blob: 19681a1b263e3fc316a5ca19824eab37ac4767f5 [file] [log] [blame]
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "">
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type"
content="text/html; charset=windows-1252">
<title>DNS Service Provider</title>
<link rel="Stylesheet" type="text/css" href="../harmony.css">
<p class="title"> <a name="top"></a>DNS Service Provider </p>
<p class="TOCHeading"> <a href="#Revision_History">Revision History</a>
<p class="TOCHeading"> <a href="#Disclaimer_and_Legal">Disclaimer and
Legal Information</a> </p>
<p class="TOCHeading"> <a href="#About_This_Document">About This
Document</a> </p>
<p class="TOC"> <a href="#Purpose">Purpose</a> </p>
<p class="TOC"> <a href="#Intended_Audience">Intended Audience</a> </p>
<p class="TOC"> <a href="#Documentation_Conventions">Documentation
Conventions</a> </p>
<p class="TOCHeading"> <a href="#DNS_Provider_Overview">Introduction
to DNS Provider </a> </p>
<p class="TOCHeading"> <a href="#DNS_Provider_in_DRL">DNS Provider in
DRL</a> </p>
<p class="TOC"> <a href="#About_DRL_DNS">About</a> </p>
<p class="TOC"> <a href="#DNS_URL_Syntax">DNS URL Syntax</a> </p>
<p class="TOC"> <a href="#Attribute_Identifiers">Attribute Identifiers</a>
<p class="TOC"> <a href="#API_Mapping">API Mapping</a> </p>
<p class="TOC"> <a href="#Environment_Properties">Environment
Properties</a> </p>
<p class="TOC"> <a href="#DNS_Resolver">DNS Resolver</a> </p>
<p class="TOC"> <a href="#Federation">Federation</a> </p>
<p class="TOCHeading"> <a href="#Appendix_Usage_Examples">Appendix:
Usage Examples</a> </p>
<p class="TOCHeading"> <a href="#References">References</a> </p>
<h1> <a name="Revision_History"></a>Revision History </h1>
<table border="0" cellpadding="0" width="100%">
<td class="TableHeading" width="24%"> Version </td>
<td class="TableHeading" width="49%"> Version Information </td>
<td class="TableHeading"> Date </td>
<td class="TableCell" width="24%"> Initial version </td>
<td class="TableCell" width="49%"> Alexei Zakharov, Nadya
Morozova: document created. </td>
<td class="TableCell">&nbsp; March 23, 2006 </td>
<h1> <a name="Disclaimer_and_Legal"></a>Disclaimer and Legal
Information </h1>
<p> Copyright 2005-2006 The Apache Software Foundation or its
licensors, as
applicable. </p>
<p> Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License"); you
may not use this file except in compliance with the License. You may
obtain a copy of the License at <a
href="" target="_blank"></a>. </p>
<p> Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
implied. See the License for the specific language governing
permissions and limitations under the License. </p>
<h1> <a name="About_This_Document"></a>About This Document </h1>
<h2> <a name="Purpose"></a>Purpose </h2>
<p> This document introduces the DRL implementation of the DNS service
provider for JNDI, the Java<a href="#*">*</a> Naming Directory
Interface. The document gives details on the DNS provider design,
includes an overall description of the package, and includes helpful
usage examples.
The description documents the first version of the DRL DNS service
provider deployed in March 2006. </p>
<h2> <a name="Intended_Audience"></a>Intended Audience </h2>
<p> The target audience for the document includes a wide community of
engineers interested in using the DNS service provider for JNDI and in
further work with the product to contribute to its development. The
document assumes that readers are familiar with the Java<a href="#*">*</a>
programming language, the Java<a href="#*">*</a> Naming Directory
Interface, and common concepts of the DNS protocol.
