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Service Offerings
=================
In addition to the physical and logical infrastructure of your cloud and
the CloudStack software and servers, you also need a layer of user services
so that people can actually make use of the cloud. This means not just a
user UI, but a set of options and resources that users can choose from,
such as templates for creating virtual machines, disk storage, and more.
If you are running a commercial service, you will be keeping track of
what services and resources users are consuming and charging them for
that usage. Even if you do not charge anything for people to use your
cloud – say, if the users are strictly internal to your organization, or
just friends who are sharing your cloud – you can still keep track of
what services they use and how much of them.
Service Offerings, Disk Offerings, Network Offerings, and Templates
-------------------------------------------------------------------
A user creating a new instance can make a variety of choices about its
characteristics and capabilities. CloudStack provides several ways to
present users with choices when creating a new instance:
- Service Offerings, defined by the CloudStack administrator, provide a
choice of CPU speed, number of CPUs, RAM size, tags on the root disk,
and other choices. See Creating a New Compute Offering.
- Disk Offerings, defined by the CloudStack administrator, provide a
choice of disk size and IOPS (Quality of Service) for primary data
storage. See Creating a New Disk Offering.
- Network Offerings, defined by the CloudStack administrator, describe the
feature set that is available to end users from the virtual router or
external networking devices on a given guest network. See Network
Offerings.
- Templates, defined by the CloudStack administrator or by any CloudStack
user, are the base OS images that the user can choose from when
creating a new instance. For example, CloudStack includes CentOS as a
template. See Working with Templates.
In addition to these choices that are provided for users, there is
another type of service offering which is available only to the CloudStack
root administrator, and is used for configuring virtual infrastructure
resources. For more information, see Upgrading a Virtual Router with
System Service Offerings.
Compute and Disk Service Offerings
----------------------------------
A service offering is a set of virtual hardware features such as CPU
core count and speed, memory, and disk size. The CloudStack administrator
can set up various offerings, and then end users choose from the
available offerings when they create a new VM. Based on the user’s
selected offering, CloudStack emits usage records that can be integrated
with billing systems.
Some characteristics of service offerings must be defined by the CloudStack
administrator, and others can be left undefined so that the end-user can
enter their own desired values. This is useful to reduce the number of
offerings the CloudStack administrator has to define. Instead of defining a
compute offering for every imaginable combination of values that a user
might want, the administrator can define offerings that provide some
flexibility to the users and can serve as the basis for several
different VM configurations.
A service offering includes the following elements:
- CPU, memory, and network resource guarantees
- How resources are metered
- How the resource usage is charged
- How often the charges are generated
For example, one service offering might allow users to create a virtual
machine instance that is equivalent to a 1 GHz Intel® Core™ 2 CPU, with
1 GB memory at $0.20/hour, with network traffic metered at $0.10/GB.
CloudStack separates service offerings into compute offerings and disk
offerings. The compute service offering specifies:
- Guest CPU (optional). If not defined by the CloudStack administrator,
users can pick the CPU attributes.
- Guest RAM (optional). If not defined by the CloudStack administrator,
users can pick the RAM.
- Guest Networking type (virtual or direct)
- Tags on the root disk
The disk offering specifies:
- Disk size (optional). If not defined by the CloudStack administrator,
users can pick the disk size.
- Tags on the data disk
Custom Compute Offering
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
CloudStack provides you the flexibility to specify the desired values for
the number of CPU, CPU speed, and memory while deploying a VM. As an
admin, you create a Compute Offering by marking it as custom, and the
users will be able to customize this dynamic Compute Offering by
specifying the memory, and CPU at the time of VM creation or upgrade.
Custom Compute Offering is same as the normal Compute Offering except
that the values of the dynamic parameters will be set to zeros in the
given set of templates. Use this offering to deploy VM by specifying
custom values for the dynamic parameters. Memory, CPU and number of CPUs
are considered as dynamic parameters.
Dynamic Compute Offerings can be used in following cases: deploying a
VM, changing the compute offering of a stopped VM and running VMs, which
is nothing but scaling up. To support this feature a new field, Custom,
has been added to the Create Compute Offering page. If the Custom field
is checked, the user will be able to create a custom Compute Offering by
filling in the desired values for number of CPU, CPU speed, and memory.
See ? for more information on this.
*Recording Usage Events for Dynamically Assigned Resources*.
To support this feature, usage events has been enhanced to register
events for dynamically assigned resources. Usage events are registered
when a VM is created from a custom compute offering, and upon changing
the compute offering of a stopped or running VM. The values of the
parameters, such as CPU, speed, RAM are recorded.
