Upsert into a Carbon DataSet using Merge

SCD and CDC Scenarios

Change Data Capture (CDC), is to apply all data changes generated from an external data set into a target dataset. In other words, a set of changes (update/delete/insert) applied to an external table needs to be applied to a target table.

Slowly Changing Dimensions (SCD), are the dimensions in which the data changes slowly, rather than changing regularly on a time basis.

SCD and CDC data changes can be merged to a carbon dataset online using the data frame level MERGE API.


Below API merges the datasets online and applies the actions as per the conditions.

  targetDS.merge(sourceDS, <condition>)

MERGE API Operation Semantics

Below is the detailed description of the merge API operation.

  • merge will merge the datasets based on a condition.
  • whenMatched clauses are executed when a source row matches a target table row based on the match condition. These clauses have the following semantics.
    • whenMatched clauses can have at most one updateExpr and one delete action. The updateExpr action in merge only updates the specified columns of the matched target row. The delete action deletes the matched row.
    • If there are two whenMatched clauses, then they are evaluated in order they are specified. The first clause must have a clause condition (otherwise the second clause is never executed).
    • If both whenMatched clauses have conditions and neither of the conditions are true for a matching source-target row pair, then the matched target row is left unchanged.
  • whenNotMatched clause is executed when a source row does not match any target row based on the match condition.
    • whenNotMatched clause can have only the insertExpr action. The new row is generated based on the specified column and corresponding expressions. Users do not need to specify all the columns in the target table. For unspecified target columns, NULL is inserted.
  • whenNotMatchedAndExistsOnlyOnTarget clause is executed when row does not match source and exists only in target. This clause can have only delete action.

NOTE: SQL syntax for merge is not yet supported.

Example code to implement cdc/scd scenario

Please refer example class MergeTestCase to understand and implement scd and cdc scenarios.