<h2> <a name="Documentation_Conventions"></a>Documentation Conventions
<p> This document uses the <a href="conventions.htm">unified
conventions</a> for the DRL documentation kit. </p>
<p class="backtotop"> <a href="#top">Back to Top</a> </p>
<h1> <a name="DNS_Provider_Overview"></a>Introduction to DNS Provider </h1>
<p> The DNS service provider enables Java<a href="#*">*</a>
applications to access information stored in the Domain Name System
database by means of the Java<a href="#*">*</a> Naming and Directory
Interface [<a href="#JNDI">1</a>]. The provider presents the DNS
namespace as a tree of JNDI directory contexts, and DNS resource
records as JNDI attributes. </p>
<p class="backtotop"><a href="#top">Back to Top</a> </p>
<h1> <a name="DNS_Provider_in_DRL"></a>DNS Provider in DRL </h1>
<p> This part of the document describes the DRL implementation of the
DNS provider as a whole and defines the API mapping, environment
properties usage, and other specific aspects.
<h2> <a name="About_DRL_DNS"></a>About </h2>
<p><font face="Arial" size="2"><span
style="font-size: 10pt; font-family: Arial;" lang="EN-US">This is an
independent implementation of the DNS service provider for JNDI. More
detailed information on JNDI and JNDI service providers can be found at
</span></font>[<a href="DNSsupport.htm#JNDI">1</a>]. </p>
<p> In DRL, the DNS service provider is a directory context associated
with a domain name. This way, DNS resource records correspond to JNDI
attributes. The DNS support functionality is mainly represented by the
following classes of the <code>org.apache.harmony.jndi.provider.dns</code>
package: </p>
<li> The <code>DNSContext</code> class represents the DNS context
and implements the <code>DirContext</code> interface </li>
<li> The <code>DNSName</code> class represents DNS names and
implements the <code>Name</code> interface </li>
<li> The <code>DNSNameParser</code> class enables parsing DNS names
and implements the <code>NameParser</code> interface </li>
<li> The <code>Resolver</code> class and the related set of classes
contain DNS specific algorithms and protocol messages functionality </li>
<h2> <a name="DNS_URL_Syntax"></a>DNS URL Syntax </h2>
<p> The DNS URL, or <i>DNS Pseudo URL</i>, passes the initial
information to the DNS context as a value for the <code>java.naming.provider.url</code>
property or as an argument to a method of the initial context via the
DNS URL provider. The DNS URL is defined in the following format: </p>
<p> A given combination of <code>host</code> and <code>port</code>
indicates the DNS server to be used for serving requests about a given
domain. Given partial data, the following values are used instead of
missing parameters: </p>
<li> If <code>host</code> is missing, <code>localhost</code> is
used. </li>
<li> If <code>port</code> is missing, <code>53</code> is taken by
default. </li>
<li> If <code>host</code> and <code>port</code> are missing, the
DNS server is set to the default of <code>localhost:53</code>. </li>
<li> If <code>domain</code> is missing, the root domain <code>.</code>
is used. </li>
<p class="backtotop"> <a href="#top">Back to Top</a> </p>
<h2> <a name="Attribute_Identifiers"></a>Attribute Identifiers </h2>
<p> Because this provider presents DNS resource records in the form of
JNDI attributes, the exact format of attribute identifiers must be
defined. These identifiers are accepted by different methods of the DNS
provider. An identifier consists of the following combination of DNS
class and type information: </p>
<p> Currently supported class identifiers: </p>
<li> <code>IN</code> - Internet class </li>
<li> <code>HS</code> - Hesiod class (not tested) </li>
<p> Currently supported type identifiers: </p>
<li> <code>A</code> - address record </li>
<li> <code>NS</code> - name server record </li>
<li> <code>CNAME</code> - canonical name for record </li>
<li> <code>SOA</code> - start of authority record </li>
<li> <code>PTR</code> - name pointer record </li>
<li> <code>MX</code> - mail exchange </li>
<li> <code>TXT</code> - text record </li>
<li> <code>HINFO</code> - host information </li>
<li> <code>SRV</code> - location of services record </li>
<p> If the class identifier is missing, the provider assumes the <code>IN</code>
class identifier. For an unsupported attribute type, calling <code>getAttributes()</code>
returns a numerical value rather than its type ID. The symbol <code>""</code>
indicates <code>ANY</code> type or class, so that an empty string
stands for any type in any class. </p>
<p> For more details about DNS resource record classes and types, see
RFC 1035 [<a href="#RFC">2</a>]. </p>
<p class="backtotop"> <a href="#top">Back to Top</a> </p>
<h2> <a name="API_Mapping"></a>API Mapping </h2>
<p> The <code>DNSContext</code> class, the main class of the DRL DNS
provider, implements the <code>DirContext</code> interface. Because
DNS allows a read-only service, <code>DNSContext</code> provides only
a part of the overall <code>DirContext</code> functionality. </p>
<p> Below is the list of supported <code>DirContext</code> methods
grouped by functionality. All other methods throw <code>javax.naming.OperationNotSupportedException</code>.
