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<a href="/docs/2.9.1/quick-start/cpp"
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>C++</a>
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<a href="/docs/2.9.1/quick-start/python"
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>Python</a>
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<a href="/docs/2.9.1/quick-start/nodejs"
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>Node.JS</a>
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<a href="/docs/2.9.1/quick-start/sql"
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>SQL</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/quick-start/php"
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>PHP</a>
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<a href="/docs/2.9.1/quick-start/restapi"
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>REST API</a>
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<a href="/docs/2.9.1/installation/installing-using-docker"
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>Installing Using Docker</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/installation/deb-rpm"
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>Installing DEB or RPM package</a>
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<li><a href="/docs/2.9.1/installation/kubernetes/amazon-eks-deployment" class=''>Amazon EKS</a></li>
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<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/installation/vmware-installation"
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<a href="/docs/2.9.1/understanding-configuration"
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>Understanding Configuration</a>
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<a href="/docs/2.9.1/setup"
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>Setting Up</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/logging"
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>Configuring Logging</a>
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<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/resources-injection"
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>Resources Injection</a>
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</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/starting-nodes" class='' >Starting and Stopping Nodes</a>
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<button type='button' class='group-toggle collapsed '>Clustering<img class="state-indicator" src="/assets/images/left-nav-arrow.svg" width="6" height="10"></button>
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<a href="/docs/2.9.1/clustering/clustering"
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>Overview</a>
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<a href="/docs/2.9.1/clustering/tcp-ip-discovery"
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>TCP/IP Discovery</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/clustering/zookeeper-discovery"
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>ZooKeeper Discovery</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/clustering/discovery-in-the-cloud"
class=''
>Discovery in the Cloud</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/clustering/network-configuration"
class=''
>Network Configuration</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/clustering/connect-client-nodes"
class=''
>Connecting Client Nodes</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/clustering/baseline-topology"
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>Baseline Topology</a>
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<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/clustering/running-client-nodes-behind-nat"
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>Running Client Nodes Behind NAT</a>
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<button type='button' class='group-toggle collapsed '>Thin Clients<img class="state-indicator" src="/assets/images/left-nav-arrow.svg" width="6" height="10"></button>
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<a href="/docs/2.9.1/thin-clients/getting-started-with-thin-clients"
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<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/thin-clients/java-thin-client"
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>Java Thin Client</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/thin-clients/dotnet-thin-client"
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>.NET Thin Client</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/thin-clients/cpp-thin-client"
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>C++ Thin Client</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/thin-clients/python-thin-client"
class=''
>Python Thin Client</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/thin-clients/php-thin-client"
class=''
>PHP Thin Client</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/thin-clients/nodejs-thin-client"
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>Node.js Thin Client</a>
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<button
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<li><a href="/docs/2.9.1/binary-client-protocol/binary-client-protocol" class=''>Binary Client Protocol</a></li>
<li><a href="/docs/2.9.1/binary-client-protocol/data-format" class=''>Data Format</a></li>
<li><a href="/docs/2.9.1/binary-client-protocol/key-value-queries" class=''>Key-Value Queries</a></li>
<li><a href="/docs/2.9.1/binary-client-protocol/sql-and-scan-queries" class=''>SQL and Scan Queries</a></li>
<li><a href="/docs/2.9.1/binary-client-protocol/binary-type-metadata" class=''>Binary Types Metadata</a></li>
<li><a href="/docs/2.9.1/binary-client-protocol/cache-configuration" class=''>Cache Configuration</a></li>
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</li>
</nav>
</li>
<li>
<button type='button' class='group-toggle collapsed '>Data Modeling<img class="state-indicator" src="/assets/images/left-nav-arrow.svg" width="6" height="10"></button>
