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<P>This document describes the rationale behind the architecture and design of
Axis2. The Axis 2 sub components are those that were finalized at the first Axis
Summit held in Colombo, Sri Lanka. The document will provide a thorough
understanding of the workings of a SOAP engine that is required for a developer
before examining the code in detail.</P>
<H3>Architecture overview</H3>
<P>Axis Java 2.0 is a SOAP engine consisting of a number of sub components.
Components are identifiable with that of Axis 1.0, but the introduction of some
components posses the capability of abstracting functionality to seamlessly
support a number of auxiliary specifications. It is also important that the
reader understands the inner workings of Axis 2 especially at component level,
where dependencies and interactions between components are discussed.</P>
<H3>Axis2 sub components</H3>
<P>Axis2 consists of the following high level sub components, and they are
described in the next section of this document.</P>
<LI>Core ( Consisting of the Engine, Engine Registry, Contexts, Handler Framework and Phase
<LI>Axis Object Model (AXIOM)
<LI>WSDL Object Model. <LI>Client API. </LI></OL>
<IMG height=568 alt="TotalArch (17K)"
src="images/TotalArch.png" width=673>
<H2>1. Core of Apache Axis2</H2>
<H3>The Big Picture</H3>
<P>Just like Axis 1.x family Axis2 is all about processing Messages. It is
important to note that Axis2 is not just about encoding of the messages from
Java to XML and vise versa. Axis is a framework for the Web Service stack. All
other components WS-Security, WS-RM etc of the Web Service stack fits in to Axis
via the extension mechanism of the Apache Axis. Apache Axis is a framework
for Web Service Stack. Axis SOAP Message processing always starts by running
the information holder called MessageContext through the extension mechanism of
Axis. This builds the foundation for Axis so as to give a generic framework for all the Web Service add
on services.</P>
<H3>Extension Mechanism</H3>
<P>The extension mechanism of Axis is built with two types of components
called <strong>Handlers</strong> and <strong> Phases</strong>. The Phases are placeholders for the Handlers
and they can be configured via the configuration mechanism of Axis. When a
web service is deployed the Phase-Resolver will order the registered Handlers inside a phase and phases will be ordered according to the configurations. When a
web service is invoked the Engine will preserve the order of handlers. Once the
handlers are assigned to the phases the phases are invoked in the order and in
turn each Phase will invoke the contained Handlers.</P>
<P>The Axis contains some built in Handlers that drives the service invocation,
yet the user can add new Handlers via the deployment Mechanism. The new Handlers
will fit in to the Phases in the Execution Chain according to the Phase rules
that is specified with each Handler.</P>
<H3>Engine Registry</H3>
<P>Axis starts by loading the EngineRegistry that holds the
configuration of the Engine. This configuration includes the Services, Phases,
order of the phases, Handlers, Phase rules for Handlers, transport and modules.
It is the Deployment that creates the EngineRegistry out of the deployment
mechanism. All other components of the Axis interact with the deployment via the
EngineRegistry and is not aware of the exact deployment mechanism used. The
default Deployment Mechanism is based on the XML configuration files, but other
deployment mechanisms are also possible. For example if Axis is going to be
deployed on to a device and the list of services are not going to change, one
can hard code the Configuration. </P>
<H3>Built in Handlers</H3>
<P>Now let us focused our attention to the exact Handlers that will be invoked
during execution. They are the inbuilt handlers that are explained before, the
new handlers might plug in, yet following handlers are going to be there all the
time. </P>
There are six types of special handlers
<LI>TransportReceiver - Receiving the SOAP requests at the
Server side or SOAP response at the Client Side. This can be a Servlet, Server
socket, Maillet etc
<LI>TransportSender - Sending the SOAP message to Server (As a
Request) or to Client (As response).
<LI>Sender - Initialize the outflow
<LI>Receiver - Handles the Message Exchange Pattern (MEP) and Sync Asynchronous Behavior of Axis. It currently supports only the InOutSyncReciver, but eventually it will support InOutAsyncReciver etc that would act accordingly.
<LI>Provider - Invokes the business logic of the Web
Service, this can be JavaProvider, XMLProvider etc.
<LI>Dispatcher - decides which Web Service should be invoked at the Server
Side. </LI>
<P>These Handlers will create either an inflow or an out flow as shown in the
diagram below. At the server side it will be an inflow followed by an outflow or a
fault flow and in the client side out flow followed by the inflow.</P>
<H3>Server Side Invocation</H3><IMG
<LI>At the Server side the invocation is started by the Transport Receiver
that listens for an incoming SOAP Message. Once the Message comes in, the
TransportReceiver creates a MessageContext using the SOAP message and the
information about the transport.
