More PMD work
diff --git a/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/oasis/names/tc/xacml/_3_0/core/schema/wd_17/AttributeAssignmentExpressionType.java b/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/oasis/names/tc/xacml/_3_0/core/schema/wd_17/AttributeAssignmentExpressionType.java
index 1d4fbbf..936aaa3 100644
--- a/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/oasis/names/tc/xacml/_3_0/core/schema/wd_17/AttributeAssignmentExpressionType.java
+++ b/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/oasis/names/tc/xacml/_3_0/core/schema/wd_17/AttributeAssignmentExpressionType.java
@@ -114,7 +114,7 @@
      *            {@link oasis.names.tc.xacml._3_0.core.schema.wd_17.AttributeValueType }{@code >}
      */
     public void setExpression(JAXBElement<?> value) {
-        this.expression = (value);
+        this.expression = value;
     }
 
     /**
diff --git a/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/oasis/names/tc/xacml/_3_0/core/schema/wd_17/ConditionType.java b/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/oasis/names/tc/xacml/_3_0/core/schema/wd_17/ConditionType.java
index 488d6ef..d50881b 100644
--- a/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/oasis/names/tc/xacml/_3_0/core/schema/wd_17/ConditionType.java
+++ b/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/oasis/names/tc/xacml/_3_0/core/schema/wd_17/ConditionType.java
@@ -91,7 +91,7 @@
      *            {@link javax.xml.bind.JAXBElement }{@code <}{@link AttributeValueType }{@code >}
      */
     public void setExpression(JAXBElement<?> value) {
-        this.expression = (value);
+        this.expression = value;
     }
 
 }
diff --git a/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/oasis/names/tc/xacml/_3_0/core/schema/wd_17/VariableDefinitionType.java b/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/oasis/names/tc/xacml/_3_0/core/schema/wd_17/VariableDefinitionType.java
index 0636252..61f293b 100644
--- a/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/oasis/names/tc/xacml/_3_0/core/schema/wd_17/VariableDefinitionType.java
+++ b/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/oasis/names/tc/xacml/_3_0/core/schema/wd_17/VariableDefinitionType.java
@@ -103,7 +103,7 @@
      *            {@link oasis.names.tc.xacml._3_0.core.schema.wd_17.AttributeValueType }{@code >}
      */
     public void setExpression(JAXBElement<?> value) {
-        this.expression = (value);
+        this.expression = value;
     }
 
     /**
diff --git a/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/api/DataTypeFactory.java b/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/api/DataTypeFactory.java
index bf9beee..4fe3f0d 100644
--- a/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/api/DataTypeFactory.java
+++ b/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/api/DataTypeFactory.java
@@ -56,12 +56,6 @@
     }
 
     /**
-     * Protected constructor so this class cannot be instantiated.
-     */
-    protected DataTypeFactory(Properties properties) {
-    }
-
-    /**
      * Maps the given {@link Identifier} representing a XACML data type id to a {@link DataType} object
      * implementing that data type.
      *
diff --git a/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/api/pap/PAPEngineFactory.java b/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/api/pap/PAPEngineFactory.java
index 99fc32a..1bbdc9f 100644
--- a/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/api/pap/PAPEngineFactory.java
+++ b/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/api/pap/PAPEngineFactory.java
@@ -47,12 +47,6 @@
     }
 
     /**
-     * The constructor is protected to prevent instantiation of the class.
-     */
-    protected PAPEngineFactory(Properties properties) {
-    }
-
-    /**
      * Creates a new <code>PAPEngineFactory</code> instance by examining initialization resources from various
      * places to determine the class to instantiate and return.
      *
diff --git a/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/api/pdp/PDPEngineFactory.java b/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/api/pdp/PDPEngineFactory.java
index f0a3986..55951ac 100644
--- a/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/api/pdp/PDPEngineFactory.java
+++ b/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/api/pdp/PDPEngineFactory.java
@@ -72,12 +72,6 @@
     }
 
     /**
-     * The constructor is protected to prevent instantiation of the class.
-     */
-    protected PDPEngineFactory(Properties properties) {
-    }
-
-    /**
      * Creates a new <code>PDPEngineFactory</code> instance by examining initialization resources from various
      * places to determine the class to instantiate and return.
      *
diff --git a/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/api/pep/PEPEngineFactory.java b/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/api/pep/PEPEngineFactory.java
index f8e5cad..7d0cd55 100644
--- a/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/api/pep/PEPEngineFactory.java
+++ b/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/api/pep/PEPEngineFactory.java
@@ -51,12 +51,6 @@
     }
 