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<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/data-modeling/data-modeling"
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>Introduction</a>
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<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/data-modeling/data-partitioning"
class=''
>Data Partitioning</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/data-modeling/affinity-collocation"
class=''
>Affinity Colocation</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/data-modeling/binary-marshaller"
class=''
>Binary Marshaller</a>
</li>
</nav>
</li>
<li>
<button type='button' class='group-toggle collapsed '>Configuring Memory<img class="state-indicator" src="/assets/images/left-nav-arrow.svg" width="6" height="10"></button>
<nav class='nav-group collapsed'>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/memory-architecture"
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>Memory Architecture</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/memory-configuration/data-regions"
class=''
>Configuring Data Regions</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/memory-configuration/eviction-policies"
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>Eviction Policies</a>
</li>
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</li>
<li>
<button type='button' class='group-toggle collapsed '>Configuring Persistence<img class="state-indicator" src="/assets/images/left-nav-arrow.svg" width="6" height="10"></button>
<nav class='nav-group collapsed'>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/persistence/native-persistence"
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>Ignite Persistence</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/persistence/external-storage"
class=''
>External Storage</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/persistence/swap"
class=''
>Swapping</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/persistence/custom-cache-store"
class=''
>Implementing Custom Cache Store</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/persistence/snapshots"
class=''
>Cluster Snapshots</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/persistence/disk-compression"
class=''
>Disk Compression</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/persistence/persistence-tuning"
class=''
>Tuning Persistence</a>
</li>
</nav>
</li>
<li>
<button type='button' class='group-toggle collapsed '>Configuring Caches<img class="state-indicator" src="/assets/images/left-nav-arrow.svg" width="6" height="10"></button>
<nav class='nav-group collapsed'>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/configuring-caches/configuration-overview"
class=''
>Cache Configuration</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/configuring-caches/configuring-backups"
class=''
>Configuring Partition Backups</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/configuring-caches/partition-loss-policy"
class=''
>Partition Loss Policy</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/configuring-caches/atomicity-modes"
class=''
>Atomicity Modes</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/configuring-caches/expiry-policies"
class=''
>Expiry Policy</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/configuring-caches/on-heap-caching"
class=''
>On-Heap Caching</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/configuring-caches/cache-groups"
class=''
>Cache Groups</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/configuring-caches/near-cache"
class=''
>Near Caches</a>
</li>
</nav>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/data-rebalancing" class='' >Data Rebalancing</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/data-streaming" class='' >Data Streaming</a>
</li>
<li>
<button type='button' class='group-toggle collapsed '>Using Key-Value API<img class="state-indicator" src="/assets/images/left-nav-arrow.svg" width="6" height="10"></button>
<nav class='nav-group collapsed'>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/key-value-api/basic-cache-operations"
class=''
>Basic Cache Operations</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/key-value-api/binary-objects"
class=''
>Working with Binary Objects</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/key-value-api/using-scan-queries"
class=''
>Using Scan Queries</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/read-repair"
class=''
>Read Repair</a>
</li>
</nav>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/key-value-api/transactions" class='' >Performing Transactions</a>
</li>
<li>
<button type='button' class='group-toggle collapsed '>Working with SQL<img class="state-indicator" src="/assets/images/left-nav-arrow.svg" width="6" height="10"></button>
<nav class='nav-group collapsed'>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/SQL/sql-introduction"
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>Introduction</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/SQL/schemas"
class=''
>Understanding Schemas</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/SQL/indexes"
class=''
>Defining Indexes</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/SQL/sql-api"
class=''
>Using SQL API</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/SQL/distributed-joins"
class=''
>Distributed Joins</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/SQL/sql-transactions"
class=''
>SQL Transactions</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/SQL/custom-sql-func"
class=''
>Custom SQL Functions</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/SQL/JDBC/jdbc-driver"
class=''
>JDBC Driver</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/SQL/JDBC/jdbc-client-driver"
class=''
>JDBC Client Driver</a>
</li>
<li>
<button
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<li><a href="/docs/2.9.1/SQL/ODBC/odbc-driver" class=''>ODBC Driver</a></li>
<li><a href="/docs/2.9.1//SQL/ODBC/connection-string-dsn" class=''>Connection String and DSN</a></li>
<li><a href="/docs/2.9.1/SQL/ODBC/querying-modifying-data" class=''>Querying and Modifying Data</a></li>
<li><a href="/docs/2.9.1/SQL/ODBC/specification" class=''>Specification</a></li>