<LI>Then the TransportReceiver creates an AxisEngine and invokes the Axis Engine
with the MessageContext. The Engine will invoke the Handlers that can be found
without any knowledge about the Service to be invoked and then add the Dispatcher
to the end of the Execution Chain and invoke the Execution Chain.
<LI>When the invocation reaches the Dispatcher, it will dispatch
the Service and add the Service Level Handlers to itself. In other words the
the Execution Chain grows itself when it reaches the Dispatcher. The Dispatcher
will locate and add the appropriate Receiver based on the WSDL MEP's and the
Synchronous and Asynchronous behavior.
<LI>Receiver will locate the Provider and invoke the Business logic of the Web
Service and depending on the WSDL MEP's the outflow will be started (if required).
<LI>If the outflow is invoked, it will include the custom Handlers as
specified by the EngineRegistry and will end with a Transport Receiver that
would send the Response SOAP message back to the Client. </LI>
<H3>Client Side Invocation</H3><p align="center">
<p align="center"><IMG
src="images/clientside.png"> </p>
<LI>Client Side invocation is driven by the Call object. The Call object will
load the EngineRegistry (by default) .
<LI>When the Call is invoked the call will create a Message context with the
SOAP message and the transport information provided by the user. Then the Call
will start the Axis Engine using the MessageContext.
<LI>Axis Engine will locate the custom handlers if there are any and invoke
the outflow with a transport sender at the end. When the invocation reaches
the TransportSender, it will send the SOAPMessage and return.
<LI>Depending on the MEPs and the Sync/Asynchronous behavior the Call will start
an inflow that include the custom handlers (if present), beginning with a
Transport receiver with a new MessageContext. Note that the Call exhibits
similar characteristics to the Sender at the Server Side.
<LI>Transport Receiver (TR) will wait for the input and when it reaches the TR it
will fill the MessageContext out of the SOAP Message.
<LI>The Custom Handlers will be called with the MessageContext that is filled in
and the SOAPMessage that is received at the end will return the user
call </LI>
<H3>Out Line of the Each Component</H3>
<LI><B>Axis Engine</B>:-The Execution Model or the Engine in Axis terminology,
addresses how the components of Apache Axis2 are executed passing control from
one component to another. The Axis Execution Model is independent of specific
Message Exchange Patterns or synchronous, asynchronous behavior. The Axis
Engine consist of two main methods of message interchange, i.e. in-flow and
out-flow respectively. In addition a fault-flow is also present for handling
processing errors. Each flow encompasses a set of components, namely Handlers,
Transport Senders, Transport Receivers, Receivers, Senders and Providers.
These components address a specific requirement of when exchanging SOAP
<li><B>Phases</B>:- The Phases are a mechanism to specify the order of the
handlers without knowing the *absolute position* of each handler in the
Handler Chain. The Phase is a defined area (place holder for the handlers) in
the Execution Chain. For an example say the handler developer wants (RM), the
Handler to run after "Encryption and before "Transaction". But as the Handler
can be used in different Web Services it is not necessary to specify the
absolute position of the Handler at the Execution Chain. Phases will handle
this with the following declaration. </li>
<LI><PRE>&lt;handler name="RM" ..... before="Transaction" after="Encryption" ../&gt;
</PRE>This will ensure that the rules are followed and hence executed
appropriately (Note: support for before and after is not implemented in M1).
As far as the implementation is concerned a Phase is a ordered collection of
Handlers that are arranged according to the Phase rules. This can be viewed as
an improved HandlerChain from Axis 1.x.
<LI><B>Module</B>:-Module is a logical collection of Handlers that act
together and is more than just a Package. One such possibility is WSDL Code
Generation extensions. For an example the users would like to have the ability to
have Service reference to a module and have it enabled as done in J2EE.
<PRE>&lt;service name="foo"&gt;
&lt;module ref="Authentication"/&gt;
Please note that this would enable authentication for service foo, but is not included in M1.
<LI><B>Engine Registry</B>:-The Engine registry is the runtime state of the
Axis engine. It contains real objects like Handlers etc. and by changing
them at runtime the user can change the engine configuration. Deployment
provides the implementation of Engine Registry out of the Deployment
Descriptors and keeps the Engine Registry in sync with the Deployment
configuration repository. In this way the Engine does not have to be aware of
the deployment mechanism. The Engine would know that there is an Engine
Registry and that it is maintained. By default the Engine Registry
implementation is synchronized, and this is a necessary condition to support
hot deployment. It is also possible not to synchronize the Engine but this
would mean that hot deployment is disabled.