     /**
-     * The constructor is protected to prevent instantiation of the class.
-     */
-    protected PEPEngineFactory(Properties properties) {
-    }
-
-    /**
      * Creates a new <code>PEPEngineFactory</code> instance by examining initialization resources from various
      * places to determine the class to instantiate and return.
      *
diff --git a/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/api/pip/PIPFinderFactory.java b/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/api/pip/PIPFinderFactory.java
index b740fa6..4cb7d27 100644
--- a/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/api/pip/PIPFinderFactory.java
+++ b/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/api/pip/PIPFinderFactory.java
@@ -52,13 +52,6 @@
     }
 
     /**
-     * Protected constructor so this class cannot be instantiated.
-     */
-    protected PIPFinderFactory(Properties properties) {
-        this.properties = properties;
-    }
-
-    /**
      * Gets an instance of the configured <code>PIPFinderFactory</code> class.
      *
      * @return the configured <code>PIPFinderFactory</code>
diff --git a/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/std/StdStatusCode.java b/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/std/StdStatusCode.java
index 715bcc3..83f66ea 100644
--- a/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/std/StdStatusCode.java
+++ b/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/std/StdStatusCode.java
@@ -146,9 +146,9 @@
         StatusCode statusCodeChildThis = this.getChild();
         StatusCode statusCodeChildObj = statusCodeObj.getChild();
         if (statusCodeChildThis == null) {
-            return (statusCodeChildObj == null);
+            return statusCodeChildObj == null;
         } else {
-            return (statusCodeChildThis.equals(statusCodeChildObj));
+            return statusCodeChildThis.equals(statusCodeChildObj);
         }
     }
 }
diff --git a/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/std/dom/DOMProperties.java b/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/std/dom/DOMProperties.java
index 08bb6af..472557f 100644
--- a/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/std/dom/DOMProperties.java
+++ b/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/std/dom/DOMProperties.java
@@ -50,7 +50,7 @@
         if (result == null) {
             try {
                 result = XACMLProperties.getProperties().getProperty(propertyName);
-            } catch (Exception ex) {
+            } catch (Exception ex) { //NOPMD
 
             }
         }
@@ -63,7 +63,7 @@
             cachedProperty = getSourceProperty(propertyName);
             cachedProperties.put(propertyName, cachedProperty);
         }
-        return (cachedProperty instanceof String ? (String)cachedProperty : cachedProperty.toString());
+        return cachedProperty instanceof String ? (String)cachedProperty : cachedProperty.toString();
     }
 
     protected static Boolean getBooleanProperty(String propertyName) {
@@ -75,7 +75,7 @@
                 cachedProperties.put(propertyName, cachedProperty);
             }
         }
-        if (cachedProperty == null || (cachedProperty instanceof Boolean)) {
+        if (cachedProperty == null || cachedProperty instanceof Boolean) {
             return (Boolean)cachedProperty;
         } else {
             return null;
@@ -96,7 +96,7 @@
 
     public static boolean throwsExceptions() {
         Boolean booleanThrowsExceptions = getBooleanProperty(PROP_EXCEPTIONS);
-        return (booleanThrowsExceptions == null ? true : booleanThrowsExceptions.booleanValue());
+        return booleanThrowsExceptions == null ? true : booleanThrowsExceptions.booleanValue();
     }
 
     public static void setThrowsExceptions(boolean b) {
diff --git a/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/std/dom/DOMRequest.java b/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/std/dom/DOMRequest.java
index 5fab3bd..ef39529 100644
--- a/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/std/dom/DOMRequest.java
+++ b/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/std/dom/DOMRequest.java
@@ -86,7 +86,7 @@
                 if (is != null) {
                     is.close();
                 }
-            } catch (Exception idontcare) {
+            } catch (Exception idontcare) { //NOPMD
             }
         }
         return request;
@@ -115,7 +115,7 @@
                 if (fis != null) {
                     fis.close();
                 }
-            } catch (Exception idontcare) {
+            } catch (Exception idontcare) { //NOPMD
             }
         }
         return request;
@@ -364,17 +364,16 @@
                 System.out.println(fileXml.getAbsolutePath() + ":");
                 try {
                     DocumentBuilder documentBuilder = documentBuilderFactory.newDocumentBuilder();
-                    assert (documentBuilder.isNamespaceAware());
+                    assert documentBuilder.isNamespaceAware();
                     Document documentRequest = documentBuilder.parse(fileXml);
-                    assert (documentRequest != null);
+                    assert documentRequest != null;
 