Creating a New Compute Offering
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
To create a new compute offering:
#. Log in with admin privileges to the CloudStack UI.
#. In the left navigation bar, click Service Offerings.
#. In Select Offering, choose Compute Offering.
#. Click Add Compute Offering.
#. In the dialog, make the following choices:
- **Name**: Any desired name for the service offering.
- **Description**: A short description of the offering that can be
displayed to users
- **Storage type**: The type of disk that should be allocated. Local
allocates from storage attached directly to the host where the
system VM is running. Shared allocates from storage accessible via
NFS.
- **Custom**: Custom compute offerings can be used in following
cases: deploying a VM, changing the compute offering of a stopped
VM and running VMs, which is nothing but scaling up.
If the Custom field is checked, the end-user must fill in the
desired values for number of CPU, CPU speed, and RAM Memory when
using a custom compute offering. When you check this box, those
three input fields are hidden in the dialog box.
- **# of CPU cores**: The number of cores which should be allocated
to a system VM with this offering. If Custom is checked, this
field does not appear.
- **CPU (in MHz)**: The CPU speed of the cores that the system VM is
allocated. For example, “2000” would provide for a 2 GHz clock. If
Custom is checked, this field does not appear.
- **Memory (in MB)**: The amount of memory in megabytes that the
system VM should be allocated. For example, “2048” would provide
for a 2 GB RAM allocation. If Custom is checked, this field does
not appear.
- **Network Rate**: Allowed data transfer rate in MB per second.
- **Disk Read Rate**: Allowed disk read rate in bits per second.
- **Disk Write Rate**: Allowed disk write rate in bits per second.
- **Disk Read Rate**: Allowed disk read rate in IOPS (input/output
operations per second).
- **Disk Write Rate**: Allowed disk write rate in IOPS (input/output
operations per second).
- **Offer HA**: If yes, the administrator can choose to have the
system VM be monitored and as highly available as possible.
- **Storage Tags**: The tags that should be associated with the
primary storage used by the system VM.
- **Host Tags**: (Optional) Any tags that you use to organize your
hosts
- **CPU cap**: Whether to limit the level of CPU usage even if spare
capacity is available.
- **Public**: Indicate whether the service offering should be
available all domains or only some domains. Choose Yes to make it
available to all domains. Choose No to limit the scope to a
subdomain; CloudStack will then prompt for the subdomain's name.
- **isVolatile**: If checked, VMs created from this service offering
will have their root disks reset upon reboot. This is useful for
secure environments that need a fresh start on every boot and for
desktops that should not retain state.
- **Deployment Planner**: Choose the technique that you would like
CloudStack to use when deploying VMs based on this service
offering.
First Fit places new VMs on the first host that is found having
sufficient capacity to support the VM's requirements.
User Dispersing makes the best effort to evenly distribute VMs
belonging to the same account on different clusters or pods.
User Concentrated prefers to deploy VMs belonging to the same
account within a single pod.
Implicit Dedication will deploy VMs on private infrastructure that
is dedicated to a specific domain or account. If you choose this
planner, then you must also pick a value for Planner Mode. See
`“Dedicating Resources to Accounts and Domains”
<accounts.html#dedicating-resources-to-accounts-and-domains>`_.
Bare Metal is used with bare metal hosts. See Bare Metal
Installation in the Installation Guide.
- **Planner Mode**: Used when ImplicitDedicationPlanner is selected
in the previous field. The planner mode determines how VMs will be
deployed on private infrastructure that is dedicated to a single
domain or account.
Strict: A host will not be shared across multiple accounts. For
example, strict implicit dedication is useful for deployment of
certain types of applications, such as desktops, where no host can
be shared between different accounts without violating the desktop
software's terms of license.
Preferred: The VM will be deployed in dedicated infrastructure if
possible. Otherwise, the VM can be deployed in shared
infrastructure.
#. Click Add.
Creating a New Disk Offering
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
To create a new disk offering:
#. Log in with admin privileges to the CloudStack UI.
#. In the left navigation bar, click Service Offerings.
#. In Select Offering, choose Disk Offering.
#. Click Add Disk Offering.
#. In the dialog, make the following choices:
- Name. Any desired name for the disk offering.
- Description. A short description of the offering that can be
displayed to users
- Custom Disk Size. If checked, the user can set their own disk
size. If not checked, the root administrator must define a value
in Disk Size.
- Disk Size. Appears only if Custom Disk Size is not selected.
Define the volume size in GB.
- QoS Type. Three options: Empty (no Quality of Service), hypervisor
(rate limiting enforced on the hypervisor side), and storage
(guaranteed minimum and maximum IOPS enforced on the storage
side). If leveraging QoS, make sure that the hypervisor or storage
system supports this feature.