<LI><B>Context</B>:- Axis2 has three Contexts, Global, Session and the Message and they are the placeholders for the information in Axis2. They follow the mediator pattern and all the components interact and share the information with each other through the three contexts. The contexts enable Axis to build on loosely coupled components. Session Context is a property bag for session level information. The Global context consists of a property bag and the Engine Registry. The Message Context is the most important of the three, as it contains information about the message that is currently being processed. It is the Message Context that is passed as and when Handlers are invoked in order providing information at a message level. Among the information kept in the message context are the SOAP message, information about the transport, the references to other two contexts and a property bag. Most components of the Axis2 are stateless across the two invocations of the component. (The Engine Registry is part of the Global Context.) . The developer should store all states in the in one of the context while all contexts are accessible across the Message context which would be passed through the Handlers in the Execution Chain. </LI>
<H2><A name=_Toc96747274>2. Deployment</A></H2>
<P>There are two types of deployment in Axis2, namely, Service Deployment and
Module Deployment. </P>
<H3><A name=_Toc96747275>2.1 Module Deployment:</A></H3>
<P>Axis2 provides a J2EE like deployment (an axis archive file has to be created
and dropped into the correct directory) for both modules and services. A user
can deploy a module or a service as an .aar file (module1.aar, service1.aar).
Module hot deployment will not be supported in M1, but will be supported in
later releases. When the axis engine is started all the .aar files in the
WEB-INF/Repository/modules will get deployed. But if someone wants to add a new
module or service, a restarting of the engine is required after putting the new
.aar file in the above-mentioned folder.</P>
<H3><A name=_Toc96747276>2.2 Service Deployment</A> </H3>
<P>One of the key improvements introduced with Axis2 is the capability to hot
deploy web services. And in this M1 release only a J2EE like deployment is
supported. That is, a user has to create an axis archive file that includes all
the files that he/she wants, and drop that archive file into the
WEB-INF/Repository/services directory. The following three features are
associated with service deployment; </P>
<li>Hot Deployment is all about the ability to deploy a new web service while the
axis engine is up and running. </li>
<li>Hot Un-Deployment is the ability to remove a web service (services) while the
system is running.</li>
<li>Hot update is the ability to deploy a new version of an existing web service
without restarting the server. It is handled as Un-Deployment followed by a Hot
Deployment. </li>
<p>The directory structure to which modules and services should deployed are: </p>
<LI>WEB-INF/ modules
<LI>WEB-INF/services </LI></UL>
<P><STRONG><EM>The required directory structure for a modules archive file is as
<P><STRONG><EM>The required directory structure for a service archive file is as
follows; </EM></STRONG></P>
<P><STRONG><EM>The structure of module.xml file is as follows;
<P><STRONG><EM><p><IMG height=127 src="images/archi002.gif"
width=347 DESIGNTIMEURL="images/archi002.gif"></p></EM></STRONG></P>
<P><STRONG><EM>The structure of service.xml file is as follows;
<P><STRONG><EM><IMG height=195 src="images/archi003.gif"
width=680 DESIGNTIMEURL="images/archi003.gif"></EM></STRONG></P>
<P><STRONG><EM>The architecture of hot deployment consists of the following
components; </EM></STRONG></P>
<P align="center"><IMG height=304 src="images/archi004.jpg" width=423
border=0 DESIGNTIMEURL="images/archi004.jpg"></P>
<P>1. The Scheduler periodically invokes the Listener to check for updates</P>
<P>2. If the Listener finds an update, it passes that information to the
Repository </P>
<P>3. The Repository hands over the document to the Deployment Parser </P>
<P>4. Having parsed the document, the Deployment Parser returns the
corresponding object</P>
<P>5. The Repository updates the toDeploy and toUn-Deploy list </P>
<P>6. The Repository informs the Listener to update the system </P>
<P>7. The Listener informs the Deployment Engine to do the update (both deploy
and un-deploy) </P>
<H3><A name=_Toc96747277>2.3 Scheduler</A></H3>
<P>This component itself is a thread that performs a specific task forever in a
given time interval. In this case it periodically asks the Listener to listen to
the file system events. Here the file system is not the entire file system, it
is only the sub directories of WEB_INF/Repository where the modules and services
<H3><A name=_Toc96747278>2.4 Listener</A></H3>
<P><A name=head-37ea46b5942beaeb21bb4e06a14e4f7232d></A>As mentioned above the
Listener listens for file system events. In order to do this it checks both the
modules and services directories. Then it lists all the archive files in those
two directories and compares those against the repository to check if a new
service(s) has been added or if any service(s) has been modified. Then it
informs DeploymentEngine to execute the required methods. </P>
<H3><A name=_Toc96747279>2.5 Repository</A> </H3>
<P>The Repository stores data about modules and services that have already been
deployed. At the initialization process this loads data about all the modules
and services into the module and service directories. It then deploys all those
loaded modules and services. The repository stores the name of the archive file
and its last modified date. It is possible to perform the following operations
to the Repository; </P>
<LI>Add a new entry to the Repository
<LI>Remove an entry from the Repository
<LI>Modify an entry in the Repository. </LI></UL>
<P>These operations correspond to Hot Deployment, Hot Un Deployment and Hot
Update. </P>
<P>In the add operation it checks whether the entry which is going to be added
already exists in the Repository. If so it ignores the operation else it will
add the entry to the Repository and add an entry to a list maintained in the
DeploymentEngine (toDeploy list). </P>
<P>In the remove operation it directly removes the entry from the repository and
adds an entry to a list maintained in the DeploymentEngine (toUnDeploy list)
<P>In the modify operation it adds entries to both lists in the
DeploymentEngine. </P>
<H3><A name=_Toc96747280>2.6 DeploymentEngine</A><A
<P>The DeploymentEngine is the main component of the deployment sub component.