                     NodeList children = documentRequest.getChildNodes();
                     if (children == null || children.getLength() == 0) {
                         System.err.println("No Requests found in \"" + fileXml.getAbsolutePath() + "\"");
                         continue;
                     } else if (children.getLength() > 1) {
-                        System.err
-                            .println("Multiple Requests found in \"" + fileXml.getAbsolutePath() + "\"");
+                        System.err.println("Multiple Requests found in \"" + fileXml.getAbsolutePath() + "\"");
                     }
                     Node nodeRequest = children.item(0);
                     if (!nodeRequest.getLocalName().equals(XACML3.ELEMENT_REQUEST)) {
diff --git a/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/std/dom/DOMRequestAttributes.java b/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/std/dom/DOMRequestAttributes.java
index aa6550a..936645e 100644
--- a/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/std/dom/DOMRequestAttributes.java
+++ b/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/std/dom/DOMRequestAttributes.java
@@ -144,7 +144,7 @@
                         String childName = child.getLocalName();
                         if (XACML3.ELEMENT_ATTRIBUTE.equals(childName)) {
                             result = DOMAttribute.repair(child) || result;
-                        } else if (XACML3.ELEMENT_CONTENT.equals(childName)) {
+                        //} else if (XACML3.ELEMENT_CONTENT.equals(childName)) {
                         } else {
                             logger.warn("Unexpected element " + child.getNodeName());
                             elementRequestAttributes.removeChild(child);
diff --git a/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/std/dom/DOMResponse.java b/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/std/dom/DOMResponse.java
index 880534e..6c472ac 100644
--- a/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/std/dom/DOMResponse.java
+++ b/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/std/dom/DOMResponse.java
@@ -188,7 +188,7 @@
                 if (is != null) {
                     is.close();
                 }
-            } catch (Exception idontcare) {
+            } catch (Exception idontcare) { //NOPMD
             }
         }
         return response;
@@ -336,7 +336,7 @@
                 if (os != null) {
                     os.close();
                 }
-            } catch (Exception idontcare) {
+            } catch (Exception idontcare) { //NOPMD 
             }
         }
         return outputString;
@@ -547,16 +547,14 @@
                     // if there is a status code, it must agree with the decision
                     // Permit/Deny/NotAllowed must all be OK
                     // Indeterminate must not be OK
-                    if ((statusCodeId.equals(StdStatusCode.STATUS_CODE_OK.getStatusCodeValue()) && !(result
-                        .getDecision() == Decision.DENY || result.getDecision() == Decision.PERMIT || result
-                        .getDecision() == Decision.NOTAPPLICABLE))
-                        || (!statusCodeId.equals(StdStatusCode.STATUS_CODE_OK.getStatusCodeValue()) && !(result
-                            .getDecision() == Decision.INDETERMINATE
-                                                                                                         || result
-                                                                                                             .getDecision() == Decision.INDETERMINATE_DENY
-                                                                                                         || result
-                                                                                                             .getDecision() == Decision.INDETERMINATE_DENYPERMIT || result
-                            .getDecision() == Decision.INDETERMINATE_PERMIT))) {
+                    if (statusCodeId.equals(StdStatusCode.STATUS_CODE_OK.getStatusCodeValue()) 
+                        && !(result.getDecision() == Decision.DENY || result.getDecision() == Decision.PERMIT 
+                            || result.getDecision() == Decision.NOTAPPLICABLE)
+                        || !statusCodeId.equals(StdStatusCode.STATUS_CODE_OK.getStatusCodeValue()) 
+                            && !(result.getDecision() == Decision.INDETERMINATE
+                                || result.getDecision() == Decision.INDETERMINATE_DENY
+                                || result.getDecision() == Decision.INDETERMINATE_DENYPERMIT 
+                                || result.getDecision() == Decision.INDETERMINATE_PERMIT)) {
                         throw new DOMStructureException("StatusCode '" + statusCodeId.stringValue()
                                                         + "' does not match Decision '"
                                                         + result.getDecision().toString());
@@ -898,9 +896,9 @@
                 System.out.println(fileXml.getAbsolutePath() + ":");
                 try {
                     DocumentBuilder documentBuilder = documentBuilderFactory.newDocumentBuilder();
-                    assert (documentBuilder.isNamespaceAware());
+                    assert documentBuilder.isNamespaceAware();
                     Document documentResponse = documentBuilder.parse(fileXml);
-                    assert (documentResponse != null);
+                    assert documentResponse != null;
 