- Custom IOPS. If checked, the user can set their own IOPS. If not
checked, the root administrator can define values. If the root
admin does not set values when using storage QoS, default values
are used (the defauls can be overridden if the proper parameters
are passed into CloudStack when creating the primary storage in
question).
- Min IOPS. Appears only if storage QoS is to be used. Set a
guaranteed minimum number of IOPS to be enforced on the storage
side.
- Max IOPS. Appears only if storage QoS is to be used. Set a maximum
number of IOPS to be enforced on the storage side (the system may
go above this limit in certain circumstances for short intervals).
- (Optional)Storage Tags. The tags that should be associated with
the primary storage for this disk. Tags are a comma separated list
of attributes of the storage. For example "ssd,blue". Tags are
also added on Primary Storage. CloudStack matches tags on a disk
offering to tags on the storage. If a tag is present on a disk
offering that tag (or tags) must also be present on Primary
Storage for the volume to be provisioned. If no such primary
storage exists, allocation from the disk offering will fail..
- Public. Indicate whether the service offering should be available
all domains or only some domains. Choose Yes to make it available
to all domains. Choose No to limit the scope to a subdomain;
CloudStack will then prompt for the subdomain's name.
#. Click Add.
Modifying or Deleting a Service Offering
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
Service offerings cannot be changed once created. This applies to both
compute offerings and disk offerings.
A service offering can be deleted. If it is no longer in use, it is
deleted immediately and permanently. If the service offering is still in
use, it will remain in the database until all the virtual machines
referencing it have been deleted. After deletion by the administrator, a
service offering will not be available to end users that are creating
new instances.
System Service Offerings
------------------------
System service offerings provide a choice of CPU speed, number of CPUs,
tags, and RAM size, just as other service offerings do. But rather than
being used for virtual machine instances and exposed to users, system
service offerings are used to change the default properties of virtual
routers, console proxies, and other system VMs. System service offerings
are visible only to the CloudStack root administrator. CloudStack
provides default system service offerings. The CloudStack root
administrator can create additional custom system service offerings.
When CloudStack creates a virtual router for a guest network, it uses
default settings which are defined in the system service offering
associated with the network offering. You can upgrade the capabilities
of the virtual router by applying a new network offering that contains a
different system service offering. All virtual routers in that network
will begin using the settings from the new service offering.
Creating a New System Service Offering
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
To create a system service offering:
#. Log in with admin privileges to the CloudStack UI.
#. In the left navigation bar, click Service Offerings.
#. In Select Offering, choose System Offering.
#. Click Add System Service Offering.
#. In the dialog, make the following choices:
- Name. Any desired name for the system offering.
- Description. A short description of the offering that can be
displayed to users
- System VM Type. Select the type of system virtual machine that
this offering is intended to support.
- Storage type. The type of disk that should be allocated. Local
allocates from storage attached directly to the host where the
system VM is running. Shared allocates from storage accessible via
NFS.
- # of CPU cores. The number of cores which should be allocated to a
system VM with this offering
- CPU (in MHz). The CPU speed of the cores that the system VM is
allocated. For example, "2000" would provide for a 2 GHz clock.
- Memory (in MB). The amount of memory in megabytes that the system
VM should be allocated. For example, "2048" would provide for a 2
GB RAM allocation.
- Network Rate. Allowed data transfer rate in MB per second.
- Offer HA. If yes, the administrator can choose to have the system
VM be monitored and as highly available as possible.
- Storage Tags. The tags that should be associated with the primary
storage used by the system VM.
- Host Tags. (Optional) Any tags that you use to organize your hosts
- CPU cap. Whether to limit the level of CPU usage even if spare
capacity is available.
- Public. Indicate whether the service offering should be available
all domains or only some domains. Choose Yes to make it available
to all domains. Choose No to limit the scope to a subdomain;
CloudStack will then prompt for the subdomain's name.
#. Click Add.
Network Throttling
------------------
Network throttling is the process of controlling the network access and
bandwidth usage based on certain rules. CloudStack controls this
behaviour of the guest networks in the cloud by using the network rate
parameter. This parameter is defined as the default data transfer rate
in Mbps (Megabits Per Second) allowed in a guest network. It defines the
upper limits for network utilization. If the current utilization is
below the allowed upper limits, access is granted, else revoked.
You can throttle the network bandwidth either to control the usage above
a certain limit for some accounts, or to control network congestion in a
large cloud environment. The network rate for your cloud can be
configured on the following:
- Network Offering
- Service Offering
- Global parameter
If network rate is set to NULL in service offering, the value provided
in the vm.network.throttling.rate global parameter is applied. If the
value is set to NULL for network offering, the value provided in the
network.throttling.rate global parameter is considered.