It interacts with the axis engine and the engine registry by updating the engine
registry when a new service is added or an existing service is removed. The
deployment procedure is as follows;</P>
<LI>Check the toUnDeploy list. If it is not empty then remove the
corresponding web service from the engine registry.
<LI>Check the toDeploy list. If it is not empty then add the corresponding web
service to the engine registry.
<LI>For each and every item in the list that is passed to the
DeploymentParser, create a corresponding axis service object and add it to the
engine registry. </LI></UL>
<H3><A name=_Toc96747281>2.7 DeploymentParser</A></H3>
<P>The following three types of xml document are parsed by the DeploymentParser.
Its underlying parser is StAX.</P>
<LI>module.xml </LI></UL>
<P>Parsing of server.xml is done as follows;</P>
<P>The DeploymentEngine will create an AxisGlobal object and pass that to the
DeploymentParser. Then the DeploymentParser will modify the object according to
<P>Parsing of service.xml is done as follows;</P>
<P>The DeploymentEngine will create an AxisService object and pass that to the
DeploymentParser. Then it will be updated according to service.xml.</P>
<P>Parsing module.xml is the same as above except for it been passed an
AxisModule object instead of an AxisService object. </P>
<H3><A name=_Toc96747282>2.8 DeploymentEngine Initialization</A></H3>
<P>The Initialization process of the DeploymentEngine consists of the following
<LI>Checks whether server.xml is located in the repository directory. If it
exists, then it is loaded and parsed. If not then a default server.xml is
created and placed in the repository.
<LI>Checks whether modules and services directories are available under the
repository. If not they will be created.
<LI>After server.xml is parsed, an AxisGlobal object is created.
<LI>Load all the axis archive files to both the modules and services
directories, parse them and create AxisService and AxisModule objects.
<LI>If server.xml has references to modules, then it checks whether those
modules are valid, (it is valid if it is in the modules directory),If it is
not valid an exception is thrown.
<LI>If those modules are valid, the GlobalChains are built by the
PhaseResolver (GlobalInChain , GlobalOutChain , and GlobalFaultChain) using
phase rules. </LI></UL>
<LI>All the available services and modules will be added to the
<LI>The engineRegistry is returned. </LI></UL>
<H3><A name=_Toc96747283>2.9 Adding a new web service</A></H3>
<P>Adding a new web service consists of the following steps;</P>
<P>1. Unzip the .aar file and take its service.xml and parse it using the
DeploymentParser. </P>
<P>2. While processing the service.xml an AxisService object gets created and
that object will be updated.</P>
<P>3. The created object is deployed to the DeploymentEngine.</P>
<P>4. Using the DeploymentEngine the service classLoader and the provider class
will be added to the AxisService object.</P>
<P>5. The Handler chain will be built by resolving the phase rules.<BR>(It
should be noted here that the Handler Chain consists of the HandlerMetadata
which has all the phase rules data and the actual executable handler )</P>
<P>6. The created object will be added to the EngineRegistry. </P><BR>
<H2><A name=_Toc96747284>3. AXIOM AXIs Object Model</A> </H2>
<H3><A name=_Toc96747285>3.1 Introduction</A></H3>
<P>AXIOM (also know as OM <STRONG>O</STRONG>bject <STRONG>M</STRONG>odel) is
used to refer to the new and efficient XML info set model that has been
developed for Axis2. Most of the XML object models used today are based on two
major methods, namely;</P>
<LI>DOM based where the whole document is parsed and held in the memory
<LI>Event based (SAX like) where the whole document is parsed at once, but no
model is created in the memory and where the user has to catch the relevant
events, which can not be stopped or reversed. </LI></OL>
<P>AXIOM gets the best from both these options and builds a better object model
on top of a pull parsing methodology. It controls the phase of the parsing and
builds a memory model if required from the information thats being parsed so
far. That means at a given instance, AXIOM does not have a fully built object
model with the rest of the information still in the stream.</P>
<P>The most important feature of this OM is that it is lightweight and is
differed built based on <A href="">StAX
(JSR 173)</A>, the streaming pull parser. </P>
<P>The object model can be manipulated like any other object model (Such as
JDOM), but underneath the objects will be created only when they are absolutely