<li><a href="/docs/2.9.1/SQL/ODBC/data-types" class=''>Data Types</a></li>
<li><a href="/docs/2.9.1/SQL/ODBC/error-codes" class=''>Error Codes</a></li>
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</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/transactions/mvcc"
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>Multiversion Concurrency Control</a>
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<li>
<button type='button' class='group-toggle collapsed '>SQL Reference<img class="state-indicator" src="/assets/images/left-nav-arrow.svg" width="6" height="10"></button>
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<a href="/docs/2.9.1/sql-reference/sql-conformance"
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>SQL Conformance</a>
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<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/sql-reference/ddl"
class=''
>Data Definition Language (DDL)</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/sql-reference/dml"
class=''
>Data Manipulation Language (DML)</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/sql-reference/transactions"
class=''
>Transactions</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/sql-reference/operational-commands"
class=''
>Operational Commands</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/sql-reference/aggregate-functions"
class=''
>Aggregate functions</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/sql-reference/numeric-functions"
class=''
>Numeric Functions</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/sql-reference/string-functions"
class=''
>String Functions</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/sql-reference/date-time-functions"
class=''
>Data and Time Functions</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/sql-reference/system-functions"
class=''
>System Functions</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/sql-reference/data-types"
class=''
>Data Types</a>
</li>
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</li>
<li>
<button type='button' class='group-toggle collapsed '>Distributed Computing<img class="state-indicator" src="/assets/images/left-nav-arrow.svg" width="6" height="10"></button>
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<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/distributed-computing/distributed-computing"
class=''
>Distributed Computing API</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/distributed-computing/cluster-groups"
class=''
>Cluster Groups</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/distributed-computing/executor-service"
class=''
>Executor Service</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/distributed-computing/map-reduce"
class=''
>MapReduce API</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/distributed-computing/load-balancing"
class=''
>Load Balancing</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/distributed-computing/fault-tolerance"
class=''
>Fault Tolerance</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/distributed-computing/job-scheduling"
class=''
>Job Scheduling</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/distributed-computing/collocated-computations"
class=''
>Colocating Computations with Data</a>
</li>
</nav>
</li>
<li>
<button type='button' class='group-toggle collapsed '>Code Deployment<img class="state-indicator" src="/assets/images/left-nav-arrow.svg" width="6" height="10"></button>
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<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/code-deployment/deploying-user-code"
class=''
>Deploying User Code</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/code-deployment/peer-class-loading"
class=''
>Peer Class Loading</a>
</li>
</nav>
</li>
<li>
<button type='button' class='group-toggle collapsed '>Machine Learning<img class="state-indicator" src="/assets/images/left-nav-arrow.svg" width="6" height="10"></button>
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<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/machine-learning/machine-learning"
class=''
>Machine Learning</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/machine-learning/partition-based-dataset"
class=''
>Partition Based Dataset</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/machine-learning/updating-trained-models"
class=''
>Updating Trained Models</a>
</li>
<li>
<button
type='button'
class='collapsed '>Binary Classification<img class="state-indicator" src="/assets/images/left-nav-arrow.svg" width="6" height="10"></button>
<nav class="sub_pages collapsed">
<li><a href="/docs/2.9.1/machine-learning/binary-classification/introduction" class=''>Introduction</a></li>
<li><a href="/docs/2.9.1/machine-learning/binary-classification/linear-svm" class=''>Linear SVM (Support Vector Machine)</a></li>
<li><a href="/docs/2.9.1/machine-learning/binary-classification/decision-trees" class=''>Decision Trees</a></li>
<li><a href="/docs/2.9.1/machine-learning/binary-classification/multilayer-perceptron" class=''>Multilayer Perceptron</a></li>
<li><a href="/docs/2.9.1/machine-learning/binary-classification/logistic-regression" class=''>Logistic Regression</a></li>
<li><a href="/docs/2.9.1/machine-learning/binary-classification/knn-classification" class=''>k-NN Classification</a></li>
<li><a href="/docs/2.9.1/machine-learning/binary-classification/ann" class=''>ANN (Approximate Nearest Neighbor)</a></li>
<li><a href="/docs/2.9.1/machine-learning/binary-classification/naive-bayes" class=''>Naive Bayes</a></li>
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</li>
<li>
<button
type='button'
class='collapsed '>Regression<img class="state-indicator" src="/assets/images/left-nav-arrow.svg" width="6" height="10"></button>
<nav class="sub_pages collapsed">
<li><a href="/docs/2.9.1/machine-learning/regression/introduction" class=''>Introduction</a></li>
<li><a href="/docs/2.9.1/machine-learning/regression/linear-regression" class=''>Linear Regression</a></li>
<li><a href="/docs/2.9.1/machine-learning/regression/decision-trees-regression" class=''>Decision Trees Regression</a></li>
<li><a href="/docs/2.9.1/machine-learning/regression/knn-regression" class=''>k-NN Regression</a></li>