For the default public, storage, and management networks, network rate
is set to 0. This implies that the public, storage, and management
networks will have unlimited bandwidth by default. For default guest
networks, network rate is set to NULL. In this case, network rate is
defaulted to the global parameter value.
The following table gives you an overview of how network rate is applied
on different types of networks in CloudStack.
=============================================== ===============================
Networks Network Rate Is Taken from
=============================================== ===============================
Guest network of Virtual Router Guest Network Offering
Public network of Virtual Router Guest Network Offering
Storage network of Secondary Storage VM System Network Offering
Management network of Secondary Storage VM System Network Offering
Storage network of Console Proxy VM System Network Offering
Management network of Console Proxy VM System Network Offering
Storage network of Virtual Router System Network Offering
Management network of Virtual Router System Network Offering
Public network of Secondary Storage VM System Network Offering
Public network of Console Proxy VM System Network Offering
Default network of a guest VM Compute Offering
Additional networks of a guest VM Corresponding Network Offerings
=============================================== ===============================
A guest VM must have a default network, and can also have many
additional networks. Depending on various parameters, such as the host
and virtual switch used, you can observe a difference in the network
rate in your cloud. For example, on a VMware host the actual network
rate varies based on where they are configured (compute offering,
network offering, or both); the network type (shared or isolated); and
traffic direction (ingress or egress).
The network rate set for a network offering used by a particular network
in CloudStack is used for the traffic shaping policy of a port group,
for example: port group A, for that network: a particular subnet or VLAN
on the actual network. The virtual routers for that network connects to
the port group A, and by default instances in that network connects to
this port group. However, if an instance is deployed with a compute
offering with the network rate set, and if this rate is used for the
traffic shaping policy of another port group for the network, for
example port group B, then instances using this compute offering are
connected to the port group B, instead of connecting to port group A.
The traffic shaping policy on standard port groups in VMware only
applies to the egress traffic, and the net effect depends on the type of
network used in CloudStack. In shared networks, ingress traffic is
unlimited for CloudStack, and egress traffic is limited to the rate that
applies to the port group used by the instance if any. If the compute
offering has a network rate configured, this rate applies to the egress
traffic, otherwise the network rate set for the network offering
applies. For isolated networks, the network rate set for the network
offering, if any, effectively applies to the ingress traffic. This is
mainly because the network rate set for the network offering applies to
the egress traffic from the virtual router to the instance. The egress
traffic is limited by the rate that applies to the port group used by
the instance if any, similar to shared networks.
For example:
Network rate of network offering = 10 Mbps
Network rate of compute offering = 200 Mbps
In shared networks, ingress traffic will not be limited for CloudStack,
while egress traffic will be limited to 200 Mbps. In an isolated
network, ingress traffic will be limited to 10 Mbps and egress to 200
Mbps.
Changing the Default System Offering for System VMs
---------------------------------------------------
You can manually change the system offering for a particular System VM.
Additionally, as a CloudStack administrator, you can also change the
default system offering used for System VMs.
#. Create a new system offering.
For more information, see Creating a New System Service Offering.
#. Back up the database:
.. code:: bash
mysqldump -u root -p cloud | bzip2 > cloud_backup.sql.bz2
#. Open an MySQL prompt:
.. code:: bash
mysql -u cloud -p cloud
#. Run the following queries on the cloud database.
#. In the disk\_offering table, identify the original default
offering and the new offering you want to use by default.
Take a note of the ID of the new offering.
.. code:: bash
select id,name,unique_name,type from disk_offering;
#. For the original default offering, set the value of unique\_name
to NULL.
.. code:: bash
# update disk_offering set unique_name = NULL where id = 10;
Ensure that you use the correct value for the ID.
#. For the new offering that you want to use by default, set the
value of unique\_name as follows:
For the default Console Proxy VM (CPVM) offering,set unique\_name
to 'Cloud.com-ConsoleProxy'. For the default Secondary Storage VM
(SSVM) offering, set unique\_name to 'Cloud.com-SecondaryStorage'.
For example:
.. code:: bash
update disk_offering set unique_name = 'Cloud.com-ConsoleProxy' where id = 16;
#. Restart CloudStack Management Server. Restarting is required because
the default offerings are loaded into the memory at startup.
.. code:: bash
service cloudstack-management restart
#. Destroy the existing CPVM or SSVM offerings and wait for them to be
recreated. The new CPVM or SSVM are configured with the new offering.