required. Hence this model is much more efficient.</P>
<P>AXIOM interacts with the outside world using the StAX API, that means it
serializes and de-serializes using the StAX writer and StAX reader
<P align="center"><IMG height=217 src="images/archi005.jpg" width=552
border=0 DESIGNTIMEURL="images/archi005.jpg"></P>
<P>Since most of the data binding tools support SAX based interfaces, AXIOM
comes with an adapter to be used between StAX and SAX.</P>
<H3><A name=_Toc96747286></A><A name=_Toc94950521>3.2 High Level
Architecture</A></H3><P align="center">
<IMG height=282 src="images/archi006.jpg"
width=490 DESIGNTIMEURL="images/archi006.jpg"><BR>
<P>AXIOM sees the XML input stream through the StAX stream reader, which is
being wrapped by a builder interface provided. Current implementation has two
builders, namely; </P>
<LI>OM Builder This will build a full XML info-set supported general XML
model. But the current implementation lacks the support for Processing
Instructions and DTDs.
<LI>SOAP Builder This will build a SOAP XML specific object model. The Object
model will contain SOAP-Specific objects like the SOAPEnvelope, SOAPHeader
etc. </LI></UL>
<P>Each of these builders has the support for differed building and caching.
User has the option of building the memory model or not. He can control this via
setting the cache on or off. </P>
<P>(Since the object model is pull based, the StAX API is tightly bound to OM.
To work with OM a StAX compliant parser and the API
<STRONG><EM>must</EM></STRONG> be present in the classpath. )</P>
<P>The OM API works on top of the builder interface and provides for users, be
they an engine developer, handler developer or anyone else. This will provide
the highest flexibility as one can change builders and object model
implementations completely independent to one another.</P>
<P>The OM has a defined set of APIs and one can implement his/her own memory
model based on that. The current Axis2, comes with a linked list based
implementation of those set of APIs. (There was an effort to build another OM on
a table based model. Its now on hold.) </P>
<p align="center">
<IMG height=246 src="images/archi007.jpg"
DESIGNTIMEURL="images/archi007.jpg"></p><BR>Therefore one
can find a factory to create OM objects, which will help to switch between
different implementations of the object model.
<H2><A name=_Toc96747287>4. Handler Frame work and Phase Rules</A> </H2>
<H3><A name=_Toc96747288>4.1 Phase</A></H3>
<P>Phase is a logically ordered collection of handlers. The handler inside a
phase is ordered by phase rules. By using phase rules a user can specify where
the handler should be logically placed. Some of the valid attributes associated
with phase rules are listed in the following table :</P>
<TABLE border=1>
<TD vAlign=top width=139>
<P><STRONG>Attribute Name</STRONG></P></TD>
<TD vAlign=top width=348>
<TD vAlign=top width=139>
<TD vAlign=top width=348>
<P>Can be either a handler or a phase *</P></TD></TR>
<TD vAlign=top width=139>
<TD vAlign=top width=348>
<P>Can be either a handler or a phase *</P></TD></TR>
<TD vAlign=top width=139>
<P>Phase </P></TD>
<TD vAlign=top width=348>
<P>Valid phase name **</P></TD></TR>
<TD vAlign=top width=139>
<P>PhaseFirst </P></TD>
<TD vAlign=top width=348>
<P>Boolean ***</P></TD></TR>
<TD vAlign=top width=139>
<TD vAlign=top width=348>
<P>Boolean ***</P></TD></TR></TBODY></TABLE>
<P>* - If the before or after attribute of a handler is another handler, then
the referenced handler must belong to the same phase. If the before or after
attribute is a phase, there cannot be a phase attribute of that handler. If one
of before or after is a handler other can not be a phase. </P>
<P>** - valid phase is a phase that is listed in the server.xml. If the phase
name is not there then the phase name is not a valid phase.</P>
<P>*** - If both the PhaseFirst and PhaseLast attributes of some handler are
true, then the case phase only has one handler. </P>
<P>N:B : If the user is going to use handlers and attributes as before, then
there is no need to use PhaseFirst and PhaseLast because those are ignored by
the rule engine.</P>
<H3><A name=_Toc96747289>4.2 Handler chain</A></H3>
<P>The Handler chain is a collection of phases and handlers. The order of phases
in the chain is described in server.xml. One service can have three handler
<LI>Faultflow. </LI></OL>
<P>For each and every handler chain, handlers can come in different ways as
<LI>Corresponding flow of service.xml
<LI>If there are any references to modules then the handlers from
correspondence flow.
