-bit)

Build using Gradle

The project includes its own packaged version of Gradle called Gradle Wrapper which is invoked using the gradlew command on Linux/Unix/Mac or gradlew.bat on Windows.

  1. Gradle requires requires you to install Java JDK version 8 or higher

  2. Clone the openwhisk-wskdeploy repo:

    git clone https://github.com/apache/openwhisk-wskdeploy

    and change into the project directory.

  3. Cross-compile binaries for all supported Operating Systems and Architectures:

    ./gradlew goBuild
  4. Upon a successful build, the wskdeploy binaries can be found under the corresponding build/<os>-<architecture>/ folder of your project:

    $ ls build
    darwin-amd64  linux-amd64   linux-arm64   linux-s390x   windows-amd64
    linux-386     linux-arm     linux-ppc64le windows-386

Compiling for a single OS/ARCH

  1. View gradle build tasks for supported Operating Systems and Architectures:

    ./gradlew tasks

    you will see build tasks for supported OS/ARCH combinations:

    Gogradle tasks
    buildDarwinAmd64 - Custom go task.
    buildLinux386 - Custom go task.
    buildLinuxAmd64 - Custom go task.
    buildLinuxArm - Custom go task.
    buildLinuxArm64 - Custom go task.
    buildLinuxPpc64le - Custom go task.
    buildLinuxS390x - Custom go task.
    buildWindows386 - Custom go task.
    buildWindowsAmd64 - Custom go task.

    Note: The buildWindows386 option is only supported on Golang versions less than 1.15.

  2. Build using one of these tasks, for example:

    $ ./gradlew buildDarwinAmd64

Using your own local Gradle to build

Alternatively, you can choose to Install Gradle and use it instead of the project's Gradle Wrapper. If so, you would use the gradle command instead of gradlew. If you do elect to use your own Gradle, verify its version is 6.8.1 or higher:

gradle -version

Note If using your own local Gradle installation, use the gradle command instead of the ./gradlew command in the build instructions below.

Building for internationalization

Please follow this process for building any changes to translatable strings:

Running as a Go program

Since wskdeploy is a GoLang program, you may choose to run it using the Go utility. After building the wskdeploy binary, you can run it as follows:

$ go run main.go --help

and deploying using the Go utility would look like:

$ go run main.go -m tests/usecases/triggerrule/manifest.yml -d tests/usecases/triggerrule/deployment.yml

Contributing to the project

Git repository setup

  1. Fork the Apache repository

    If you intend to contribute code, you will want to fork the apache/openwhisk-wskdeploy repository into your github account and use that as the source for your clone.

  2. Clone the repository from your fork:

    git clone git@github.com:${GITHUB_ACCOUNT_USERNAME}/openwhisk-wskdeploy.git
  3. Add the Apache repository as a remote with the upstream alias:

    git remote add upstream git@github.com:apache/openwhisk-wskdeploy

    You can now use git push to push local commit changes to your origin repository and submit pull requests to the upstream project repository.

  4. Optionally, prevent accidental pushes to upstream using this command:

    git remote set-url --push upstream no_push

Be sure to Sync your fork before starting any contributions to keep it up-to-date with the upstream repository.

Running unit tests

You may use go test to test all unit tests within a package, for example:

go test ./deployers -tags=unit -v
go test ./parsers -tags=unit -v

or to run individual function tests, for example:

go test ./parsers -tags=unit -v -run TestParseManifestForSingleLineParams

Running integration tests

Integration tests are best left to the Travis CI build as they depend on a fully functional OpenWhisk environment to be deployed.

Adding new dependencies

Please use go get to add new dependencies to the go.mod file:

go get github.com/project/libname@v1.2.0

Please avoid using commit hashes for referencing non-OpenWhisk libraries.

Removing unused dependencies

Please us go tidy to remove any unused dependencies after any significant code changes:

go mod tidy

Updating dependency versions

Although you might be tempted to edit the go.mod file directly, please use the recommended method of using the go get command:

go get -u github.com/project/libname  # Using "latest" version
go get -u github.com/project/libname@v1.1.0 # Using tagged version
go get -u github.com/project/libname@aee5cab1c  # Using a commit hash

Updating Go version

Although you could edit the version directly in the go.mod file, it is better to use the go edit command:

go mod edit -go=1.15

Creating Tagged Releases

Committers can find instructions on how to create tagged releases here:


Known issues

Git commands using HTTPS, not SSH

The “go get” command uses HTTPS with GitHub and when you attempt to “commit” code you might be prompted with your GitHub credentials. If you wish to use your SSH credentials, you may need to issue the following command to set the appropriate URL for your “origin” fork:

git remote set-url origin git@github.com:<username>/openwhisk-wskdeploy.git

or you can manually change the remote (origin) url within your .git/config file:

[remote "origin"]
    url = git@github.com:<username>/openwhisk-wskdeploy

while there, you can verify that your upstream repository is set correctly:

[remote "upstream"]
    url = git@github.com:apache/openwhisk-wskdeploy

Git clone RPC failed: HTTP 301

This sometimes occurs using “go get” the wskdeploy code (which indirectly invokes “git clone”).

You might get this error when downloading openwhisk-wskdeploy:

Cloning into ''$GOAPTH/src/gopkg.in/yaml.v2'...
error: RPC failed; HTTP 301 curl 22 The requested URL returned error: 301
fatal: The remote end hung up unexpectedly

This is caused by newer git versions not forwarding requests anymore. One solution is to allow forwarding for gopkg.in

$ git config --global http.https://gopkg.in.followRedirects true