</nav>
</li>
<li>
<button
type='button'
class='collapsed '>Clustering<img class="state-indicator" src="/assets/images/left-nav-arrow.svg" width="6" height="10"></button>
<nav class="sub_pages collapsed">
<li><a href="/docs/2.9.1/machine-learning/clustering/introduction" class=''>Introduction</a></li>
<li><a href="/docs/2.9.1/machine-learning/clustering/k-means-clustering" class=''>K-Means Clustering</a></li>
<li><a href="/docs/2.9.1/machine-learning/clustering/gaussian-mixture" class=''>Gaussian mixture (GMM)</a></li>
</nav>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/machine-learning/preprocessing"
class=''
>Preprocessing</a>
</li>
<li>
<button
type='button'
class='collapsed '>Model Selection<img class="state-indicator" src="/assets/images/left-nav-arrow.svg" width="6" height="10"></button>
<nav class="sub_pages collapsed">
<li><a href="/docs/2.9.1/machine-learning/model-selection/introduction" class=''>Introduction</a></li>
<li><a href="/docs/2.9.1/machine-learning/model-selection/evaluator" class=''>Evaluator</a></li>
<li><a href="/docs/2.9.1/machine-learning/model-selection/split-the-dataset-on-test-and-train-datasets" class=''>Split the dataset on test and train datasets</a></li>
<li><a href="/docs/2.9.1/machine-learning/model-selection/hyper-parameter-tuning" class=''>Hyper-parameter tuning</a></li>
<li><a href="/docs/2.9.1/machine-learning/model-selection/pipeline-api" class=''>Pipeline API</a></li>
</nav>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/machine-learning/multiclass-classification"
class=''
>Multiclass Classification</a>
</li>
<li>
<button
type='button'
class='collapsed '>Ensemble Methods<img class="state-indicator" src="/assets/images/left-nav-arrow.svg" width="6" height="10"></button>
<nav class="sub_pages collapsed">
<li><a href="/docs/2.9.1/machine-learning/ensemble-methods/introduction" class=''></a></li>
<li><a href="/docs/2.9.1/machine-learning/ensemble-methods/stacking" class=''>Stacking</a></li>
<li><a href="/docs/2.9.1/machine-learning/ensemble-methods/baggin" class=''>Bagging</a></li>
<li><a href="/docs/2.9.1/machine-learning/ensemble-methods/random-forest" class=''>Random Forest</a></li>
<li><a href="/docs/2.9.1/machine-learning/ensemble-methods/gradient-boosting" class=''>Gradient Boosting</a></li>
</nav>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/machine-learning/recommendation-systems"
class=''
>Recommendation Systems</a>
</li>
<li>
<button
type='button'
class='collapsed '>Importing Model<img class="state-indicator" src="/assets/images/left-nav-arrow.svg" width="6" height="10"></button>
<nav class="sub_pages collapsed">
<li><a href="/docs/2.9.1/machine-learning/importing-model/introduction" class=''>Introduction</a></li>
<li><a href="/docs/2.9.1/machine-learning/importing-model/model-import-from-gxboost" class=''>Import Model from XGBoost</a></li>
<li><a href="/docs/2.9.1/machine-learning/importing-model/model-import-from-apache-spark" class=''>Import Model from Apache Spark</a></li>
</nav>
</li>
</nav>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/key-value-api/continuous-queries" class='' >Using Continuous Queries</a>
</li>
<li>
<a href="/docs/2.9.1/services/services" class='' >Using Ignite Services</a>
</li>
<li>
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<article data-swiftype-index='true'>
<a class='edit-link' href="https://github.com/apache/ignite/tree/IGNITE-7595/docs/_docs/perf-and-troubleshooting/sql-tuning.adoc" target="_blank">Edit</a>
<h1>SQL Performance Tuning</h1>
<div id="preamble">
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph">
<p>This article outlines basic and advanced optimization techniques for Ignite SQL queries. Some of the sections are also useful for debugging and troubleshooting.</p>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="basic-considerations-ignite-vs-rdbms">Basic Considerations: Ignite vs RDBMS</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph">
<p>Ignite is frequently compared to relational databases for their SQL capabilities with an expectation that existing SQL
queries, created for an RDBMS, will work out of the box and perform faster in Ignite without any
changes. Usually, such an assumption is based on the fact that Ignite stores and processes data in-memory.
However, it&#8217;s not enough just to put data in RAM and expect an order of magnitude increase in performance. Generally,
extra tuning is required. Below you can see a standard checklist of
best practices to consider before you benchmark Ignite against an RDBMS or do any performance testing:</p>
</div>
<div class="ulist">
<ul>
<li>
<p>Ignite is optimized for <em>multi-nodes</em> deployments with RAM as a primary storage. Don&#8217;t
try to compare a single-node Ignite cluster to a relational database. You should deploy a multi-node Ignite cluster with the whole copy of data in RAM.</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>Be ready to adjust your data model and existing SQL queries.
Use the <a href="/docs/2.9.1/data-modeling/affinity-collocation">affinity colocation</a> concept during the data
modelling phase for proper data distribution. Remember, it&#8217;s not enough just to put data in RAM. If your data is properly colocated, you can run SQL queries with JOINs at massive scale and expect significant performance benefits.</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>Define secondary indexes and use other standard, and Ignite-specific, tuning techniques described below.</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>Keep in mind that relational databases leverage local caching techniques and, depending on the total data size, an
RDBMS can complete <em>some queries</em> even faster than Ignite even in a multi-node configuration.
If your data set is around 10-100GB and an RDBMS has enough RAM for caching data locally than it, for instance, can
outperform a multi-node Ignite cluster because the latter will be utilizing the network. Store much more data in Ignite to see the difference.</p>
</li>
</ul>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="using-the-explain-statement">Using the EXPLAIN Statement</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph">