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<article data-swiftype-index='true'>
<a class='edit-link' href="https://github.com/apache/ignite/tree/IGNITE-7595/docs/_docs/sql-reference/system-functions.adoc" target="_blank">Edit</a>
<h1>System Functions</h1>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="coalesce">COALESCE</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph">
<p>Returns the first value that is not null.</p>
</div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre class="rouge highlight"><code data-lang="sql"><span class="err">{</span><span class="n">COALESCE</span> <span class="o">|</span> <span class="n">NVL</span> <span class="err">}</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">aValue</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">bValue</span> <span class="p">[,...])</span></code></pre>
</div>
</div>
<div class="paragraph">
<p>Examples:</p>
</div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre class="rouge highlight"><code data-lang="sql"><span class="n">COALESCE</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">A</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">B</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="k">C</span><span class="p">)</span></code></pre>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="decode">DECODE</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph">
<p>Returns the first matching value. NULL is considered to match NULL. If no match was found, then NULL or the last parameter (if the parameter count is even) is returned.</p>
</div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre class="rouge highlight"><code data-lang="sql"><span class="n">DECODE</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">value</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">whenValue</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">thenValue</span> <span class="p">[,...])</span></code></pre>
</div>
</div>
<div class="paragraph">
<p>Examples:</p>
</div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre class="rouge highlight"><code data-lang="sql"><span class="n">DECODE</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">RAND</span><span class="p">()</span><span class="o">&gt;</span><span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">.</span><span class="mi">5</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">0</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s1">'Red'</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s1">'Black'</span><span class="p">)</span></code></pre>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="greatest">GREATEST</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph">
<p>Returns the largest value that is not NULL, or NULL if all values are NULL.</p>
</div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre class="rouge highlight"><code data-lang="sql"><span class="n">GREATEST</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">aValue</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">bValue</span> <span class="p">[,...])</span></code></pre>
</div>
</div>
<div class="paragraph">
<p>Examples:</p>
</div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre class="rouge highlight"><code data-lang="sql"><span class="n">GREATEST</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">2</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">3</span><span class="p">)</span></code></pre>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="ifnull">IFNULL</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph">
<p>Returns the value of 'a' if it is not null, otherwise 'b'.</p>
</div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre class="rouge highlight"><code data-lang="sql"><span class="n">IFNULL</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">aValue</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">bValue</span><span class="p">)</span></code></pre>
</div>
</div>
<div class="paragraph">
<p>Examples:</p>
</div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre class="rouge highlight"><code data-lang="sql"><span class="n">IFNULL</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="k">NULL</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s1">''</span><span class="p">)</span></code></pre>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="least">LEAST</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph">
<p>Returns the smallest value that is not NULL, or NULL if all values are NULL.</p>
</div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre class="rouge highlight"><code data-lang="sql"><span class="n">LEAST</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">aValue</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">bValue</span> <span class="p">[,...])</span></code></pre>
</div>
</div>
<div class="paragraph">
<p>Examples:</p>
</div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre class="rouge highlight"><code data-lang="sql"><span class="n">LEAST</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">2</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">3</span><span class="p">)</span></code></pre>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="nullif">NULLIF</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph">
<p>Returns NULL if 'a' is equals to 'b', otherwise 'a'.</p>
</div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre class="rouge highlight"><code data-lang="sql"><span class="k">NULLIF</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">aValue</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">bValue</span><span class="p">)</span></code></pre>
</div>
</div>
<div class="paragraph">
<p>Examples:</p>
</div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre class="rouge highlight"><code data-lang="sql"><span class="k">NULLIF</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">A</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">B</span><span class="p">)</span></code></pre>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="nvl2">NVL2</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph">
<p>If the test value is null, then 'b' is returned. Otherwise, 'a' is returned. The data type of the returned value is the data type of 'a' if this is a text type.</p>