                     NodeList children = documentResponse.getChildNodes();
                     if (children == null || children.getLength() == 0) {
diff --git a/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/std/dom/DOMStatus.java b/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/std/dom/DOMStatus.java
index ff4e231..00a110d 100644
--- a/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/std/dom/DOMStatus.java
+++ b/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/std/dom/DOMStatus.java
@@ -115,7 +115,7 @@
                         if (XACML3.ELEMENT_STATUSCODE.equals(childName)) {
                             result = DOMStatusCode.repair(child) || result;
                             sawStatusCode = true;
-                        } else if (XACML3.ELEMENT_STATUSMESSAGE.equals(childName)) {
+                        //} else if (XACML3.ELEMENT_STATUSMESSAGE.equals(childName)) {
                         } else if (XACML3.ELEMENT_STATUSDETAIL.equals(childName)) {
                             result = DOMStatusDetail.repair(child) || result;
                         } else {
diff --git a/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/std/dom/DOMUtil.java b/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/std/dom/DOMUtil.java
index ca84396..b70d195 100644
--- a/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/std/dom/DOMUtil.java
+++ b/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/std/dom/DOMUtil.java
@@ -123,7 +123,7 @@
      * @return true if the <code>Node</code> is non-null and is an XML element
      */
     public static boolean isElement(Node node) {
-        return (node != null && node.getNodeType() == Node.ELEMENT_NODE);
+        return node != null && node.getNodeType() == Node.ELEMENT_NODE;
     }
 
     /**
diff --git a/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/std/json/JSONRequest.java b/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/std/json/JSONRequest.java
index 2ea87b2..40ac0b0 100644
--- a/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/std/json/JSONRequest.java
+++ b/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/std/json/JSONRequest.java
@@ -318,8 +318,7 @@
      * @param stdMutableRequest
      * @throws JSONStructureException
      */
-    private static List<Attribute> parseAttribute(Identifier categoryID, ArrayList<?> attributes,
-                                                  StdMutableRequest stdMutableRequest)
+    private static List<Attribute> parseAttribute(Identifier categoryID, ArrayList<?> attributes)
         throws JSONStructureException {
         Iterator<?> iterAttributes = attributes.iterator();
 
@@ -331,7 +330,7 @@
                 throw new JSONStructureException("Expect Attribute content to be Map got "
                                                  + attributeMap.getClass());
             }
-            Attribute attribute = parseAttribute(categoryID, attributeMap, stdMutableRequest);
+            Attribute attribute = parseAttribute(categoryID, attributeMap);
             collectedAttributes.add(attribute);
         }
 
@@ -348,8 +347,7 @@
      * @return
      * @throws JSONStructureException
      */
-    private static Attribute parseAttribute(Identifier categoryID, Map<?, ?> attributeMap,
-                                            StdMutableRequest stdMutableRequest)
+    private static Attribute parseAttribute(Identifier categoryID, Map<?, ?> attributeMap)
         throws JSONStructureException {
 
         // TODO - ASSUME that the spec will remove the requirement that we MUST "handle" JavaScript special
@@ -392,7 +390,7 @@
         Object includeInResultObject = attributeMap.remove("IncludeInResult");
         Boolean includeInResult = makeBoolean(includeInResultObject, "IncludeInResult");
         if (includeInResult == null) {
-            includeInResult = new Boolean(false);
+            includeInResult = Boolean.FALSE;
         }
 
         //
@@ -466,15 +464,11 @@
                                 inferredDataTypeId = DataTypes.DT_STRING.getId();
                             }
 