<p class="class"> Environment
<p class="notetext"> <code>addToEnvironment()</code> <br>
<code>removeFromEnvironment()</code> </p>
<p class="class"> Operations with DNS names </p>
<p class="notetext"> <code>composeName()</code><br>
<code>getNameParser()</code> </p>
<p class="class"> Querying attribute values </p>
<p class="notetext"> <code>getAttributes()</code> </p>
<p> This method queries the attribute values from the remote DNS server
or the local provider's cache. </p>
<p class="class"> <a name="Lookup"></a>Lookup operations </p>
<p class="notetext"> <code>lookup()</code><br>
<code>lookupLink()</code> </p>
<p> The lookup algorithm works as follows: </p>
<li> Determines the attribute identifier (ID) contained in the <code>org.apache.harmony.jndi.provider.dns.lookup.attr</code>
property. If the property value contains no attribute identifier, the <code>TXT</code>
attribute is used. </li>
<li> Calls <code>getAttributes()</code> to retrieve the values of
attributes with the identifier determined at step 1 for the requested
domain name. </li>
<li> Calls <code>DriverManager.getObjectInstance()</code> to obtain
the object instance for the requested domain name and the retrieved
attribute value(s). </li>
<li> Returns the object instance to the user application. </li>
<p class="note"> Note </p>
<p class="notetext"> The user object factory must be able to create
object instances for an object of the <code>org.apache.harmony.jndi.provider.dns.DNSContext</code>
class [<a href="#JNDI">1</a>]. If no object factories have been
specified, the lookup methods return an instance of <code>DNSContext</code>.
<p class="class"> List operations </p>
<p class="notetext"> <code>list()</code><br>
<code>listBindings()</code> </p>
<p> These methods list the entire content of the DNS zone via DNS zone
transfer mechanism. </p>
<p class="class"> Releasing all resources </p>
<p class="notetext"> <code>close()</code> </p>
<p class="note"> Note </p>
<p class="notetext"> Currently, this method does nothing because it has
nothing to release.<br>
<p class="backtotop"> <br>
<a href="#top">Back to Top</a> </p>
<h2> <a name="Environment_Properties"></a>Environment Properties </h2>
<p> The DNS service provider accepts a number of environment properties
as shown in the table below. </p>
<td colspan="1" class="TableHeading"> Property Name </td>
<td class="TableHeading" width="394"> Function </td>
<td class="TableCell"> <code> java.naming.authoritative</code> </td>
<td class="TableCell">Sets the authoritative bit [<a href="#RFC">2</a>]
for all outgoing messages when <code>TRUE</code>. </td>
<td class="TableCell"> <code>org.apache.harmony.jndi.provider.dns.lookup.attr</code>
<td class="TableCell"> Specifies the attribute identifier to be
used in the <a href="#Lookup">lookup algorithm</a>. </td>
<td class="TableCell"> <code>org.apache.harmony.jndi.provider.dns.recursion</code>
<td class="TableCell">Sets the recursion bit for outgoing
messages when <code>TRUE</code>. </td>
<td class="TableCell"> <code>org.apache.harmony.jndi.provider.dns.timeout.initial</code>
<td class="TableCell">Indicates the initial timeout.
<p> When accessing remote data, the DNS client tries to query all
possible remote servers with this value taken as a timeout. If this
fails, the client increases the initial timeout value by two times. If
this also fails, a value 4 times greater than the initial timeout is
taken and so on (x8, x16, ... ) until the maximum number of timeout
retries is reached, see the description of property <code>org.apache.harmony.jndi.provider.dns.timeout.retries</code>.
<td class="TableCell"> <code>org.apache.harmony.jndi.provider.dns.timeout.retries</code>
<td class="TableCell">Sets the number of timeout retries, that
is, the maximum number of retries that can be performed when accessing
a remote DNS server.