<LI>Operation specific handlers corresponding flow </LI></UL></OL>
<H2><A name=_Toc96747290>5 WSDL Object model</A></H2>
<P>WSDL Module of Axis2 was architected with both WSDL version 1.1 and version
2.0 Component model in mind. The entire architecture of the aforesaid Module is
built around an Object Model called WSDL Object Model which will be referred to
as WOM here fourth. </P>
<H3><A name=_Toc96747291>5.1 Overview of the Axis2 WSDL Module</A> </H3>
<P>WSDL Module can be mainly broken down into two major functionalities: </P>
<LI>Service Description Functionality.
<LI>WSDL Processing functionality(e.g. WSDL2Java, WSDL24J, Java2WSDL) </LI></UL>
<P>Service Description will provide an API to the Axis2 Engine that will expose
the sufficient statistics about the web service that has been described in the
WSDL file. WSDL Processing basically involves WSDL2Java, WSDL24J, and Java2WSDL.
Following sections will give a further overview of each of the above
functionalities. <BR><BR></p><p align="center"><IMG height=339
src="images/archi008.gif" width=579 border=0
<H3><A name=_Toc96747292>5.2 WOM</A></H3>
<P>WOM is engineered based on WSDL 2.0 component model, but it does not restrict
its functionality to prior WSDL versions. Rather both WSDL 1.1 and WSDL 2.0
versions will be supported on top of the WOM. WOM consists of components such as
Description, Interface, Service, etc. All those Components extend from one super
interface called org.apache.wsdl.Component which will prove to be very useful in
the implementation of the Service Desc. <BR><BR>
WOM is a runtime representation of the WSDL file and it will provide
the web service description functionality. As the following diagram illustrate
the WOM will be the common Object model that will be used in bothWSDL2Java and
Java2WSDL functionality. This intermediary object model ease the discussion
since the WSDL processing can be broken down into the following four sub
modules. </P>
<LI>WOM Builder.
<LI>WSDL Emitter.
<LI>Code Generator.
<LI>Code Parser. </LI></UL>
<H3><A name=_Toc96747293>5.3 Service Description</A></H3>
<P>Service Description (also known as Service Desc) is an API by which the
necessary statistics will be made available to the Axis2 Engine at the runtime.
<P>The functionality of the WOM is very much similar to the functionality
expected from that of the Service Desc. Both behave as runtime description of
the web service. Difference is that WOM is a clean component model that is not
dependent on Axis2 or any other SOAP Engine and Service Desc is the Axis2
specific description of the web service. Thus it was necessary that the Axis
Service Desc to extend the WOM to incorporate the additional Axis specific
deployment information such as handlers, modules, providers, etc. The actual
implementation of such extensions has been achieved using the extension
capability provided by the WOM itself. </P>
<P>As mentioned above all the Components in the WOM extend from a super
interface org.apache.wsdl.Component. Service Desc makes use of the functionality
provided by org.apache.wsdl.Component to interface the WOM to behave as a
Service Desc. org.apache.wsdl.Component has the following class diagram. </P>
<P align="center"><IMG height=121 src="images/archi010.jpg" width=487
border=0 DESIGNTIMEURL="images/archi010.jpg"></p><BR><p align="center"><IMG height=32
src="images/archi011.gif" width=32 border=0
<P>As the diagram illustrate the Component class provides the functionality of
storing properties. Since all the WSDL Components extend from this class
directly or indirectly, this functionality get inherited to all the WSDL
Components. The Service Desc makes use of this functionality to store Axis2
specific properties using the WOM. In that sense the Axis2 Service Desc is a
wrapper to the WOM. </P>
<P>Following is the Class diagram of the top level component of the description