-                        } else {
-                            if (inferredDataTypeId.equals(DataTypes.DT_INTEGER.getId())) {
-
-                                // special case - Double seen in Integer list means whole list is really
-                                // Double
-                                if (item instanceof Double) {
-                                    inferredDataTypeId = DataTypes.DT_DOUBLE.getId();
-                                }
-                            }
+                        } else if (inferredDataTypeId.equals(DataTypes.DT_INTEGER.getId())
+                            && item instanceof Double) {
+                            // special case - Double seen in Integer list means whole list is really
+                            // Double
+                            inferredDataTypeId = DataTypes.DT_DOUBLE.getId();
                         }
                     }
                     // we have inferred a data type for the whole array
@@ -526,10 +520,10 @@
                     } else {
                         Object convertedValue = dataType.convert(o);
                         attributeValue = new StdAttributeValue<Object>(dataTypeId, convertedValue);
-                        if (((convertedValue instanceof Integer || convertedValue instanceof Boolean || convertedValue instanceof Double) && o instanceof String)
-                            || (convertedValue instanceof Double && o instanceof Integer)
-                            || (convertedValue instanceof String && (o instanceof Integer
-                                                                     || o instanceof Boolean || o instanceof Double))) {
+                        if ((convertedValue instanceof Integer || convertedValue instanceof Boolean || convertedValue instanceof Double) && o instanceof String
+                            || convertedValue instanceof Double && o instanceof Integer
+                            || convertedValue instanceof String && (o instanceof Integer
+                                                                     || o instanceof Boolean || o instanceof Double)) {
                             // we converted a String to something else
                             logger.warn("Attribute Id '" + id.stringValue() + "' Value '" + incomingValue
                                         + "' in Array auto-converted from '" + o.getClass().getName()
@@ -554,10 +548,10 @@
                     Object convertedValue = dataType.convert(Value);
                     attributeValue = new StdAttributeValue<Object>(dataTypeId, convertedValue);
                     // some auto-conversions should be logged because they shouldn't be necessary
-                    if (((convertedValue instanceof BigInteger || convertedValue instanceof Boolean || convertedValue instanceof Double) && Value instanceof String)
-                        || (convertedValue instanceof Double && Value instanceof Integer)
-                        || (convertedValue instanceof String && (Value instanceof Integer
-                                                                 || Value instanceof Boolean || Value instanceof Double))) {
+                    if ((convertedValue instanceof BigInteger || convertedValue instanceof Boolean || convertedValue instanceof Double) && Value instanceof String
+                        || convertedValue instanceof Double && Value instanceof Integer
+                        || convertedValue instanceof String && (Value instanceof Integer
+                                                                 || Value instanceof Boolean || Value instanceof Double)) {
                         // we converted a String to something else
                         logger.warn("Attribute Id '" + id.stringValue() + "' Value '" + incomingValue
                                     + "' auto-converted from '" + Value.getClass().getName() + "' to type '"
@@ -666,13 +660,13 @@
         Object attributesMap = ((Map<?, ?>)categoryMap).remove("Attribute");
         if (attributesMap != null) {
             if (attributesMap instanceof ArrayList) {
-                attributeList = parseAttribute(categoryId, (ArrayList<?>)attributesMap, stdMutableRequest);
+                attributeList = parseAttribute(categoryId, (ArrayList<?>)attributesMap);
             } else if (attributesMap instanceof Map) {
                 // underlying code expects only collections of Attributes, so create a collection of one to
                 // pass this single value
                 ArrayList<Map<?, ?>> listForOne = new ArrayList<Map<?, ?>>();
                 listForOne.add((Map<?, ?>)attributesMap);
-                attributeList = parseAttribute(categoryId, listForOne, stdMutableRequest);
+                attributeList = parseAttribute(categoryId, listForOne);
             } else {
                 throw new JSONStructureException("Category '" + categoryName
                                                  + "' saw unexpected Attribute class "
@@ -815,7 +809,7 @@
                 if (is != null) {
                     is.close();
                 }
-            } catch (Exception idontcare) {
+            } catch (Exception idontcare) { //NOPMD
             }
         }
         return request;
@@ -1180,7 +1174,7 @@
                 if (os != null) {
                     os.close();
                 }
-            } catch (Exception idontcare) {
+            } catch (Exception idontcare) { //NOPMD
             }
         }
         return outputString;
diff --git a/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/std/json/JSONResponse.java b/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/std/json/JSONResponse.java
index f71cc2a..b31cebf 100644
--- a/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/std/json/JSONResponse.java
+++ b/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/std/json/JSONResponse.java
@@ -394,7 +394,7 @@
      */
     private static void parseObligationsOrAdvice(Object listObject, StdMutableResult stdMutableResult,
                                                  boolean isObligation) throws JSONStructureException {
-        String oaTypeName = (isObligation) ? "Obligations" : "AssociatedAdvice";
+        String oaTypeName = isObligation ? "Obligations" : "AssociatedAdvice";
 