<p>If all attempts fail and the maximum number of retries is
reached, the user gets an error message, see the description of
property <code>org.apache.harmony.jndi.provider.dns.timeout.initial</code>.
<td class="TableCell"> <code>org.apache.harmony.jndi.providers.dns.threads.max</code>
<td class="TableCell">Determines the maximum number of threads
that can be started by a single instance of the DNS context. The
default value is 7. </td>
<td class="TableCell"> <code>java.naming.provider.url</code> </td>
<td class="TableCell">Enumerates the initial DNS URLs.
<p>Multiple URLs must go in a space-separated list, see <a
href="#DNS_URL_Syntax">DNS URL Syntax</a>. During instantiation, the
DNS provider fills its internal tables with the given DNS server and
controlled domain pairs. The domain part of all URLs must be identical.
The newly created DNS context is associated with this domain name.</p>
<p class="backtotop"> <a href="#top">Back to Top</a> </p>
<h2> <a name="DNS_Resolver"></a>DNS Resolver </h2>
<p> The DRL DNS provider includes an independent fully-functional DNS
resolver with its own SLIST table and local cache. The SLIST table and
the cache are singleton classes shared among all instances of the
resolver. The resolver conforms with RFC 1034 on general principles and
algorithms used by the resolver, and with RFC 1035 on respective
records and message formats. The standards RFC 1123, 2181, and 2782 are
also relevant [<a href="#RFC">2</a>]. </p>
<p class="backtotop"> <a href="#top">Back to Top</a> </p>
<h2> <a name="Federation"></a>Federation </h2>
<p> The DLR DNS provider has built-in federation support. Implicit next
naming system is determined dynamically. If the DNS context encounters
the border of the DNS namespace, it calls the <code>DirectoryManager.getContinuationContext</code><code>(</code><code>)</code>
method and forwards the call to the obtained next naming system
context. </p>
<p>Unsupported methods, such as <code>bind(</code><code>) </code>and <code>rename()</code>,
also perform the initial check. The user gets <code>javax.naming.OperationNotSupportedException</code>
for these methods only if the requested name is entirely inside the DNS
namespace. </p>
<p class="backtotop"> <a href="#top">Back to Top</a> </p>
<h1> <a name="Appendix_Usage_Examples"></a>Appendix: Usage Examples </h1>
<p> Below is an example of using the provider as the initial context.
In the example, the <code>DNSContextFactory</code> class is specified
as the default factory for producing initial contexts. </p>
<pre>Hashtable env = new Hashtable();<br>DirectoryContext ctx;<br>Attributes attrs;<br><br>env.put(Context.INITIAL_CONTEXT_FACTORY, <br> "org.apache.harmony.jndi.provider.dns.DNSContextFactory");<br>env.put(Context.PROVIDER_URL, <br> "dns://");<br>ctx = new InitialDirContext(env);<br><br>// Obtain A and CNAME records for <br>attrs = ctx.getAttributes("server1", new String[] {"A", "CNAME"});<br></pre>
<p> The provider can also be accessed by passing a DNS URL to any
initial context method that accepts string arguments. For that, set the
following property before calling a method of the initial context: </p>
<pre>env.put(Context.URL_PKG_PREFIXES, "org.apache.harmony.jndi.provider.dns");<br>ctx = new InitialDirContext(env);<br><br>// Add server with IP address to SLIST as a server<br>// responsible for serving requests about <br>// Retrieve A and HINFO records for <br>attrs = ctx.getAttributes("dns://",<br> new String[] {"A", "HINFO"});<br></pre>
<p> The class <code>dnsURLContext</code> actually serves requests of
this type. </p>
<p class="backtotop"> <a href="#top">Back to Top</a> </p>
<h1> <a name="References"></a>References </h1>
<p>[<a name="JNDI"></a>1] Java<a href="#*">*</a> Naming And Directory
Interface, <a
<p>[<a name="RFC"></a>2] Internet Engineering Task Force, Requests for
Comments, <a href="" target="_blank"></a>
<p class="backtotop"> <a href="#top">Back to Top</a> </p>
<p> <a name="*">*</a> Other brands and names are the property of their
respective owners. </p>