</div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre class="rouge highlight"><code data-lang="sql"><span class="n">NVL2</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">testValue</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">aValue</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">bValue</span><span class="p">)</span></code></pre>
</div>
</div>
<div class="paragraph">
<p>Examples:</p>
</div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre class="rouge highlight"><code data-lang="sql"><span class="n">NVL2</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">X</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s1">'not null'</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s1">'null'</span><span class="p">)</span></code></pre>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="casewhen">CASEWHEN</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph">
<p>Returns 'aValue' if the boolean expression is true, otherwise 'bValue'.</p>
</div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre class="rouge highlight"><code data-lang="sql"><span class="n">CASEWHEN</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="nb">boolean</span> <span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">aValue</span> <span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">bValue</span><span class="p">)</span></code></pre>
</div>
</div>
<div class="paragraph">
<p>Examples:</p>
</div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre class="rouge highlight"><code data-lang="sql"><span class="n">CASEWHEN</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">ID</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s1">'A'</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s1">'B'</span><span class="p">)</span></code></pre>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="cast">CAST</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph">
<p>Converts a value to another data type. The following conversion rules are used:</p>
</div>
<div class="ulist">
<ul>
<li>
<p>When converting a number to a boolean, 0 is considered as false and every other value is true.</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>When converting a boolean to a number, false is 0 and true is 1.</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>When converting a number to a number of another type, the value is checked for overflow.</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>When converting a number to binary, the number of bytes will match the precision.</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>When converting a string to binary, it is hex encoded.</p>
</li>
<li>
<p>A hex string can be converted into the binary form and then to a number. If a direct conversion is not possible, the value is first converted to a string.</p>
</li>
</ul>
</div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre class="rouge highlight"><code data-lang="sql"><span class="k">CAST</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">value</span> <span class="k">AS</span> <span class="n">dataType</span><span class="p">)</span></code></pre>
</div>
</div>
<div class="paragraph">
<p>Examples:</p>
</div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre class="rouge highlight"><code data-lang="sql"><span class="k">CAST</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">NAME</span> <span class="k">AS</span> <span class="nb">INT</span><span class="p">);</span>
<span class="k">CAST</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">65535</span> <span class="k">AS</span> <span class="nb">BINARY</span><span class="p">);</span>
<span class="k">CAST</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="k">CAST</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s1">'FFFF'</span> <span class="k">AS</span> <span class="nb">BINARY</span><span class="p">)</span> <span class="k">AS</span> <span class="nb">INT</span><span class="p">);</span></code></pre>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="convert">CONVERT</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph">
<p>Converts a value to another data type.</p>
</div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre class="rouge highlight"><code data-lang="sql"><span class="k">CONVERT</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">value</span> <span class="p">,</span> <span class="n">dataType</span><span class="p">)</span></code></pre>
</div>
</div>
<div class="paragraph">
<p>Examples:</p>
</div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre class="rouge highlight"><code data-lang="sql"><span class="k">CONVERT</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">NAME</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="nb">INT</span><span class="p">)</span></code></pre>
</div>
</div>
</div>
</div>
<div class="sect1">
<h2 id="table">TABLE</h2>
<div class="sectionbody">
<div class="paragraph">
<p>Returns the result set. TABLE_DISTINCT removes duplicate rows.</p>
</div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre class="rouge highlight"><code data-lang="sql"><span class="k">TABLE</span> <span class="o">|</span> <span class="n">TABLE_DISTINCT</span> <span class="p">(</span><span class="n">name</span> <span class="n">dataType</span> <span class="o">=</span> <span class="n">expression</span><span class="p">)</span></code></pre>
</div>
</div>
<div class="paragraph">
<p>Examples:</p>
</div>
<div class="listingblock">
<div class="content">
<pre class="rouge highlight"><code data-lang="sql"><span class="k">SELECT</span> <span class="o">*</span> <span class="k">FROM</span> <span class="k">TABLE</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="n">ID</span> <span class="nb">INT</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="mi">1</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="mi">2</span><span class="p">),</span> <span class="n">NAME</span> <span class="nb">VARCHAR</span><span class="o">=</span><span class="p">(</span><span class="s1">'Hello'</span><span class="p">,</span> <span class="s1">'World'</span><span class="p">))</span></code></pre>
</div>
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