         if (!(listObject instanceof List)) {
             throw new JSONStructureException(oaTypeName + " must be list");
@@ -531,7 +531,7 @@
      */
     private static void parseIdReferences(Object policyIdReferenceObject, StdMutableResult stdMutableResult,
                                           boolean isSet) throws JSONStructureException {
-        String idTypeName = (isSet) ? "PolicySetIdReference" : "PolicyIdReference";
+        String idTypeName = isSet ? "PolicySetIdReference" : "PolicyIdReference";
 
         if (!(policyIdReferenceObject instanceof List)) {
             throw new JSONStructureException(idTypeName + " must be array");
@@ -1133,7 +1133,7 @@
                 if (os != null) {
                     os.close();
                 }
-            } catch (Exception idontcare) {
+            } catch (Exception idontcare) { //NOPMD
             }
         }
         return outputString;
@@ -1216,16 +1216,14 @@
                 // if there is a status code, it must agree with the decision
                 // Permit/Deny/NotAllowed must all be OK
                 // Indeterminate must not be OK
-                if ((statusCodeId.equals(StdStatusCode.STATUS_CODE_OK.getStatusCodeValue()) && !(result
-                    .getDecision() == Decision.DENY || result.getDecision() == Decision.PERMIT || result
-                    .getDecision() == Decision.NOTAPPLICABLE))
-                    || (!statusCodeId.equals(StdStatusCode.STATUS_CODE_OK.getStatusCodeValue()) && !(result
-                        .getDecision() == Decision.INDETERMINATE
-                                                                                                     || result
-                                                                                                         .getDecision() == Decision.INDETERMINATE_DENY
-                                                                                                     || result
-                                                                                                         .getDecision() == Decision.INDETERMINATE_DENYPERMIT || result
-                        .getDecision() == Decision.INDETERMINATE_PERMIT))) {
+                if (statusCodeId.equals(StdStatusCode.STATUS_CODE_OK.getStatusCodeValue()) 
+                    && !(result.getDecision() == Decision.DENY || result.getDecision() == Decision.PERMIT 
+                        || result.getDecision() == Decision.NOTAPPLICABLE)
+                    || !statusCodeId.equals(StdStatusCode.STATUS_CODE_OK.getStatusCodeValue()) 
+                        && !(result.getDecision() == Decision.INDETERMINATE
+                            || result.getDecision() == Decision.INDETERMINATE_DENY
+                            || result.getDecision() == Decision.INDETERMINATE_DENYPERMIT 
+                            || result.getDecision() == Decision.INDETERMINATE_PERMIT)) {
                     throw new JSONStructureException("StatusCode '" + statusCodeId.stringValue()
                                                      + "' does not match Decision '"
                                                      + result.getDecision().toString());
@@ -1655,8 +1653,8 @@
             //
             //
 
-            if ((result.getPolicyIdentifiers() != null && result.getPolicyIdentifiers().size() > 0)
-                || (result.getPolicySetIdentifiers() != null && result.getPolicySetIdentifiers().size() > 0)) {
+            if (result.getPolicyIdentifiers() != null && result.getPolicyIdentifiers().size() > 0
+                || result.getPolicySetIdentifiers() != null && result.getPolicySetIdentifiers().size() > 0) {
 
                 Map<String, Object> policyIdentifierCollectionList = new HashMap<String, Object>();
                 // handle PolicyIds separately from PolicySetIds
diff --git a/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/std/pap/StdPDPGroupStatus.java b/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/std/pap/StdPDPGroupStatus.java
index 4000b41..2ac5154 100644
--- a/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/std/pap/StdPDPGroupStatus.java
+++ b/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/std/pap/StdPDPGroupStatus.java
@@ -332,7 +332,7 @@
         if (!this.loadErrors.isEmpty()) {
             return false;
         }
-        return (this.status == Status.OK);
+        return this.status == Status.OK;
     }
 
     public void reset() {
diff --git a/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/std/pip/StdPIPFinderFactory.java b/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/std/pip/StdPIPFinderFactory.java
index 6c020e3..6ce7bdc 100644
--- a/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/std/pip/StdPIPFinderFactory.java
+++ b/openaz-xacml/src/main/java/org/apache/openaz/xacml/std/pip/StdPIPFinderFactory.java
@@ -48,9 +48,6 @@
     public StdPIPFinderFactory() {
     }
 
-    public StdPIPFinderFactory(Properties properties) {
-    }
-
     @Override
     public PIPFinder getFinder() throws PIPException {
         if (pipFinder == null) {