Component org.apache.axis.description.impl.AxisService. <BR><BR><p align="center"><IMG height=391
src="images/archi012.jpg" width=292 border=0
extends from the org.apache.wsdl.WSDLService and thus inherits the functionality
of the org.apache.wsdl.WSDLService. The Axis2 specific properties like provider,
ServiceClass are stored using the org.apache.wsdl.Component class which
org.apache.wsdl.WSDLService extends from. The deployment Module will pick up the
deployed service and it will build the Service Desc and deploy in the Engine
Registry. There will be an underlying WOM for each Service Desc deployed in the
Engine Registry. <BR><p align="center"><IMG height=350
src="images/archi013.gif" width=576 border=0
DESIGNTIMEURL="images/archi013.gif"></p><BR><p align="center"><IMG height=32
src="images/archi011.gif" width=32 border=0
<H3><A name=_Toc96747294>5.4 WSDL Processing</A></H3>
<P>WSDL Processing can be identified as of operations performed on or performed
using the WOM. Such definition is made possible because of the intermediary
object model i.e. WOM always acts as an intermediary state. For example if
WSDL2Java is considered: </P>
<P>WSDL2Java = WSDL--&gt;WOM (WSDL2WOMBuilder), WOM--&gt;Java (Code Generation
Module). </P>
<P>The point to note is that the above allows the WSDL--&gt;WOM
(WSDL2WOMBuilder) to be identified as an independent module, not tied to the
WSDL2Java operation. There are four such modules identified in the WSDL
Processing Module of Axis2. </P>
<LI>WOM Builder.
<LI>WSDL Emitter.
<LI>Code Generator.
<LI>Code Parser. </LI></UL>
Above four modules are yet to be implemented / in-progress.
<H2><A name=_Toc96747296>6. Client API</A></H2>
<P>Types of Client programming models that Axis2 support: </P>
<LI>Synchronous Invocation
<LI>Asynchronous Invocation using callback, with two way transport
<LI>Asynchronous Invocation using callbacks, transport is also one way
(Addressing information is required.) </LI></OL>
<P>The following diagram describes all the invocations between sub components in
the client side.</P>
<P align="center"><IMG height=315 src="images/archi015.jpg" width=576
border=0 DESIGNTIMEURL="images/archi015.jpg"> </P>
<P><STRONG><EM>Call Class consist of following methods (Call
<P><IMG height=200 src="images/archi016.jpg" width=582
border=0 DESIGNTIMEURL="images/archi016.jpg"></P><PRE><STRONG><EM>Callback Interface</EM></STRONG></PRE><PRE></PRE><PRE><p><IMG height=56 src="images/archi017.jpg" width=499 border=0 DESIGNTIMEURL="images/archi017.jpg"></p></PRE><PRE></PRE><PRE><STRONG><EM>AsyncResult </EM></STRONG></PRE><PRE></PRE><PRE><p><IMG height=48 src="images/archi018.jpg" width=430 border=0 DESIGNTIMEURL="images/archi018.jpg"></p></PRE><PRE></PRE><PRE><STRONG><EM>Correlator</EM></STRONG></PRE><PRE></PRE>
<P ><IMG height=73 src="images/archi019.jpg" width=539
border=0 DESIGNTIMEURL="images/archi019.jpg"></P>
<H3><A name=_Toc96747297>6.1 sendAsync Invocation</A> </H3>
<P>This invocation is similar to fire and forget where a request is sent and an
acknowledgement is not expected. An invocation will consist of the following
steps : </P>
<P><IMG height=53 src="images/archi020.jpg" width=318
border=0 DESIGNTIMEURL="images/archi020.jpg"></P>
<P><EM>Code Snippet: </EM></P><PRE><p><IMG height=59 src="images/archi021.jpg" width=318 border=0 DESIGNTIMEURL="images/archi021.jpg"></p></PRE><PRE></PRE><PRE><EM>Sequence diagram</EM></PRE><PRE></PRE><PRE><p align="center"><IMG height=147 src="images/archi022.jpg" width=434 border=0 DESIGNTIMEURL="images/archi022.jpg"></p></PRE>
<H3><A name=_Toc96747298>6.2 send Invocation</A></H3>
<P>The service invocation is a void invocation. There is no return value, but
there is a wait for an acknowledgment or a SOAP Fault, It consists of the
following steps :</P><PRE>a -&gt; call.send(SOAPEnvelope)</PRE><PRE>b -&gt; engine.send( ..)</PRE><PRE>c -&gt; Send the SOAP message</PRE>
<P><EM>Code Snippet: </EM></P><PRE>call.setTargetURL(URL)</PRE><PRE>call.setAction(String)</PRE><PRE>call.send(SOAPEnvelope)</PRE><PRE></PRE>
<P><EM>Sequence diagram</EM></P>
<P align="center"><IMG height=149 src="images/archi023.jpg" width=416
border=0 DESIGNTIMEURL="images/archi023.jpg"></P>
<H3><A name=_Toc96747299>6.3 sendReceive Invocation</A></H3>
<P>The service method has a response and the communication happens synchronously
using a bi-directional protocol. The Client hangs until the response (or fault)
is returned. </P><PRE>a -&gt; call.sendReceive(SOAPEnvelope)</PRE><PRE>b- &gt; engine.send (..)</PRE><PRE>c -&gt; Send the SOAP message</PRE><PRE>d -&gt; Receive the response over the synchronous transport</PRE><PRE>w -&gt; ProviderX will be called as the last step in engine.receive(..) </PRE><PRE>e -&gt; provider returns </PRE><PRE>f -&gt; Call hand over the response to the client</PRE><PRE></PRE>
<P><EM>Code Snippet: </EM></P><PRE>call.setTargetURL(URL)</PRE><PRE>call.setAction(String)</PRE><PRE>SOAPEnvelope env=call.sendReceive(SOAPEnvelope)</PRE>
<P><EM>Sequence diagram</EM></P>
<P align="center"><IMG height=199 src="images/archi024.jpg" width=439
border=0 DESIGNTIMEURL="images/archi024.jpg"></P>
<H3><A name=_Toc96747300>6.4 sendReceiveAsync Invocation</A></H3>
<P>The service method has a response and the communication happens synchronously
using a bi-directional protocol. Client DOES NOT hangs until the response (or
fault) is returned. The Client uses a callback mechanism to retrieve the
response. The Call API uses threads from a thread pool for each invocation. </P><PRE>a -&gt; call.sendReceiveAsync (SOAPEnvelope, callbackObj)</PRE><PRE>p -&gt; correlator.addCorrelationInfor(msgID,allbackObjRef)</PRE><PRE>b- &gt; engine.send (..)</PRE><PRE>c -&gt; Send the SOAP message</PRE><PRE>d -&gt; Receive the response over the synchronous transport</PRE><PRE>w -&gt; ProviderX will be called as the last step in engine.receive(..) </PRE><PRE>q -&gt; correlator.getCorrelationInfo(msgID)</PRE><PRE>g -&gt; callbackObj.onComplete()</PRE>
<P><EM>Code Snippet: </EM></P><PRE>call.setTargetURL(URL)</PRE><PRE>call.setAction(String)</PRE><PRE>call.setListenerTransport(http, true) </PRE><PRE>call.sendReceiveAsync (SOAPEnvelope, Callback)</PRE><PRE></PRE><PRE><EM>Sequence diagram </EM></PRE><PRE></PRE><PRE><p align="center"><IMG height=225 src="images/archi025.jpg" width=648 border=0 DESIGNTIMEURL="images/archi025.jpg"></p></PRE>
<H3><A name=_Toc96747301></A><A
name=head-6b6f0ac54f2e98ce920bf68485a695e1d2b></A>6.5 sendReceiveAsync
Invocation with One way transport</H3>
<P>The service method has a response and the communication happens
asynchronously using a uni-directional protocol. The Client DOES NOT hang until
the response (or fault) is returned. The Client uses a callback mechanism to
retrieve the response. The Call API uses threads from a thread pool for each
invocation. </P><PRE>a -&gt; call.sendReceiveAsync (SOAPEnvelope, callbackObj)</PRE><PRE>p -&gt; correlator.addCorrelationInfor(msgID,allbackObjRef)</PRE><PRE>b- &gt; engine.send (..)</PRE><PRE>c -&gt; Send the SOAP message</PRE><PRE>r -&gt; Receive the response by the listener</PRE><PRE>s -&gt; engine.receive(..)</PRE><PRE>w -&gt; ProviderX will be called as the last step in engine.receive(..) </PRE><PRE>q -&gt; correlator.getCorrelationInfo(msgID)</PRE><PRE>g -&gt; callbackObj.onComplete()</PRE>
<P><EM>Code Snippet: </EM></P><PRE>call.setTargetURL(URL)</PRE><PRE>call.setAction(String)</PRE><PRE>call.setListenerTransport(http, false)</PRE><PRE>call.sendReceiveAsync(SOAPEnvelope, Callback)</PRE>
<P><EM>Sequence diagram </EM></P>
<P align="center"><IMG height=234 src="images/archi026.jpg" width=648
border=0 DESIGNTIMEURL="images/archi026.jpg"> </P></BODY></HTML>